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1013CCJ Introduction To Criminology And Criminal Justice

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1013CCJ Introduction To Criminology And Criminal Justice

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Course Code: 1013CCJ
University: Griffith University

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Country: Australia


Topic : Sexual Assult
Context, argument, a list of the main points you shall discuss
The introduction is the place to communicate very clearly with your reader regarding what they can expect to see within your essay as a whole. 
It should start by providing context to your discussion, for example including information that helps explain why your chosen essay topic is important and worth exploring is good to include here.
It should outline what your overarching argument is going to be.  Your argument is your answer to the essay question, and this is where you can show your own engagement with the topic.
In order to answer your argument, you need to unpack a number of themes that help to unpack,Explain and support your argument.  Listing these themes clearly within the introduction will provide a good structure that the reader can follow as they go through your essay.


Sexual assault is frequently regarded as a concealed criminal act since the majority of the cases do not fit the alien rape model plus are not at all reported to the concerned authorities. Nearly half of all the recorded sexual assaults are linked to the executor’s alcohol use, the victim’s alcohol use, or both. Sexual assault linked to alcohol is a widespread occurrence amongst campus students. Sexual assaults are most probable to take place in environments someplace alcohol is taken like parties and bars. The potential perpetrators look for such environment as a means of finding susceptible persons. Alcohol must be seen as risk factors for unwanted sexual advances along with some kinds of sexual assault.  The excessive alcohol use amongst college students has been researched extensively and alcohol has been seen as contributing factor for unplanned. In addition, gender and racial minorities have been confirmed to report high prevalence of sexual assault in the society (Abbey, Zawacki, Buck, Clinton & McAuslan, 2004, pp. 272). This implies that apart from alcohol, gender and race increase cases of sexual assault in the society. Rational choice theory (RCT) will offer an appropriate platform to develop the argument on the connection amid alcohol use and sexual assault (Agnew, 2006, pp. 102). This essay will assert that there is a significant association amid sexual harassment plus alcohol, additionally race, as well as gender plays a huge protagonist.
Alcohol impacts the rate of sexual assault amongst women, especially at the college level. Many studies have reported increasing cases of sexual assault amongst college women that has been attributed to binge drinking that latter result in the assault mainly in the drinking environment and at the college environments.  In Mexico and United States (US), studies approximate that around 40-52 per cent of women experience sexual assault by an intimate partner where they have been sexually forced by that partner.  According to Australia Bureau of Statistics (ABS), victim of sexual physical attack were more probable to consider that alcohol plus other substance consumed resulted to the more current occurrence they encountered if the perpetrator was an ally (76 per cent). The incident was considerably greater than general percentage of sufferers of physical assault who considered alcohol, as well as any other drug resulted in the latest incident (59 per cent). It has been established that by the time they graduate, nearly 20 per cent of college women will become victims of sexual assault, overpoweringly of a fellow classmate. The statistics further show that over 80 per cent of college sexual assaults involve alcohol (Freedman, 2013, pp. 1). These statistics show that the higher number of college women in Australia experience sexual assault that is mainly attributed to alcohol consumption. Also, in many instances, gender has played a leading role in the sexual assault. This is evident in that women at the college level are seen by the men at the college level as “sex” objects that will result into the assault. This is basically the attitude of the men towards women and not alcohol alone (Abbey, Zawacki, Buck, Clinton & McAuslan, 2004, pp. 274). This trend can be explained by the rational choice theory (RCT) better in that this behaviour at the college can be attributed to earlier victimization of these female students at the college that is supported by rational choice theory (Agnew, 2006, pp. 103). Young children will encounter greater degree of stress over distressing situations since they cannot behaviourally evade the incident plus they do not have the capability to tolerate with the element of victimization (Jang & Johnson, 2003). When the individuals grown up, they will have a range of internalizing and externalizing problem such as binge drinking that will result in sexual assault by men in the college.
Gender and ethnicity has been established to influence the likelihood of experiencing sexual assault. In a study by Sorenson and Siegel (1992) established that gender and ethnicity influence the likelihood that sexual assault will occur. Founded on the sample of more 3,000 adult community residents, Hispanics and males reported significantly lower levels of sexual assault as compared to non-Hispanic and women. Furthermore, ethnic minorities have been found to report cases of sexual assault because they believe that they influenced by different factors.  This was supported by a study by Krebs et al. (2007), which established that race/ethnicity is a considerable risk factor towards sexual assault, especially where the type of sexual physical attack is attempted.  According to Jang & Johnson (2003), the cultural influences on Latina’s identification, as well as revelation of sexual assault, small reporting rates amongst college-aged students of Latino origin was attributed to adherence to gender roles and racial stereotypes (Jang & Johnson, 2003, pp. 79). This shows that gender and ethnicity further aggravates the problem of sexual gender. Women were more probable than men to report particular emotional, as well as behavioural responses to an assault, such as sexual assault (Hester, 2009, pp. 21). In addition, based on the rational choice theory, women from ethnic groups like the non-Hispanic experienced greater victimization that eventually results in sexual assault in the society (Postmus, 2015, pp. 376). This victimization can be traced back to childhood and manifest itself through sexual assault. This demonstrates that women from ethnic groups like Aboriginal in Australia experience greater sexual assault that the white Australians.
Considerably, there is a higher percentage of research that has established that race discrimination when under influence of substance abuse, which is, and women, endorsed facing sexual harassment more than males. Women facing racial discrimination have been found to have greater risks of sexual assault as compared to women not facing racial discrimination. This has been attributed to the race factor where the women are seen are always victimized because of their status being from minorities that makes them more vulnerable as compared to men. In addition, women facing discrimination are more likely to abuse substances and alcohol that makes them a “soft” target for men, where they experience greater incidents of sexual harassment than non-discriminated women in the society. The rational choice theory individuals experiencing traumatic events like victimization will response through aggression, which may seem as the discharge of aggravation at the incident or as a replication of the user. The physical abuse that the person experienced earlier in life will lead one to indulge in activities that may result in dangerous events such as sexual harassment (Fagan, 2005, pp. 280). Thus, the alcohol and substance abuse among the racial discriminated individuals will increase the risk of sexual victimization where they may date a partner that will eventually result in sexual assault. The use of substances among the racial minorities influences sexual risk behaviour, decreasing the perceptions of individual risk that amplifies the chance of sexual assault (Nguyen, Kaysen m& Dillworth, 2010, pp. 919).
The considerable rise in sexual assault among the youth is associated with the alcohol consumption. Hazardous and harmful alcohol uses are risk factors for being victimized besides perpetrating youth violence. Thus, the youth violence takes different forms that include sexual hostility plus assaults in streets, bars, as well as nightclubs.  The alcohol use will significantly increase the rate of crimes among the youth increasing the likelihood of sexual assault. Many adolescents have become victims, as well as perpetrators of sexual assault because of the alcohol consumption where the alcohol affects their “growing” brain. Alcohol affects cognitive along with physical functions that increases the threat of sexual assault. Thus, hazardous alcohol consumption among the adolescents has been linked to increased cases of sexual assault where intimate relationships and alcohol use result in these assaults (Howard, Qiu & Boekeloo, 2003, pp. 11).
In conclusion, it is evident that alcohol consumption is significantly associated to sexual assault and harassment, especially among college students. Women in colleges have been the primary victims of sexual assault because the environment predisposes them to these assaults. Gender and ethnicity has also become protagonist factors that results in sexual assault cases. Youth has become victims besides perpetrators of sexual assault because of the use of alcohol.  Race is also another aspect that contributes to the growing degree of sexual assault in the society because of victimization founded on the rational choice theory (Agnew, 2006, pp. 106). Therefore, this discussion supports the thesis of the paper that there is a noteworthy association between sexual harassment with alcohol, moreover race, as well as gender plays a huge protagonist.
Abbey, A., Zawacki ,T., Buck, P.O., Clinton, A.M. &  McAuslan, P. (2004). Sexual assault and alcohol consumption: what do we know about their relationship and what types of research are still needed? Aggress Violent Behav. 9(3): 271-303.
Agnew, R. (2006). General strain theory: Current status and directions for further research. In Cullen, Wright, & Blevins (Eds.), Taking stock: The status of criminological theory. (Vol. 15, pp. 101-126). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Fagan, A.A. (2005). The relationship between adolescent physical abuse and criminal offending: Support for an enduring and generalized cycle of violence. Journal of Family Violence,                       20(2), 279-290.
Freedman, M. (2013). This isn’t victim-blaming. This is common sense. Mamamia. [Accessed 23.10.2010].
Hester. M. (2009). Who Does What to Whom? Gender and Domestic Violence Perpetrators.  Bristol: University of Bristol in association with the Northern Rock Foundation.
Hingson, R.W. (2010). Magnitude and prevention of college drinking and related problems. Alcohol Research & Health. 33(4):45–54.
Howard, D.E., Qiu, Y. & Boekeloo, B. (2003). Personal and social contextual correlates of adolescent dating violence. J Adolesc Hlth. 33(5):9–17.
Jang, S.J., & Johnson, B.R. (2003). Strain, negative emotions, and deviant coping among African Americans: A test of general strain theory. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 19(2), 79-105.
Krebs, C. P., Lindquist, C.H., Warner, T., Fisher, B.S & Martin, S.L. (2009). College women’s experiences with physically forced, alcohol – or other drug-enabled, and drug-facilitated sexual assault before and since entering college. Journal of American College Health. 57 (6): 639–647.
Nguyen, H.V., Kaysen, D. & Dillworth, T.M. (2010). Incapacitated Rape and Alcohol Use in White and Asian American College Women. Violence against Women. 2010;16:919–33.
Postmus, J.L. (2015). Women From Different Ethnic Groups and Their Experiences With Victimization        and Seeking Help. Violence Against Women. 21(3); 376.

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