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BUS298 Suggested Essay Plan

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BUS298 Suggested Essay Plan

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Course Code: BUS298
University: Murdoch University

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Country: Australia


Once you have a good essay plan (see Planning Your Essay), with a thesis statement and some main supporting points, you can go on to build your argument in the form of an essay draft. Keep in mind that an essay has a specific structure of: introduction, body & conclusion. The introduction says what the essay is about, the body gives the content and the conclusion summarises and restates the main points.
Session four of this course discusses nine different change tools. Your task is to choose two, and critically evaluate their usefulness to effect change for BOTH a manufacturing company and a service company. Note: you are NOT to investigate Lewin’s Classical Model.
The available change tools to evaluate are:

Socio-technical system approach
The organisation development school
The learning organisation
Lean production
Business process re-engineering
Best practice
The high-performance work organisation

Organizational change refers to the processes or even levels that organization undergoes in their stages of development and change. Each and every organization experiences different stages of development due to different factors like organizational culture, goals, objectives, priorities among others. Irrespective of these dissimilar stages, organization share common development approaches that bring about change within an organization. These approaches include Social-Technical System approach and the Organization Development School. Socio-Technical System approach holds that, for any organizational change to be realized, the system of the organization must embrace innovation, flexibility, consultation and also been open-minded. It is the combination of both the social and the technical tools within an organization. On the other hand, the Organization Development School explains how change is achieved through organizational culture, management, policies, and strategies. This essay explains that these two change tools are of importance with only Socio-Technical System approach been used in manufacturing company and Service Industry using the two change tools which include Organization Development School and Socio-technical approach. The essay will cover the change tools stated above, their applicability and usefulness to Manufacturing and Service Company and also explain the characteristics of Manufacturing and Service companies.
Socio-Technical System
This is one of the approaches that use the interaction of people or even employees and technology in the place of work. This change tool came as a result of the social aspect of individuals and also the technical aspect of a company or even society. Social aspect here means people or even employees within a workplace. They interact, share and work together to achieve organizational or social goals. Additionally, the technical aspect is not a technological perspective alone but it also includes procedures, bureaucracies, and other related company knowledge. This approach aims at achieving joint optimization between the two aspects. It ensures that there are tremendous technical performance and good motivational lives for the employees in the workplace. This system holds that there must be a good relationship between the social and the technical elements which results in the development and change of an organization due to increased productivity and wellbeing of the workers. If the two aspects are not working in unison, conflicts start resulting in organizational failure.
Organization Development School
This change tool emphasis on effectiveness and efficiency of an organization. It helps the organization to improve in terms of policies, leadership, and job description and even power and control. This tool holds that organization development can be done by either the management or external consultants that work for the achievement of the organization goals and objectives. Organization development tool has three main section. They include organizational culture, strategy, and climate. Organization culture explains norms, conducts, and values that employees have within an organization. Companies have different cultures and can be changed over time if it is affecting the operations of the organization. Organization climate refers to the general personality of an organization as a result beliefs and the attitude of the employees working in that company.
This climate affects the productivity of the organization due to the motivation and satisfaction of the employees. It is the role of the management to cultivate effective climate within an organization to ensure that there are organization development and change. Organization strategy involves strategies that encourage change like an establishment of a problem, the cause of the problem, planning, intervention, and evaluation of the realized problem. These strategies differ from one organization to another and therefore, each company ought to embrace strategies that promote organizational change and development. For the development of an organization, management should create a conducive environment for the development of the organization culture, strategy and climate.  
Manufacturing and Service Industries.
Manufacturing industries are the companies which engage in processing or manufacturing of new products or even in adding of value to the existing ones. They either produce finished products or products to be used in the processing of more finished products. This industry can after the Britain revolution as a result of industrial and social economic changes. In most of the developed countries, the manufacturing industry offers employment to most of the people thus boosting the economy of the State. It is characterized by high level of efficiency in its production due to use of technology, automation of equipment and people which has led to the reduction of wastage of resources, the customer owns the product after purchase and aims at mass production. Service industry, on the other hand, is the kind of industry that specializes in the provision of services to the people like Banking, transportation among others. It is characterized by the intangibility of the service be provided, inseparability which means that the person offering the service, the service been offered and the person receiving the service cannot be separated. Also, in this industry, customers demand different types of services thus making it challenging for the service industry.
Manufacturing and service industries are similar because of the following reasons, both focus of on the customer satisfaction. This is because customers are the key drivers of any industry and therefore, their satisfaction leads to company growth and development. Additionally, they characterized by different partners who work together for the success of the company. They include customers, employees, government among others. Despite being similar, these industries are also different in terms of production. Manufacturing industry produces tangible goods and products while on the other hand, Service industry offers intangible services. In the manufacturing industry, the buyers own the product while Service industry, on the other hand, do not own the service after buying that is there is no ownership.
Application of Socio-Technical Approach in the manufacturing industry
According to Socio-technical approach is used by the manufacturing industry to manage its operations. This is because it comprises both the employee and technical aspects.  This change tool ensures that effective motivation and conducive environment for the employees is maintained within an organization which promotes industry development and change. Moreover, this change tool ensures that the technical aspects in an organization are effectively maintained and that they are efficiently working. This is a change tool applied when ensuring that there is a balance between the employees and the technical part because they need to work together for the development of an organization. This change tool is advantageous to the manufacturing industry due to the following; joint optimization between the customer and the technical aspect, helps the manufacturing company to be more customer-focused because for long their main focus has been organization and its production but with the introduction of socio-technical tool, focus has shifted to include the employee wellbeing and motivation. Contrary, this change tool overlooks other contributing factors that result to organization development like organization culture, strategies and climate which are key for the development of any industry.
Application of Socio-Technical Approach in the service industry
Service industry as indicated earlier deals with the provision of services like banking, transport among others. In the provision of these services, this industry sometimes uses technical aspects like technology for effective and efficient provision of those services. In this scenarios, this change tool is applied for joint optimization of both the employees and the technical aspect because all need to be taken care of for effective and efficient service provision. This change tool asserts an employee’s wellbeing should be taken care of like motivations, good working conditions among others. The technical aspect on the other side should be up to date and effectively serving the customers to their satisfaction. For example, the banking industry has introduced online banking services which have made provision of services easy and faster. This change tool has helped the service industry to harmonize between the social and technical aspect within the industry in order to provide quality services to the customers.  This tool is disadvantageous to the service industry because it might discourage some employees from working. It emphasizes teamwork thus making some employee not to show their full potential hence making them feel frustrated. This tool is advantageous because it emphasizes on specialization and division of labor whereby employees are assigned duties as per their competencies which improves service delivery.
Application of organization development school in the manufacturing industry
Manufacturing industry deals with the production of tangible products to the customer. In this industry, both the employees and the technical side work in collaboration in order to provide quality and quantity products to the customers. Organization development school as one of the change tool is applicable to this industry because it aims at ensuring quality products are offered to the customers which are brought about by good internal systems and structures within an organization. This tool holds that there must be performing culture, norms, strategies, attitude within an organization so as to achieve good results. Manufacturing industry uses this change tool to ensure that performing culture, norms, and attitude is established in order to improve the industry output and production due to motivated employees and good working conditions. This change tool has shortcoming because it emphasizes the social and organizational aspect and tries to neglect the technical aspect which is a key element in a manufacturing industry. it is advantageous because it emphasizes on the creation of effective and performing environment like good culture, strategies, working conditions among others affects production in a company.
Application of organization development school in the Service industry
Service industries deal with the provision of services to the customers. These services include transport, banking, and communication among others. Organization development school as a change tool is applied in this industry because it deals with the company in general and the environment that employees work in. In the service industry, the motivation of the employees is paramount because it determines the quality and quantity of services to be offered to customers. Employees working under good conditions, and performing culture, norms, attitude, and strategies tend to show their full potential and offer the best to the customer thus improving and developing the organization. All this is emphasized in the organization development school and applicable in the Service industry. This change tool stresses more on organization structures and process which affects service delivery. It holds that organization should be effective and efficient in its operations by embracing structures that are beneficial to both the organization and the customers. In this industry, their main focus is on improving the internal structures to suit customer’s demand and interests. This tool has some shortcomings like. For example, neglects the technical aspect of an industry which to great extent helps in improving efficiency in service delivery.  It is an advantageous change tool because it emphasizes much on the internal structuring of a company which is the key determinant in the service industry.
In conclusion, therefore, organization change is brought by the kind of change tool embraced by an organization. The two change tools discussed above determines the development of an industry. The Socio-technical approach, as one of the tool, emphasizes on taking care of the wellbeing of the employees within an organization because they determine the kind of the products or services to be offered to the customers. Also, it states that the technical aspects of an industry should be improved. Technical aspects here include both the technological and the structures of an organization. This tool has several advantages like it brings about efficiency since it emphasizes on technical aspects alongside social aspect. On the other side, this tool fails to recognize the other aspects that are also key to the development of an organization like culture, strategies among others. Organizational development school is the other tool that brings about organizational change. This tool emphasizes organizational culture, strategy, and climate. It is one of the best tool used in the service industry because it stresses on both internal and external aspects of an organization. Between the two change tools, the socio-technical approach is the only tool used in the manufacturing industry because it emphasizes more on a technical aspect of an organization. Service industries use both the organization development and socio-technical system tool because it involves technical, social, culture, strategy, and climate.
Appelbaum, Steven H. “Socio-technical systems theory: an intervention strategy for organizational development.” Management decision 35, no. 6 (2016): 452-463.
Beer, Michael, and Anna Elise Walton. “Organization change and development.” Annual review of psychology 38, no. 1 (2018): 339-367.
Böckin, Daniel, Siri Willskytt, Anne-Marie Tillman, and Maria Ljunggren Söderman. “What makes solutions within the manufacturing industry resource efficient?” In EcoBalance Conference 2016. 2016.
Bouman, Marcel, and Ton Van der Wiele. “Measuring service quality in the car service industry: building and testing an instrument.” International Journal of Service Industry Management 3, no. 4 (2016): 4-16.
Chan, Su Hui, Shan Yee Chok, Siew Yen Lae, a Chie Lam, and Chia Yi Lee. “The Impact of Perceived Organizational Support, Job Satisfaction, Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and Work-Life Balance on Employee’s Turnover Intention in Manufacturing Industry, Malaysia.” PhD diss., UTAR, 2017.
Culpan, Oya. “Attitudes of end-users towards information technology in manufacturing and service industries.” Information & management 28, no. 3 (2017): 167-176.
Cummings, Thomas G., and Christopher G. Worley. Organization development and change. Cengage learning, 2018.
Daniels, Peter W. Service industries: a geographical appraisal. Routledge, 2017.
Huse, Edgar F., and Thomas G. Cummings. Organization development and change. West Publishing Company, 2016.
Molleman, Eric, and Manda Broekhuis. “Sociotechnical systems: towards an organizational learning approach.” Journal of Engineering and Technology Management 18, no. 3-4 (2018): 271-294.
Olson, Edwin E., and Glenda H. Eoyang. “Facilitating organization change.” Lessons from (2016).
Poole, Marshall Scott, and Andrew H. Van de Ven, eds. Handbook of organizational change and innovation. Oxford University Press, 2017.
Reijers, Hajo A. Design and control of workflow processes: business process management for the service industry. Springer-Verlag, 2015.
Sohal, Amrik, Simon Moss, and Lionel Ng. “Comparing IT success in manufacturing and service industries.” International Journal of Operations & Production Management 21, no. 1/2 (2017): 30-45.
Vandermerwe, Sandra, and Michael Chadwick. “The internationalisation of services.” The Service Industries Journal 9, no. 1 (2017): 79-93.
Yee, Rachel WY, Andy CL Yeung, and TC Edwin Cheng. “The impact of employee satisfaction on quality and profitability in high-contact service industries.” Journal of operations management 26, no. 5 (2017): 651-668.

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