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400837 Health And Socio- Political Issues In Agend Care

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400837 Health And Socio- Political Issues In Agend Care

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Course Code: 400837
University: Western Sydney University

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Country: Australia

Discuss about the Health and Sociopolitical Issues in Healthcare.

The aged people are part of society, and most countries or organizations have put measures, or still, there are measures that one can formulate to help the aged people. However, palliative care and end life care is one of those that seek to help the aged during the arguably most difficult time of their lives. In this regards, there exist residential aged care whose purpose is to provide the care and the approaches to aged people. It one of the things that draw one to start thinking of various approaches to palliative care that exists and the systems put in place to promote the same. In addition to that, the approaches can be of a national or international level (World Health Organization, 2011). On the other hand, there are issues which arise from the provision of palliative and end care life at the residential aged care. Thus, this essay seeks to not only highlight, but also discuss the palliative approach and part of the structures that are in place to promote the practice of palliative care (van der Steen et al., 2014). Also, the task gives a definition of two terms that are consistent in the essay. I therefore intend to incorporate a discussion of the measures put in place, from an ethical point of view, in regards to approaches and care influenced by the funding that meant for aged services (Finn et al., 2006) . Lastly, the essay will elaborate on the manner in which a palliative care approaches have the potential to affect residential care facilities as far as funding the facility is concerned.
Palliative Approach and End of Life Care
Palliative approach refers to a method that aims at providing comfort at the time a person is about to die diseases. Also, including their relatives, especially by lowering the agony using early determination, analysis and treatment of pain (Heyland et al.,2006) . Moreover, assessment takes into considerations cultural, psychological spiritual and social needs. In regards to life-limiting illness, it is one that is highly likely to cause death to a patient in a certain period that is foreseeable.
There is need for a palliative care for the aged people because of various reasons; to start with, the aged people tend to have several clinical diagnoses which require a variety of treatments. Additionally, the aged people are commonly known for their confusion and have difficulties in communication. Also, there are those that lack family support, therefore, palliative care approach become necessary to them. Therefore, palliative care approach is termed as effective if it achieves certain standards. To start with, the approach must offer the aged with autonomy and comfort or respect (Heyland et al.,2006). In addition to that, the approach must base a platform of honesty and one that encourage open dialogue in regards to conditions and treatment options. On the other hand, the approach ought to have had a choice that is evidence- based treatment options. Most palliative approaches are effective in managing pain and other symptoms that cause distress to the aged and their relative alike (Truog, 2008). Another aspect that is essential in palliative approaches is a method that provides quality of life as to the aged. Also, the approach has to embrace the cultural and spiritual will of the aged in a manner that honors whatever they wish. Lastly, the palliative approach must or commonly offer people an opportunity to interact. 
On the other hand, the care seeks a way of health and community services which do an essential part to provide the services to people at the near end of their lives. The best care can only be achieved in the event that there is an elaborate system that connects those that provide palliative care, primary care, primary specialists and support care providers. End of life, in this case, denotes the stage in life where a person is impaired by, an event that is largely fatal, regardless of whether prognosis is not known (Detering, Hancock, Reade, & Silvester, 2010).  Also, it can denote use medications to patients that are about to pass on (Phillips, Davidson, Jackson, Kristjanson, Daly, & Curran, 2006). Various medications are used for such purposes, these include but are not limited to antipsychotic medication that can be used to treat nausea. Also, anticonvulsants can be used to treat pain and dyspnea. In administering the drugs, there are various ways to do that, and these include sublingual, transdermal and intramuscular.
End of life care follows certain principles or an objective that drives its policy. These are, putting an emphasis on not only quality of life, but also, having a quality of death (Lorenz et al., 2008). Additionally, the method acknowledges that the method is a human right. Lastly, the care ensures that a person has a good death irrespective of the duration, type or place of death.
Legal pitfalls in provision of End Life Care
In as much as there are various reasons why a person must go through the approach or care, and there exist legal systems put in place to guide those providing the services or advocate for a dignified death. The only consideration that it takes is respecting what the person under the care chooses, also, considering the futility and the way to have a consensus, which is intentional especially in decision making (Brown, Grbich, Maddocks, Parker, & Willis, 2005). Lastly is having a humane touch. Therefore, still, there are no strong legal provisions that are in place, not only in Australia but also in most countries that guide the practices of end life care.
Ethics involved in the care and the approaches
Firstly, personnel that work in residential aged care must embrace patient autonomy. In that, the personnel ought to respect what the patient decides or his or her choices. In this regards, the patient is entitled to either agree or refuse (Chochinov, Hack, Hassard, Kristjanson, McClement, & Harlos, 2005). However, in the scenario where the patient is not in a position to make a decision because of the illness state that accompanies him or her, surrogates can offer their opinion regarding what he or she had previously communicated concerning his or her wishes.
Secondly, residential aged care and personnel need to uphold beneficence in caring for the aged in applying the two care and approaches discussed so far. Beneficence denotes what is in the best interest of whoever is being administered, and for this particular case, the aged (Chou, Boldy, & Lee, 2001). In the case where aged people in the residential aged care is concerned, advanced stage of illness can cause untold suffering that is potent to cause suffering not only to the patient but also to the relatives of the aged (Hogan, 2004). Thus, in palliative approaches and the care, and end of life care, it is in the best interest for the patient or the aged to be given a care that controls the patient’s symptoms and pain and also reducing if possible the suffering that may be present to the patient and his or her relatives. Also that, residential aged care services ought to promote emotional support and which includes protecting the family involved from any ruin, especially, the financial one.
Thus, in this context, an act that can cause death as long as it conforms to the underlying principles of the care and approaches that is humane. In that one allows a person to die of natural death (Crotty, Halbert, Rowett, Gile, Birks, Williams, & Whitehead, 2004). That is, the person is allowed to die in a dignified manner, with the illness well controlled, and the person is in the presence of his or her relatives to offer him, or her comfort without this promotes or rather does not in any way results to euthanasia.
Therefore, the ethical bases of palliative care approaches that are common are based on four main principles which may be elaborated as;
The practice itself ought to be morally acceptable. For the approach and care to be good, it has to be one that is most appropriate and considered to be humane at the last phase of the aged (Wilson et al., 2011). Additionally, the residential aged care is effective and must be adopted if it cares for a patient with advanced and terminal illness especially where it has already disrupted or can take care of their physical, psychological and emotional issues. Thus, the practice appears to be promoting the highest degree of care which is morally and appears to be permissible ethically.
Also, the ill effects, although they are foreseen, ought to be unintended. In the sense that, the practice, that is, the care and approach is one that affirms the need for life and does not encourage or facilitate the dying process. Chou, Boldy, & Lee (2003) suggest that all the intervention that the residential aged care providers are meant to relieve symptoms, sufferings or rather maximize comfort. Therefore, if there happens to be a case where shortening of life is inevitable, it has to be for the best interest of the aged or rather is unintentional.
In addition to that, the residential aged care must not provide services that contain ill impacts that are inappropriate to the benefits that come with the services to the patient. During the provision of services, and in particular symptom management, the all the drugs used as medicines for the care and approaches must appropriately be titrated before use (Boyd, 2011). In particular, palliative care ought to use sedatives are titrated in a way that there is the least possible dose that alleviates the negative effect that causes distress.
Palliative at national and international level
At the national level, there are systems put in place in an attempt to promote palliate care; these are health promotion that is geared toward the promotion of not only health but also palliative care. In addition to that, countries have adopted a way to inform people of the need to educate the public on palliative care that they ought to offer to the aged. Additionally, countries have set aside funds to help the aged, not only for maintenance purposes but palliative acre as well (Hawk, Long, Boulanger, Morschhauser, & Fuhr, 2000). These health promotions are effective in the promotion can be useful in creating public policies which have the potential to sustain health, in addition to creating a conducive environment especially for the aged in the form of palliative care. Moreover, the method makes it possible for collaboration which in effect encourages activeness towards the aged. The policy ensures that the acts of the health care promotion are an activity that each person gets involved in and that the health is everyone’s responsibility (Broad et al., 2011). The policies are in line with those of WHO which in turn embrace the idea that palliative care must or rather ought to be integrated into society and especially in health care systems and at all level in all forms of the society.
In addition to that, countries adopt a form of health care promotion that incorporates education programs in collaboration with communities to ensure that they understand the need for palliative care for aged people, the acceptance and of the loss and dying. Additionally, the system incorporates encouragement of personal and even social support in the event of death. Moreover, the education programs aimed at teaching people in identifying the social character that is essential at the core of care and loss (Detering, Hancock, Reade, & Silvester, 2010). Therefore, residential aged group communities have a thing to learn in regards to improving the services that they offer to age groups in the form of the care and approaches used. In England for instance, their strategy as far as the care is concerned involves raising public awareness as a form of her whole-system approach.
There is a trend that countries are developing policies aimed at supporting the aged at the residential aged care and family caregiving. To start with, there is financial help in the form of paid compassionate leave from work which has been introduced in Canada. In this form, the country offers an estimated increase of fifty-six percent in their earnings, also, to leave from work to enable them to care for family members (Chou, Boldy, & Lee, 2003). Taking Australia as an example, there are national programs of financial compensation which aims at funding all that provide the care and approaches in residential areas (Chou, Boldy, & Lee, 2003). The program entails; direct funding in the form of salary, vouchers, wages and allowances. Moreover, there is indirect compensation which is in the form of third-party payment of pension credits; it can also involve insurance premiums and relief of tax. Lastly, the persons involved in palliative care services can have labor policy that is geared towards
Residential aged care services, approaches, and Funding
At the point when individuals are no longer ready to live freely inside the group because of health and social reasons, it is basic that they can get to moderate and adequately resourced residential health care administrations. The reason for giving residential medical offices is to give convenience and care that cannot be given in the common group setting. There ought to be a fitting level of convenience, staffing, and individual and medicinal services administrations for the individuals who need to move into residential aged care for their physical, useful and psychosocial needs (Chou, Boldy, & Lee, 2003). The range and nature of residential aged care administrations ought to be set by an autonomous benchmarks setting body. More seasoned individuals ought to have the capacity to pick extra administrations as per individual inclinations and ability to pay.
The AMA recognizes that all-inclusive access to quality residential aged care is probably not going to be accomplished without some money related exchange from the more youthful to the more established era or utilization of individual assets (Wanless, Forder, Fernández, Poole, Beesley, Henwood, & Moscone, 2006). These intergenerational exchanges will turn into an expanding challenge as the matured populace develops as an extent of the aggregate populace and in the meantime the development in workforce moderates. It appears to be progressively likely that subsidizing of residential aged care construct just on intergenerational exchanges will be unsustainable (Hilmer et al., 2012). There should be approaches that support and urge consequent eras to create flexible financing models for their matured care.
Proof is developing that the current private residential aged care division is not an appealing business sector for financial specialists and is not all around set to manage the expanded interest for its administrations. A current practicality ponders by Deloitte Access Economics additionally computed that interest in high care spots is not feasible under current approach settings (Caplan, Meller, Squires, Chan, & Willett, 2006). The standards supporting another model are that it: Gives general access to each Australian to the fundamental standard of private matured care administrations as per their needs and paying little heed to their capacity to pay. Additionally, spreads the expenses for the individuals who require longer than normal private matured care and licenses people to pick their supplier and to pay for extra or higher quality administrations on the off chance that they pick. Also, it gives conviction to private matured care suppliers and is practical for who and what is to come. Pressing arrangement advancement and arranging is required now because there should be a noteworthy transitioning period to actualize any new financing model. Amid this period, game plans should be set up for individuals who have a prompt requirement for private matured care, perhaps including wellbeing net for the individuals who cannot meet extra expenses.
Palliative approaches and end life care in residential aged care is common in most countries as a form of helping patients and especially for the aged people. The two acts entail a process that a person it taking cares of during the period that he or she is about to die to enable him or her die in dignity. Therefore, there is the need for the best approaches to be put in place, locally, or internationally, to ensure that the two processes not only helps those that about die within a specified duration of time but also give guidelines for residential aged care. In addition to that, systems are put in places, such as educating the public on the need to encourage people to contribute to offering the services to the aged.
On the other hand, there are principles that the approach and care must conform to for it to be considered safe and that which is appealing to the aged in places where they receive those services. Therefore, the method ought to be that is in practice in those areas. Thus, the method ought to be one that embraces beneficence. In addition to that, the method must be one that put the best interest of the person under care. Also, residential aged care services achieve ethical conduct by embracing respect to the wishes of the person under care, in that, they do as the person wishes in regards to his or her final will. Lastly, the primary function of residential aged care is to ensure that the person who is about to die receives a dignified treatment to face death.  The benefits include less agony, suffering, and pain, in effect, it is ethical that the relatives of the aged or those under palliative care ought to be treated well in a way that the suffering or impending death of those that are under treatment do not cause agony to the family.
Therefore, the government of Australia, together with other countries has developed policies about palliative care and end-of-life , and this has an influence on the manner in which the governments do the funding of those residential aged care.
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Brown, M., Grbich, C., Maddocks, I., Parker, D., & Willis, E. (2005). Documenting end of life    decisions in residential aged care facilities in South Australia. Australian and New Zealand journal of public health, 29(1), 85-90.
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Crotty, M., Halbert, J., Rowett, D., Giles, L., Birks, R., Williams, H., & Whitehead, C. (2004).  An outreach geriatric medication advisory service in residential aged care: a randomised            controlled trial of case conferencing. Age and Ageing, 33(6), 612-617.
Wanless, D., Forder, J., Fernández, J. L., Poole, T., Beesley, L., Henwood, M., & Moscone, F. (2006). Wanless social care review: securing good care for older people, taking a long-term view. King’s Fund.
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Caplan, G. A., Meller, A., Squires, B., Chan, S., & Willett, W. (2006). Advance care planning and hospital in the nursing home. Age and ageing, 35(6), 581-585.
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Chou, S. C., Boldy, D. P., & Lee, A. H. (2003). Factors influencing residents’ satisfaction in residential aged care. The gerontologist, 43(4), 459-472.
Cameron, I. D., Murray, G. R., Gillespie, L. D., Cumming, R. G., Robertson, M. C., Hill, K. D., & Kerse, N. (2005). Interventions for preventing falls in older people in residential care facilities and hospitals. The Cochrane Library.
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