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BUS4002 Business Project

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BUS4002 Business Project

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Course Code: BUS4002
University: University Of Northampton

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Country: United Kingdom

Betanin from red dragon fruit is proven exhibiting bio-activity such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory etc.a. Find out 10 Journals (2008 – 2017) on type of methods (minimum 3 different type of methods) for identification of betanin in liquid samples. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of those methods in term of reproducibility and accuracy.
All the information/input stated in the assignment project must be supported by thereliable sources such as journals and books.

Betalains are pigments which appears to be yellow and red, they originate from caryophyllales plants where they replace anthocyanin. This type of pigment is mostly noticed in the flowers petals and they categorized into two which include;
Betacyanins which entails the ruddy to purple betalain pigments, and the betacyanins present in plants include probation pigments. And those betalains pigments appearing yellow to orange are Betaxanthins. The indixcaxananthin, miranxanthin and vulgaxanthism are among those pigments that are present in betalain pigments. This type of pigment is used as an ordinary dye for food and it leads to urine red in color or beeturia and feces red in color to certain persons who are not in a position of breaking it down
Betanin also is known as beetroot red is a red glyosidic food dye which is acquired from beets while its aglycone is acquired when glucose particle is hydrolyzed. The pH determines the color of betanin such that as the ph. increases, the color changes to blue-violet while when the ph. falls between four and five it becomes bluish red.
A juice extract is used to acquire the betanin and the concentrated red one can even attain 300-600mg/kg. Additional origins of betanins are opuntia cactus, swiss chard. The betanins are commonly used in coloring an ice cream as well as powdered soft drinks. Other uses include as a coloring agent, used as a soup as well as tomato and bacon products. When this particular pigment is subjected to light, oxygen or heat, it degrades. It is used in frozen products with short shelf life or those that are being sold while in dry condition (Jay, 2008, p. 143).                                    
High-performance liquid chromatography
High-performance liquid chromatography which at the past was known as high-pressure chromatography is a method applied when separating, identifying and quantifying each item on the mixture (Pintelon, 2014, p. 219). This technique simply depends on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent having a sample mixture. This particular technique is used when manufacturing biological and pharmaceutical products. When trying to differentiate this method from the traditional one, HPLC has an operational pressure which is higher while in liquid chromatography, in order to pass the mobile phase through the column, it depends on the force of gravity. This method operates by introducing the sample of the mixture that needs separation into the stream of mobile phase through the column at dissimilar velocities which depends on the velocities (John, 2016, p. 67). The common mobile phases used include any miscible water combination with numerous organic solvents, for example, methanol and acetonitrile. High-performance liquid chromatography has theoretical parameters used in describing the components separation into signal peaks when detected by instrumentation, for example, mass spectrometer or UV detector (Gaya, 2011, p. 129). There are various types of high-performance liquid chromatography and they include partition chromatography, displacement chromatography, aqueous normal-phase chromatography, normal-phase chromatography, displacement chromatography, size-exclusion chromatography, bio-affinity chromatography and reversed-phase chromatography (Gilbert, 2013, p. 65).
Advantages of high-performance liquid chromatography.

When compared to other chromatographic technique, the technique mentioned above is extremely effective and quick. A higher resolution is delivered after the completion of the process approximately 10-30 minutes. It is precise and extremely reproducible as it is largely mechanized and can be done with slight training.
HPLC is adaptable and very precise during the identification as well as quantifying chemical components. This technique does have low sensitivity for certain compounds thus volatile substances to be separated using gas chromatography(Bladst, 2009, p. 79).

Spectrophotometry UV-vis with a calibration curve (SWCC)
It refers to absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible special areas. The perceived color of the chemical involved is affected directly by the reflectance or absorption in the visible range (Duncan, 2013, p. 436). This technique is normally used in analytical chemistry to determine different analyses. And also used in determining the concentration of the absorber in a species in solution.
Advantages of UV- spectrophotometry

When using visible sources, with certain samples, UV laser can interact in any way not possible. For example, the penetration of a UV light in a semiconductor is classically in the directive of rare nanometers(Beyonc, 2011, p. 67).
By sorting out the fluorescence signatures and Raman, it can be used in suppression of fluorescence
Increased sensitivity resulting from UV excitation.

Disadvantages of UV-spectrophotometry

UV Raman is somehow complicated to use thus requiring greater expertise to handle.
Testers are more likely to burn and deprivation from the minor beam because the energy per photon is increased.
Many Raman systems designed for visible and near infra-red analysis are not appropriate for UV Raman.

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
This is a technique in chemistry that brings together the physical separations abilities of mass spectrometry and, the individual capabilities of every approach are enhanced synergistically (Gaya, 2011, p. 65). A mixture with multiple components is separated with liquid chromatography, and the physical distinctiveness of the specific constituents having a high molecular specificity and detection sensitivity is provided by the mass spectrometry. This particular method is applied in various sectors such as food processing, cosmetic, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical industries (Ann, 2013, p. 34).
In liquid chromatography, physical separation is involved where the liquid components are distributed between two immiscible phases that are mobile and stationary. Analytes are contained in the mobile phase and the separation of the mixture components takes place based on the chemical affinity. A repetition of sorption and desorption steps taking place after the interaction between the liquid and the motionless bed causes separation to occur. In order to obtain a constant rate of flow, then for reproducible chromatography experiments then there is a need for high pressure (James, 2012, p. 342).
Advantages and disadvantages of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

A major advantage of this particular technique is that it is needed during the separation, and identification of accumulated compounds in little concentration in a composite mixture having less assay optimization. After training, this particular method is easy to operate.
The major disadvantage arising this particular method is that not moveable, expensive as well as it requires a knowledgeable expert to operate it and has only reasonable output. And it is also an expensive option both in terms of capital and cost of running it.

Ann, W. (2013). Pigments found in various plants. Biological chemistry, 208-213.
Beyonc, L. (2011). Developments in food analysis techniques. Zaragoza: Scholastic.
Bladst, S. (2009). Types of chromotography used in research. Annual review of biochemistry, 112-119.
Duncan, I. (2013). Natural colorants for food. Analytical Biochemistry, 34-42.
Gaya, A. (2011). Uses of pigment in food industry. The FEBS journal, 75-85.
Gilbert, M. (2013). High performance liquid chromotography. Miami: HarperCollins.
James, H. (2012). Phytochemical methods in biochemistry. Chicago: Adventure works press.
Jay, S. (2008). Chemical alterations of betacyanin in various studies. Molecular and celliular biology, 43-51.
John, D. (2016). Identifiaction of lipids in various processing industries. Nairobi: Media Participation.
Pintelon, R. (2014). Methods of identifying betatalain pigments. Thailand: OLMA Media group.

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