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BMO6630 Business Research Methods

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BMO6630 Business Research Methods

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Course Code: BMO6630
University: Victoria University

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Country: Australia


Undertake a literature review on a theoretical concept/construct in the field of Conspicuous consumption that has real world management implications (e.g., customer satisfaction, buying behaviour, customer motivation, experience quality etc.). Research the field to find four academic articles (the first article to propose the theory) relating to the concept (published any time); and three other more recent articles (2012 onwards) one of which must apply a quantitative research design, the second, a qualitative design and the third, a mixed method (qualitative and quantitative) design.
The articles you have reviewed, using the following headings:

Brief summary of the theory and progression in the field (i.e., how has the theory developed since first proposed?)
Common themes/findings across the four articles.
Different themes/findings across the four articles.
Study limitations and how these differ across the various study designs (quantitative, qualitative).
Future research directions proposed in the articles.


Brief summary of the theory and progression in the field (i.e., how has the theory developed since first proposed?)
In 1979, Douglass and Ardt proposed the determinants and methods of measurements of cutomer satisfaction through their research article. According to their research customer satisfaction is the major determinant which can measure the level of competitive advantage of the organization. They propose the benefit profiling as the tool which can be used for the measurement of the customer satisfaction. According to them the concept of customer satisfaction can be implemented for the service and the luxury products. This finding is based on conducting research on the complexity of the customer satisfaction which was not a topic of discussion during that period (Douglass and Ardt, 1979).
Douglass and Ardt investigated various measurement methods which the organization can implement to achieve the customer satisfaction. According to them the customer satisfaction can only be achieved if the organizations understand the complexity of the satisfaction. The article also conducts research on the expectations and demands of the customers in the market. The findings of the reaserch highlight how the concept of benefit profiling can be implemented and integrated with the level of customer satisfaction.
The research paper of Edema and Ogba, in 2015 highlights a quantitative approach on the concept of the customer satisfaction and loyalty. This quantitative study using seven-point Likert-scaled questionnaire administered 384 participants. This research article identifies that the service quality is the significant predictor for the customer satisfaction and the customer loyalty will be outcome of the high quality customer service.
In 2013, Turkyilmaz, Oztekin, Zaim and Fahrettin, proposed a qualitative article which proposes a challenging ECSI model of qualitative analysis. This study uses the conventional structural equation modeling (SEM) which is a universal structure modeling. This modeling identifies that the quality of service and the company reputation are having a greatest impact over the customer satisfaction (Hwang and Suh, 2018).
The findings of Berraies and Hamouda in 2018 evidences that the customer empowerment and the innovative approaches of the organization can lead the organization towards the achievement of customer satisfaction as well as the financial benefits. The research paper highlights that the Customer satisfaction, exploitative innovation and exploratory innovation are the mediating variable for the relationship between CE and firms’ financial performance.
Common themes/findings across the four articles
Through analyzing the four research articles it has been identified that there is a common finding. The entire four papers finally conclude that high quality customer service is relevant for the customer satisfaction which can bring customer loyalty.
According to Douglass and Ardt, the article which proposes the concept of customer satisfaction identifies the relevance of the customer service in achieving the customer satisfaction. It also proposes various methods and determinants of customer satisfaction. Similarly, the article of Edema and Ogba conducts quantitative analysis on the concept and identifies that customer satisfaction can bring out customer loyalty and commitment (Edema and Ogba, 2015). This report also highlights the relevance of the service quality for the achievement of customer satisfaction.
The qualitative work of Turkyilmaz, Oztekin, Zaim and Fahrettin also come to this common ground highlighting the relationship of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty through implementing a universal structural modeling approach of ECSI. The study also reveals that the quality of service is relevant for the customer satisfaction. Finally the research of Berraies and Hamouda also highlights that high quality customer service, innovation and customer engagement can lead to high degree customer satisfaction (Zameer, Wang, Yasmeen, Mofrad. and Waheed, 2018).
Different themes/findings across the four articles
The Douglass and Ardt identify a unique method of benefit profiling for understanding and recognizing the complexity of the customer satisfaction level. This identification makes it unique from the findings of other articles. This article conducts research in identifying the complexity of satisfaction which can contribute to customer loyalty (Moorthy  et al, 2018).
Quantitative article of Edema and Ogba, provides emphasis on the customer commitment which can be obtained through the achievement of customer satisfaction and the customer loyalty.  According to this paper customer commitment towards the organization is measured through the quantitative analysis which is vital for the customer satisfaction.
The article of Qualitative article: Turkyilmaz, Oztekin, Zaim and Fahrettin makes it different from other article through highlighting the relationship between the customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. The degree of relationship is higher when the satisfaction is higher. This finding also measures the quality of service (Turkyilmaz, Oztekin, Zaim and Fahrettin, 2013).
Berraies and Hamouda propose a different finding which focuses around the customer empowerment and the innovative approach of the organization which can lead to customer satisfaction and loyalty.
Study limitations and how these differ across the various study designs (quantitative, qualitative)
The article of Douglass and Ardt emphasis on the measurement of the customer satisfaction and also proposes many methods. The research study limited till the measurement of the satisfactory level (Schirmer, Ringle, Gudergan and Feistel, 2018).
The article of Edema and Ogba provides the statistical data which reveals the relevance of the high quality customer service for customer satisfaction. The research study fails to propose the customer perception, external factors which can influence the satisfactory level.
The qualitative article of Turkyilmaz, Oztekin, Zaim and Fahrettin has limited exposure towards the consumer behaviour and external barriers which is an important factor which can determine the relationship of the customer satisfactory level and the customer loyalty.
Berraies and Hamouda which focuses its research on the customer empowerment, innovation etc as the mediators of the customer satisfaction limits its exposure towards the competition, company reputation etc (Berraies and Hamouda, 2018). 
Future research directions proposed in the articles
Douglass and Ardt can extend its research direction towards the analysis and evaluation of the determinants of the customer satisfaction. This would gather information which can add value to the measurement.
Edema and Ogba can focus on examining the customer perception and customer behaviour which plays an important role in the achievement of the customer satisfactory level. This extended research would make the quantitative analysis more specific.
Turkyilmaz, Oztekin, Zaim and Fahrettin’s qualitative analysis can be further extended towards the customer commitment, strengthening employee commitment for enhancing the customer satisfaction etc.
Berraies and Hamouda can extend its research towards the employee commitment, employee satisfaction, organization culture, effective communication, interaction etc which are the other factors which can directly or indirectly contribute to the achievement of the customer satisfaction other than the customer engagement.
Berraies S and Hamouda M, 2018, “Customer empowerment and firms’ performance: The mediating effects of innovation and customer satisfaction”, International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 36 Issue: 2, pp.336-356, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJBM-10-2016-0150
Douglass K. H and Ardt J, 1979, “Determining Consumer Satisfaction through Benefit Profiling”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 13 Issue: 8, pp.284-298, https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000004961
Edema E I and Ogba E, 2015, “Service quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty in automobile repair services sector”, International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Vol. 32 Issue: 3, pp.250-269, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJQRM-05-2013-0075
Hwang, S. and Suh, E.K., 2018. An Empirical Study on Nonlinear Relationship between Product Modularity and Customer Satisfaction. Journal of Industrial Distribution & Business Vol, 9(2), pp.47-55.
Moorthy, K., Chun T’ing, L., Ai Na, S., Tze Ching, C., Yuin Loong, L., Sze Xian, L. and Wei Ling, T., 2018. Corporate image no longer leads to customer satisfaction and loyalty: a Malaysian perspective. International Journal of Law and Management, (just-accepted), pp.00-00.
Schirmer, N., Ringle, C.M., Gudergan, S.P. and Feistel, M.S., 2018. The link between customer satisfaction and loyalty: the moderating role of customer characteristics. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 26(4), pp.298-317.
Turkyilmaz A, Oztekin A, Zaim S and Fahrettin O D, 2013, “Universal structure modeling approach to customer satisfaction index”, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 113 Issue: 7, pp.932-949, https://doi.org/10.1108/IMDS-12-2012-0444
Zameer, H., Wang, Y., Yasmeen, H., Mofrad, A.A. and Waheed, A., 2018. Corporate image and customer satisfaction by virtue of employee engagement. Human Systems Management, 37(2), pp.233-248.

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