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7521QCA Design Thinking

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Course Code: 7521QCA
University: Griffith University

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Country: Australia

Analyze the effects of police body-worn cameras and officer’s behavior”: In the context of United States”.

Background of the topic
The body-worn camera is expensive. Mostly it is costly due to cost of storage and cost of managing the video footage. It contains many organizational difficulties. For example, state power, access to video footage and the secrecy or confidentiality. The body-worn cameras make concerns for the protection and health of the police officers. It requires the more investment in the training and the police development programmed (Drover & Ariel, 2015).  
In this research study utilizes a mixed-methods approach. Specifically, a mixed methods design allows the researcher the opportunity to highlight and embrace the advantage associated with quantitative and qualitive methods while the mixed approach also reduces bias linked to either a quantitative or qualitative design including assisting with reliability and trustworthiness of the study. From the utilization of qualitative method, the researcher will able create the conceptual knowledge regarding the research problems through creating depth knowledge about research issues. In oppose to this, from the utilization of quantitative research method, the researcher will able to perform the statistical work to collect the appropriate information for solving the research dilemma. In addition to this, it can also be said that combined research method will support the researcher to evaluate the views and beliefs of people about the research issue. On the other hand, it can also be said that the mixed research method can decline the research quality (Ariel, Farrar & Sutherland, 2015).
Research statement
The purpose of this study  is to analyze the effects of police body-worn cameras and officer’s behavior. In the policing context, the police body-born camera is likely to encourage the loyalty of police to departmental protocols  to decrease incidents of  misconduct or unprofessional behavior. The citizens who interact with body- worn camera equipped report that police officers are less likely to engage in wrong behavior. It highlights the fear of being caught and the self-awareness. It will have humanizing effect on the citizens and the police officers. According  to Oliver (2014) when the behavior of the police officers and citizens is being recorded, then they are required to behave in good and proper way. The camera footage helps to resolve the cases easily, in a prudent manner and in time. The effects could be positive or negative (Keeffe, 2016).
Research Aim
The aim of the research is to check the functioning of body-worn cameras and to understand the utility of the same.
Research Objectives

To see whether the body-worn camera creates transparency thereby generating a view of the sincerity and loyalty of the police officers towards the citizens.
To check how the use of the body-worn camera decreases the violent interactions between the citizens and the police officer.
To see if the video footage can be represented as evidence that corrupt police officers can be easily disciplined or fired. It also helps the police officers to involve in the corruption and fault again.
To understand the many challenges in respect of the body-worn camera.

Research Questions

How the body-worn camera create transparency?
How do body-worn cameras decrease violent interactions?
How can the video footage be used as evidence?
What are the challenges in respect of the body worn camera?

Purpose of the research:
The purpose of this research is to dissect the impacts of police body-worn cameras and officer’s code of conduct. In the policing background, the police body-conceived camera is probably going to energize the devotion of police to departmental conventions to diminish episodes of offense or amateurish conduct with common people (Young & Ready, 2016). The residents who collaborate with a body worn camera prepared report that police officers are less inclined to participate in the wrong conduct. It features the dread of being caught red-handed and the mindfulness. It will have an adapting impact on the subjects and the police officers. The purpose is at the point when the conduct of the police officers and subjects is being recorded, they are required to carry on in a decent and appropriate way. The body-worn camera serves the purpose. It likewise produces the subject perspective of the genuineness and steadfastness of the police officers. According to Tankebe & Ariel (2016), the utilization of the body-worn camera diminishes the savage collaborations between the subjects and the police officers. The recorded video footage or evidence can be regarded as confirmation and on the basis of that degenerated police officers can be effectively restrained or terminated. It likewise causes the police officers to participate in the exploitation and blame additionally. The camera film settles the cases effortlessly, in a judicious way and in time. The impacts could be genuine or negative as well. The dissensions against the body-worn camera prepared police officers are more than objections against the police officer not wearing the body-worn camera. The differences between the two are minimal though.
Research Objectives:

To determine the working policy of the police body-worn camera and officers’ behaviour, USA
To evaluate the effectiveness of the police body-worn camera and officers’ behaviour
To analyse whether the efficacy of police body-worn camera has improved the officers’ behaviour in USA
To recommend suitable effective strategies for the police body-worn camera to improve the skill and operational capability of the USA police

Research Questions:

What sort of working policy of the police body-worn camera and officers’ behaviour, USA?
What is the effectiveness of the police body-worn camera and officers’ behaviour?
How can the efficacy of police body-worn camera has improved the officers’ behaviour in USA?
What suitable effective strategies for the police body-worn camera could require to improve the skill and operational capability of the USA police?

Research Variables:
The dependent variable is the variable that an investigator is excited about. The movements to the dependent variable are what the researcher is endeavouring to measure with all their great frameworks (Mukherjee, 2017). An independent variable is a variable acknowledged to impact the dependent variable. This is the variable that the investigator would control to look at whether it rolls the dependent variable change or not. The dependent variable is police officer’s behaviour and the independent variable is police-body worn camera.
H0: The body-worn cameras will maintain transparency regarding the conduct of police.
H1: The body-worn cameras will not be a smart pick as the cost of storage management is high together with many organizational difficulties.
Research Challenges:
The various research challenges associated with the use of body-worn cameras are:
As per the view of Perkins (2017), the officers allocated to particular units may have expanded workload related with body-worn cameras as far as downloading and labelling recordings, charging the cameras, and archiving the videos in the composed reports.
There may be visit grumblings about the accessible mounting alternatives for the body-worn cameras. The body mounting decisions are entangled too (Schneider, 2017). A few units may locate the attractive mount for the body camera to be deficient, as the camera can be knocked off effortlessly. The laws may not completely patch the frayed relations between law implementation and some network individuals, and that some video films may have genuine constraints. In the opinion of Young & Ready (2016), law authorization officers from around the state have encountered challenges caused by camera situation, camera point lighting and different confinements. The deployment and maintenance of the body-worn cameras will be very high. The cost of video footage storage as well as the footage maintenance will take a toll on the expenses. Adding to this, Tankebe & Ariel (2016) cited that it will bring in many organizational difficulties too. A lot more expense will be required for the training too.
Confidentiality is a big aspect. The access to the video footages should be restricted for the sake of confidentiality. However, it is a proven fact that maintaining the secrecy is a tough job (Stoughton, 2017). The cameras also question the health and protection of the police officers.
Mukherjee, P. (2017). Detecting Foot-Chases from Police Body-Worn Video.
Literature Review:
This intension of this chapter is to accumulate the existing scholarly information associated with the research topic. Moreover, this section is actually formulated to emphasize on the theoretical underpinning linked with the research topic. Several theories and concepts related to research topic will be the prime content of the research. This Chapter focuses on the received empirical data that are engaged with the given research topic. The concerned topic is related to the effects of policy body-worn camera and their behavior. Such a situation has been observed in the United States as the departments of the police are facing trouble and crisis of confidence. However, having a camera attached to the body of the police officers will provide them confidence and make the work easy and hassle free. The camera will act as an evidence of the large number of incidents they have to take care of. The purpose of the cameras is that it acts as a recording process when the interactions of the civilians will help and act as the proof (Ready & Young, 2015). Therefore, technology will facilitate cultural reform by increasing the officer accountability and reducing the power of abuses in such situations. Hence, when both the civilians and officers are aware of the camera being attached they are bound to behave ethically and normally all the interactions and conversation gets recorded. The video therefore acts as the footage, which will offer the factual evidence regarding what had occurred so that it gets easy to defend and explain them and prevent from further abuse use of force. Another reason for installing the cameras is that generally, police officers have been observed to show restraint in heated circumstances for ignoring being accused of worse behavior.
On contrary to this, it can be stated that it is not always possible and feasible for the police officers to wear the camera and carry out their activities and duties. Hence, in those particular scenarios, the installation of the camera acts as a disadvantage (Ariel, Farrar & Sutherland, 2015). The department of police had mentioned and specified as to when to use the camera and not to (Jennings, Lynch & Fridell, 2015). Thus, it can be said that the cameras does not always help the police officers in those situations. The cameras can make it difficult for them to run around and do their job as police officers are required to provide necessary and fast assistance. Hence, it is not necessary for the police officers to wear the camera positively every time they go out for their duty. This is the major demerit of attaching the cameras in their body. The local police officers does not get a chance to acquire the cameras for recording their behavior and of other individuals. Lastly, it can be argued by stating that there are both positive and negative effects of police body worn camera and their behavior accordingly. The following step of the research is more crucial regarding this area.
Research Methodology:
This chapter will basically be focused on selection of appropriate research methods for accumulating proper research information. Moreover, this section will select right research design, research strategy, data collection method and data analysis method to reach at particular research result.  Implementation of right research method will highly contribute in the excellence of the research result. Secondary research is done by analyzing and studying the existing data available. By using secondary data collection method, more information and knowledge can be found about the research.
Deductive approach
The method of deductive approach is used as this helps the researcher to study from the theories and studies that are already existing. The researcher will look up all the data and properly conducted the research.
Research Design
Explanatory, exploratory and descriptive are the three research designs that are used for carrying out a research. In this case, the researcher has used descriptive research design.
Research Approach and Source of Data
The Research approach is regarded as an effective method of gathering the data. The data of this research has been collected with the help of Secondary data. The Research approach should therefore be chosen dependent on the kinds of the research variables. The source of this data has been gathered from the journals and books that discuss the effects of police body worn camera and their behavior. Without the help of the journals, it is not possible for collect the data or information from any other sources. The secondary data thus saves the time of filling survey forms and other theories. Extracting the information directly from these books and journals will help in the procedure of the research. Effective choice of the source is necessary for collecting the most useful data related to the research topic. For this research, since the secondary form of data collection is used, it is quite helpful for collecting the in-depth secondary information regarding to the research topic. Thus, such sources are said to have a major contribution in enhancing the quality of the data. The journals and books provide direct information for carrying out and researching on the topic of police behavior and police body worn camera. Moreover, majority of the times, the secondary sources also includes magazines, websites, e-books and other related methods.
Data collection
The Secondary data is majorly engaged with the in-depth information that is descriptive in nature as related to the research topic. Hence, such kind of data is considered to be useful while preparing the section of literature review. The purpose of the research is to collect secondary information for preparing information from various kinds of scholars who are dealing with this particular research topic. Thereafter, the research study will be majorly based on the secondary data for reaching at the accurate research outcome. The journals, websites and other sources will help in the collection process.
Data Analysis Technique
The Data Analysis Technique is treated to be highly effective for obtaining the best and the authentic result of the research. Hence, effective data analysis technique has the power to convert the basic information that have been gathered from the above mentioned journals, websites, e-books and other sources. In such a situation, the secondary sources will therefore be segregated into various kinds of themes for a better analysis (Ready & Young, 2015). Therefore, the purpose of this data analysis is to record the information, examine the collected data and apply in the research accordingly. The interpretation of the data collected can be explored in a better way as it is better engaged between different research variables.
There have been many complaints regarding the disorderly fashion of crimes that are being committed and how no is taking charge of the situation. To device a solution, it is imperative to acknowledge the usefulness of body worn cameras to reduce the number of crimes. The reports that have been studied in the research and after reviewing the articles, it has come to the knowledge that the arrests which were made by the officers showed a disorderly conduct and the arrests were also made in higher number. The difference between the two has been very marginal, that is, the officers who were wearing the body worn cameras and the officers without the same. Though the numbers are staggering and there has been a difference and that the difference can be accounted. The complaints have been failed against both the officers wearing cameras and not wearing cameras and it is safe to say the complaints which were filed against the officers wearing cameras was higher.
The research was conducted using literature and journals which are already present but to find a more conclusive deduction, it is essential to state that surveys and interviews were necessary to come to a good conclusion. The surveys would have reflected the perception of the people and how they perceive the police officers. The concerns of confidentiality and transparency have been discussed at length in the research.
Ariel, B., Farrar, W. A., & Sutherland, A. (2015). The effect of police body-worn cameras on use of force and citizens’ complaints against the police: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of quantitative criminology, 31(3), 509-535.
Ariel, B., Farrar, W. A., & Sutherland, A. (2015). The effect of police body-worn cameras on use of force and citizens’ complaints against the police: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of quantitative criminology, 31(3), 509-535.
Ariel, B., Sutherland, A., Henstock, D., Young, J., Drover, P., Sykes, J., … & Henderson, R. (2017). “Contagious accountability” a global multisite randomized controlled trial on the effect of police body-worn cameras on citizens’ complaints against the police. Criminal justice and behavior, 44(2), 293-316.
Drover, P., & Ariel, B. (2015). Leading in experiment in police body-worn video cameras. International criminal justice review, 25(1), 80-97.
Jennings, W. G., Fridell, L. A., & Lynch, M. D. (2014). Cops and cameras: Officer perceptions of the use of body-worn cameras in law enforcement. Journal of Criminal Justice, 42(6), 549-556.
Jennings, W. G., Fridell, L. A., Lynch, M., Jetelina, K. K., & Reingle Gonzalez, J. M. (2017). A quasi-experimental evaluation of the effects of police body-worn cameras (BWCs) on response-to-resistance in a large metropolitan police department. Deviant behavior, 38(11), 1332-1339.
Jennings, W. G., Lynch, M. D., & Fridell, L. A. (2015). Evaluating the impact of police officer body-worn cameras (BWCs) on response-to-resistance and serious external complaints: Evidence from the Orlando police department (OPD) experience utilizing a randomized controlled experiment. Journal of Criminal Justice, 43(6), 480-486.
Keeffe, D. (2016). Implementation of body worn cameras for police officers. Munich: Grin Verlag.
Oliver, W. M. (2014). Policing America: An Introduction. Netherlands: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business.
Perkins, G. (2017). Lights, Camera, Action! Body-Worn Cameras: Challenges and Opportunities in Police Research. Policing: A Journal Of Policy And Practice, 12(1), 120-124.
Ready, J. T., & Young, J. T. (2015). The impact of on-officer video cameras on police–citizen contacts: Findings from a controlled experiment in Mesa, AZ. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 11(3), 445-458.
Schneider, C. (2017). Body Worn Cameras and police image work: News media coverage of the Rialto Police Department’s body worn camera experiment. Crime, Media, Culture: An International Journal, 174165901772159.
Stoughton, S. (2017). Police Body-Worn Cameras. SSRN Electronic Journal.
Tankebe, J., & Ariel, B. (2016). Cynicism Towards Change: The Case of Body-Worn Cameras Among Police Officers. SSRN Electronic Journal.
Young, J., & Ready, J. (2016). A Longitudinal Analysis of the Relationship between Administrative Policy, Technological Preferences, and Body-Worn Camera Activation among Police Officers. Policing, paw005.

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