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0410 Questionnaire

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0410 Questionnaire

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Course Code: 0410
University: Ryerson University

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Country: Canada

Write an essay on constructing and administrating a questionnaire and its practical application in descriptive research. Include your opinion, backed by scholarly articles, about the strengths and weaknesses of this kind of research. In your essay, utilize at least four scholarly research articles.

The essay should be well written and error free. Use spell check and proofread your essay for grammatical errors.
The essay should be written in a professional tone. Familiar language (slang) should be avoided.
Use direct quotations sparingly (paraphrasing is encouraged) and make sure quotes are properly documented.
Be as concise and clear as possible throughout your paper.
Each sentence should logically flow into the next sentence and each paragraph should transition smoothly to the next paragraph.


There are different methods of research. A questionnaire is one of the methods of research. A questionnaire is an instrument of research that consists of a series of questions. The purposes of the questions in the question air it to gather information from the respondents. The questionnaire was an invention of the statistical society of London back in 1838. Questions in a questionnaire are set with standardized answers to which makes compiling of date much easier. There are different types of questionnaires. The set of questions in a questionnaire make the questionnaires to differ. The questions are used to measure different variables. They could be used to measure facts, preferences or behaviours. There are questionnaires that contain questions grouped up in a scale or index. Such questions can be used to measure latent traits, attitudes or an index. This paper explains the construction, administration, and application of questionnaire in a descriptive research.
Construction of a Questionnaire
There is a series of questions in a questionnaire where the respondent is supposed to answer them in a specific format. A difference is made between open-minded and closed-minded questions. In instances of closed questions, the respondent responds by choosing one of the answers from the multiple given answers. The response options in closed questions ought to be exhaustive and equally exclusive. There are four forms of response scales for closed-minded questions. Dichotomous is when the respondent has only two options. Where the respondent has more than two unordered options its known as nominal-polytomous. Where the respondent has more than two methodical options its known as ordinal-polytomous (Krosnick, 2018). Continuous is when the respondent is provided with a continuous scale. The questions should flow logically. They should form the least sensitive to the most sensitive. They should form from general question to the specific questions.
There are basic rules when constructing a questionnaire. The construction of sentences should be interpretable by all the people of interest. The questions should be open to persons with different opinions and traits. The questions should be constructed with one aspect per interested item. Assumptions about the respondent should not be made (Feng, 2013). Words used in the questions should be clear and easily understandable to all education levels. Correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation should be used. The questions should not be biased or set directing the respondent towards an answer.
Administration of questionnaires
There are four main models of administering a questionnaire. They include face to face administration. This administration the interviewer presents the items directly. This applies when there is a specific target group involved.  Through face to face, the interviewer gathers more and deeper information. Paper and pencil administration is done by presenting items on paper. ‘Population surveys have traditionally used paper-and-pencil self-administered questionnaires to collect information on sensitive questions’ (Ann et al, 2018). At times items are presented in the computer through computer questionnaire administration. It helps the respondents to answer questions without help from any human assistance. There is an advantage of using this method because the cost is reduced since interviewers are not required. There is an adaptive computerized questionnaire administration where the items selected are presented on the computer, it selects depending on the optimized items to establish a trait or ability.
Descriptive design questionnaire
The question can be specified or unspecified. The respondents own the right information to answer the items. The respondents are eager to answer the questions honestly. In questionnaire questions, you have to avoid using negatively worded items. Before the respondent answer the questions they have to understand and interpret the questions. Then retrieve the relevant information from the memory. Integrate the information summarizing it and report the judgment in the format of the presented response scale (Deeming, 2013). At times the response is affected by the motivation of the respondent to participate, task difficulty and the cognitive ability to perform the task.
Strengths and weaknesses
Questionnaires are quick to perform the research. They are cost effective. They are practical and allow the gathering of information from a large audience. Do not require specialists to carry out the research. They help to cover all phases of a topic.
However, there are challenges in questionnaires. There is a lack of reliable responses. There are differences in understanding and interpreting the questions. It is hard to express feelings and emotions through questionnaires.
A questionnaire is the best method to carry out a research especially when there is a specific target. Most of the organizations prefer to carry out their research through questionnaires due to its efficiency and effectiveness. This is because they do not require specialist and are cost effective.
Questionnaire requires an excellent construction of questions following the guide on correct formatting clarity and good grammar. Before administration of Questionnaire, it is advisable to know the target and come up with the right method to use. It is disadvantageous because it is only limited to since the respondents must be able to read and respond to the questions.
Forke, C. M., Myers, R. K., Fein, J. A., Catallozzi, M., Localio, A. R., Wiebe, D. J., & Grisso, J. A. (2018). Witnessing intimate partner violence as a child: How boys and girls model their parents’ behaviours in adolescence. Child abuse & neglect, 84, 241-252.
Krosnick, J. A. (2018). Questionnaire design. In The Palgrave Handbook of Survey Research (pp. 439-455). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Huang, Y., Gu, J., Zhang, M., Ren, Z., Yang, W., Chen, Y., … & Zhang, F. (2013). Knowledge, attitude and practice of antibiotics: a questionnaire study among 2500 Chinese students. BMC medical education, 13(1), 163.
Deeming, C. (2013). Addressing the social determinants of subjective wellbeing: the latest challenge for social policy. Journal of social policy, 42(3), 541-565.

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