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ANTH 1100 Introduction To Social And Cultural Anthropology

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ANTH 1100 Introduction To Social And Cultural Anthropology

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Course Code: ANTH1100
University: Douglas College

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Country: Canada

1 How does evolution work ?2 How is globalization transforming culture ?3 The difference between cultural relativism and Ethnocentrism ?

How does evolution work?
Evolution can be defined as the changes that occur in the inherited traits of a population. These traits happen to be the expressions of genes that are passed on to the offsprings (Sober,2011). However, in case mutation occurs in these genes it can result in altered traits thus bringing about heritable differences between populations. However new characteristics can also be acquired through the transfer of genes between populations, in cases of migration between species and in the case of horizontal gene transfer. Evolution is said to occur when these inheritable traits become rare or visible in a particular population this is possible randomly through changes in genetics or non-randomly through natural selection(Sober,2011). Natural selection is said to be the process in which heritable traits which help species to survive become more common while the bad traits are slowly eliminated. This occurs when those organisms with good inheritable traits pass these traits to the next generation
However, in many generations adaptations are said to occur when successive small changes in the traits and natural selection for those traits that are best suited for the environment. On the other hand, genetic drift is said to cause significant changes in the traits of a population (Rogers, 2011). Genetic drift is caused by the role of chance on given individuals based on whether they will survive or reproduce. Species can be explained as a group of organism that reproduces with each other thus bringing forth fertile organism (Rogers, 2011). However, when different species are kept into populations that do not allow them to interbreed, selection of novel trait, mutations, and genetic drift will always cause the accumulation of differences which bring about new species over time.
How globalization transform the culture
Globalization is rapidly harmonizing cultures in the world. This has brought about new trends in nation and city building, new technology innovations and new patterns of migration and diaspora (Hurn,& Tomalin, 2013). However, the economic and social effects of globalization have significantly been studied, but less is known of the impact of globalization on culture. Everyone needs to be aware of how globalization is affecting our culture today. In this paper, we will look at four aspects of globalization which are mobility, sustainability, connectivity and aesthetics which have in turn influenced the global culture.
Globalization has caused some trends in mobility (Hurn,& Tomalin, 2013). People migrate, die or integrate different ideas and art, which in return circulate very first thus making people change the way they think in various categories such as professional, national identities, religion, and linguistics
Considering the aspect of sustainability, to sustain usually means to eliminate competition or to keep in existence. Sustainability in the cultural, social and political domain has significantly been affected by globalization (Bains, 2015). Thus there has been instability of politics and culture in this globalized world especially in capitalist nations. Globalization has helped in solving this by opening new employment opportunities. Thus assisting in raising standards of people which translates to higher economic growth
In major studies, the aspect of aesthetics has been much ignored. Aesthetics can be referred to as the study of art and perception. Aesthetics can be thought as to how performances, sound and language change and get to be used in politics. For example, democracy which happens to be the notion of western politics is related to the aesthetic perception and the worldview of an individual (Bains, 2015). Due to globalization, people have learned a new language, copied other languages, and cultural practices, In this case, every human being can be thought to be an artist.
Connectivity is the last aspect of globalization that has brought significant changes in the cultures of people, and the world is now well networked. The virtual world intermingle thus bringing effects even in the offline world. These technologies have brought forth an always-connected culture
Differences between cultural relativism and ethnocentrism
There is a significant difference between ethnocentrism and cultural relativism. This are two different terms that do not have even a relationship. Ethnocentrism can be thought as the way of thinking that your culture is the best (edican, 2012).This is common mostly in remote African villages as well as in some modern western states
On the other hand, cultural relativism can be explained as a notion where people understand that cultures are different, each culture needs to be understood in its particular context and that no culture should be taken as a universally valid or a worldview instead they are just particular expressions of people(Dwyer, 2012). This does not mean that cultural expressions have the same value and that people need to respect everything about other people’s culture without criticizing some aspects instead we are stating that cultural relativism is used to help in understanding other people’s culture and not a ground of accepting or rejecting their culture (Dwyer, 2012).
A cultural relativist person handles other cultures without ethnocentrism. This means that he is ever ready to understand and enjoy the differences in culture instead of viewing it as something different from what he is used to (edican, 2012). He is always aware that cultures are different and need not be compared rather be understood
However, this does not state that the cultural relativist approach is better than ethnocentrism but to show that if cultural relativism is used correctly, it can help people to have power over prejudices which are brought forth by ethnocentrism.
Sober, E. (2011). Did Darwin write the Origin backward?: Philosophical essays on Darwin’s theory. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
Rogers, A. R. (2011). Evidence for Evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hurn, B. J., & Tomalin, B. (2013). Cross-cultural communication: Theory and practice. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bains, G. 2015).  (Cultural DNA: The psychology of globalization. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
edican, E. J. (2012). Social anthropology: Canadian perspectives on culture and society. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’
 Dwyer, J. (2012). Communication for Business and the Professions. Pearson Australia Pty Ltd.Press Inc.

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