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BUSN221 Organizational Behavior

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BUSN221 Organizational Behavior

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Course Code: BUSN221
University: Centennial College

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Country: Canada


Identify and describe the six bases, or sources, of power generally used within organizations. Provide examples to substantiate your response.
Using examples, explain how you could gain a stronger base of power and become more influential.
Using the concept of channel richness, give examples of messages best conveyed by email, by face-to-face communication and on the company bulletin board.
Identify and explain the four leadership behaviours that might be used in different situations to motivate individuals: according to Path-goal theory.
Identify the seven components of the communication process model, and briefly describe each by providing an example.
Describe the major differences between transactional, transformational, and charismatic, leadership. Use examples to support your response.
Describe, using examples, five barriers to effective communication.
Explain the distributive and integrative approaches to bargaining.
Using examples, describe the Thomas Killman Conflict styles
Using an example describe the Rational Decision Making Model
Define organizational culture.
Describe Kurt Lewin’s three-step model of Change using an example.
Describe what make a team effective, you could you Patrick Lencioni’s model of the 5 dysfunctions of a team.
Define Organizational Behaviour and discuss why we study it.
What are the Big 5 dimensions of personality? Discribe two personality characteristics which would be associated with the success as Manager.
Define Perception.  What are it’s 3 main components?
Compare and contrast the motivation theories of Maslow and Alderfer.
What is the main difference between need theories and process theories of work motivation.
Describe two main forms of social loafing and what are some ways to conteract them?
What are the stages of group develop, please describe in detail?
Describe Hofstedes 4 value dimensions of culture.


The six sources of power are reward, coercive, referent, legitimate, expert and informational power. Providing incentives for good work is terms as reward power. Punishing for not meeting job targets can be termed as coercive power. Creating examples and making others follow is referent power (Anderson & Brion, 2014). Ordering subordinates by the superiors is an example of legitimate power. Having expertise in a particular subject and guiding is an example of expert power. Sharing secretes for success can be termed as informational power.
Having more expertise in a subject and leading others with the knowledge will help to become more influential. In addition, if others have the idea about this expertise then obviously influence will get increased. This can also help in promotion in the workplace, which further enhances the legitimate power by authority. Legitimate power will help to use reward and coercive power according to the situation.
Channel richness of the mediums can be determined by their capacity to handle multiple communication flows at a time, initiating rapid feedback and maintaining the confidentiality. Email can transit more informative communication; face to face communication can transmit more personalized information and company bulletin board can transmit generalized and short notice to maximum number of audience (Klitmoller & Lauring, 2013).
The four leadership behaviors according to path goal theory are directive, supportive, participative and achievement. Directive behavior refers to the process of directing subordinates without asking for any feedback. Supportive behaviors refer to the friendly approach of the leaders where jobs are being done in cooperative manner (Demirtas & Akdogan, 2015). Participative behavior refers to the consultative approach where all the stakeholders are being involved in taking decisions by the leaders. Achievement behavior of the leaders refers to the setting of targets for the subordinates that they have to meet. This behavior focuses more on enhancing the sense of achievement among the employees.
The seven elements of the communication process are sender, ideas, encoding, communication channel, receiver, decoding and feedback. Person who is starting the communication process is sender by sending the message. Ideas refer to the subject matter of the communication process. Encoding refers to conversion of the subject matter or the thought in symbols such as words and pictures (Pesina & Solonchak, 2014). Communication channel refers to the medium through which the subject will pass on such as telephone and letter. Receiver refers to the person who is receiving the message from the sender. Decoding refers to the process of extracting the message from the symbols in accordance to his understanding. Feedback refers to the process of accepting the message of the sender and replying the same to the sender ending the communication process.
Transactional leadership refers to the leadership approach that uses the rewards and punishments in motivating the employees. For example, leaders with having the result oriented approach are motivating the employees by reward and coercive reward. On the other hand, transformational leadership refers to the process of leading by examples where employees are motivated by the personal enthusiasm and visionary power of the leaders (Dumdum, Lowe & Avolio, 2013). For example, leaders with having higher expertise and knowledge will be able to motivate the employees by influence. Charismatic leadership refers to the charm and personal charisma of the leaders that helps in motivating the employees. In this case, leaders create a separate brand value of themselves. For example, Steve Jobs is a charismatic leader. He was having same brand value as his company Apple.
The five barriers are use of jargon, cultural barriers, noise in communication channel, physical barriers and difference in perception. In some cases, senders use difficult words and jargons that cause difficulty for the receivers. If the sender and receiver are from the different social backgrounds then they will have different approaches that will cause issues in communication (DA, 2013). If the communication channels are wrongly selected then added noise will be generated that will dilute the subject. Physical barriers such as geographical distance will lead to time consumption in communication process. In some cases, senders and receivers are having different perceptions from same subject. Thus, the core objective of the communication process cannot be served.
In the case of the distributive bargaining, interest of other party is not taken in to consideration and only focused on own profit at the cost of loss of another. On the other hand, integrative bargaining refers to the focusing on win-win situation for both the parties without having preferences for one party over other.
According to the Thomas Killman Conflict styles, there are mainly five types of modes emerges in respondng to the conflict. In case of conflict, competing can lead to further issue, where everyone is fighting for own right. The next scenario can be the accomodating. This refers to scarificing for other;s help and creating a win-win situation (Riasi & Asadzadeh, 2015). The next situation is avoiding. In this case, no voice is being raised either for the conflict or against it. Collaborating refers to the working in cooperative mode in resolving the conflict. The last mode is the comprosmising. This refers to creating of mutually accepted resolution that involves compromising interests of everyone.
Rational decision is being taken by facts, figures and numbers. For example, in initiating a rational decision, a manager should first and define the problem such as reduction in production rate. In the next step, he will identify the factors that should be considered in taking decision such as employee number, average production rate and average time of working (Grunig & Kuhn, 2017). The next step involves ranking the identified factors according to their importance. In the next step, manager should come up with number of alternatives for resolving the issues such as employee engagement and providing incentives. In the next step he will evaluate the alternatives and will come up with the final decision.
Organizational culture refers to the values, beliefs and approaches being maintained in the workplace. This also refers to the approaches of managing the employees in the workplace.
Kurt Lewin’s change model is having three main steps that should be followed. In the first step, the upper level management should identify the gap areas in the existing business processes and aware the employees about the need for change and how they can be benefited. This step is known as unfreezing. In the next step, the new processes should be implemented in accordance to the identified gap areas (Cummings, Bridgman & Brown, 2016). In addition, the change should be implemented with consulting all the involved stakeholders. This step is called change. The last step is refreezing. In this step, all the organizational affairs should be made stable after the change process. in addition, the upper level management should gain feedback from the employees about the effectiveness of the new policy and rectify accordingly.
In having a effective team, the first factor that should be maintained is trust. If the team members are not having trust among themselves, then team bonding cannot be created. The next factor is conflict. If the team is having effective mechanism of resolving conflict, then the teamwork will be more effective. The next factor is commitment. Commitment of the team members in achieving the objective helps to make the team effective. The next factor is accountability. Team members should be accountable enough for their responsibilities in order to have effective team management. The last factor is result orientation. This refers to the extent to which, employees are attentive in achieving their results.
Organizational behavior refers to study of behavioral approach of the internal stakeholders. This study is being done to make an efficient organization. It also helps to determine the extent to which internal stakeholders will react against a certain business environment (Podsakoff & House, 2013).
The five dimensions of personality are extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism and openness to experience. Extroversion associated with the success of the manager due to the reason that extroversion will help the manager to be more open and communicate with others. Openness to experience also associated with success of manager due to the reason that it will enable the managers to learn new things (Zeigler-Hill et al., 2015).
Perception refers to the ability of hearing and seeing something and becoming aware about that. The three main components of perception are stimuli, recognition and behavior.
Aldefer’s theory of motivation is the modified form of Maslow’s theory. The major difference between these two theories is, Maslow’s theory refers to five basic needs that should be met. On the other hand, Alderfer’s theory states about the mainly three needs. According to this theory, existence need included the basic and safety needs of Maslow are similar. Relatedness needs refer to the esteem and love needs of Maslow. Growth need refers to the esteem and self actualization need. Thus, the objective is same but the approach is different between these theories.
The major difference between the need and process theories is that need theories states from the perspective of the managers. This theory refers to the factors that should be fulfilled by the managers in order to motivate the employees (Lester, 2013). On the other hand, process theories states from the perspective of the employees. This refers to the factors that the employees should consider in motivating themselves.
Two forms of social loafing are free rider effect and sucker effect. In order to reduce the free rider effect, all the team members should be measures based on their individual performance (Hall & Buzwell, 2013). In order to reduce the sucker effect, employee should be given incentives for their good work. This will reduce the tendency of the team members of getting influenced by the free riders.
The steps in group development are forming, storming, norming and performing. Forming refers to the formation of the team, storming refers to the initiation of communication and conflict among the members. Norming refers to the resolution of the group conflict and performing refers to the achievement of team objective.
The four dimensions are power distance, individualism vs collectivism, masculinity and femininity, uncertainty avoidance and indulgence. Power distance refers to gap in the hierarchy, individualism refers to the self orientation of society, masculinity refers to society driven by success, uncertainty avoidance refers to openness to new things and indulgence refers to importance of life.
Anderson, C., & Brion, S. (2014). Perspectives on power in organizations. Annu. Rev. Organ. Psychol. Organ. Behav., 1(1), 67-97.
Cummings, S., Bridgman, T., & Brown, K. G. (2016). Unfreezing change as three steps: Rethinking Kurt Lewin’s legacy for change management. human relations, 69(1), 33-60.
DA, L. H. (2013). Overcoming the ten most common barriers to effective team communication. The Journal of medical practice management: MPM, 29(2), 99.
Demirtas, O., & Akdogan, A. A. (2015). The effect of ethical leadership behavior on ethical climate, turnover intention, and affective commitment. Journal of Business Ethics, 130(1), 59-67.
Dumdum, U. R., Lowe, K. B., & Avolio, B. J. (2013). A meta-analysis of transformational and transactional leadership correlates of effectiveness and satisfaction: An update and extension. In Transformational and Charismatic Leadership: The Road Ahead 10th Anniversary Edition (pp. 39-70). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Grünig, R., & Kühn, R. (2017). Rational Decision-Making. In Solving Complex Decision Problems (pp. 25-34). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Hall, D., & Buzwell, S. (2013). The problem of free-riding in group projects: Looking beyond social loafing as reason for non-contribution. Active Learning in Higher Education, 14(1), 37-49.
Klitmøller, A., & Lauring, J. (2013). When global virtual teams share knowledge: Media richness, cultural difference and language commonality. Journal of World Business, 48(3), 398-406.
Lester, D. (2013). Measuring Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Psychological Reports, 113(1), 15-17.
Pesina, S., & Solonchak, T. (2014, June). The Sign in the Communication Process. In International Science Conference: International Conference on Language and Technology (June 19-20). World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. International Science Index(Vol. 8, No. 6 Part XI, pp. 1021-1029).
Podsakoff, P. M., & House, R. J. (2013). Leadership effectiveness: Past perspectives and future directions for research. In Organizational behavior (pp. 55-92). Routledge.
Riasi, A., & Asadzadeh, N. (2015). The relationship between principals’ reward power and their conflict management styles based on Thomas–Kilmann conflict mode instrument. Management Science Letters, 5(6), 611-618.
Zeigler-Hill, V., Holden, C. J., Enjaian, B., Southard, A. C., Besser, A., Li, H., & Zhang, Q. (2015). Self-esteem instability and personality: The connections between feelings of self-worth and the big five dimensions of personality. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41(2), 183-198.

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