Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Screening
Table of Contents Conceptual Model Screening Purpose Target Population Screening Activity Outcome Goals Location Costs Summary References Conceptual Model Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered to be one of the main leading causes of death in the USA, causing over 3 million deaths every year since 2011 (Kenneth et al., 2017). Two major forms of COPD include chronic bronchitis and emphysema, both of which cause long-term coughing and damage to lungs over time. Several medical researches state that late diagnoses associated with higher amounts of morbidity are caused by the lack of COPD screening due to expensive costs and negligence among patients. For this reason, I wish to conduct a free COPD screening program at Sun City in Florida. This project will involve local nurses working in hospitals around Florida who have volunteered to participate in the program. Other participants and stakeholders include local health authorities as well as community members invested in the project. The program is supported by the local CDC office based in Florida, the American Lung Association, and several community-based organizations. The project hopes to attract students and donors who may lend support by providing donations or any other kinds of voluntary assistance. The COPD screening project will be available for two days.
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Screening Purpose The purpose of this project is to provide free COPD screening services for patients aged 65 and above. According to the CDC, the majority of people at risk of death or serious malignancy from COPD are within that age group. For this reason, it is important to target this population for screening to ensure that the early stages of COPD infection are identified. This will help reduce chances of developing a serious illness, as doctors will be able to provide timely treatment and prevention plans for elderly patients (Kenneth et al., 2017). Target Population The COPD screening activity will target adults aged 65 years and above. This target population includes individuals who have not reported or identified any respiratory symptoms to their clinician. It would also exclude those who have an alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency in their family history. In addition, the COPD screening program will target adults who are currently using tobacco, and those exposed to environmental and occupational pollutants. This screening targets adults of all races and nationalities living within Sun City Center in Florida. Screening Activity Accurate measurements of the weight and height of the participants are necessary procedures required before taking a spirometry test (Jin, 2016). Additional information necessary for accurate diagnosis includes the patient’s history of medications, recent illnesses, and smoking. The participants will be required to loosen any tight clothing as well as remove any dentures. Spirometry will be the main screening activity conducted within the scope of this program. It involves assessing the functionality of the lungs using a specific objective indicator to determine the maximum amount of air that an individual can exhale and inhale (Jin, 2016). The test will be conducted in three tiers using a method that is not only acceptable but also reproducible in determining the Forced Vital Capacity (Jin, 2016). In addition, the bronchodilator will also be utilized as a screening test. It involves measuring the alterations in the patient’s lung capacity upon inhaling a gaseous substance that causes short-term dilation of the airway (Jin, 2016). Upon the observation of an obstructive ventilatory defect, this test will be used to identify and evaluate COPD and asthma by measuring reversibility using an inhaled bronchodilator (Tilert, Dillon, Paulose-Ram, Hnizdo, & Doney, 2013). Moreover, the program includes educative conferences and meetings with the participants after the screening process is complete. Instructors will provide the patients with necessary information on COPD such as causes of the COPD, preventive measures, treatment and the importance of spirometry screening. This part of the intervention is aimed at increasing the knowledge about the disease and encouraging patients to attend out yearly COPD screenings with their healthcare providers. Outcome Goals To screen at least 500 elderly participants for COPD and provide treatment plans for diagnosed patients. To provide COPD prevention and disease management knowledge and counseling to participants. Create awareness about COPD. Location The screening program will be located at the Sun City senior center in Florida. The program will be conducted on Saturday and Sunday. The Sun City senior center is an ideal location to be occupied by patients aged 65 and above. In addition, it has a conference hall where it is possible to conduct educative seminars. Moreover, it has an open field located nearby, which can be used to pitch tents for screening purposes. Costs Item Cost Total Purchasing spirometry test equipment 10 pieces at $50.00 each $500 Renting of venue at Sun City senior center $1000 for 2 days $1000 Advertising and promotion $200 $200 Hiring tents and transportation logistics $200 $200 TOTAL $1900 Summary COPD is the third leading cause of preventable deaths in the United States. However, most of these deaths can be prevented through proper COPD screening, which would enable identifying potential symptoms at an early stage. For this reason, this screening exercise will be a first step in helping many aged 65 or above access free COPD screening. This intervention will allow the patients to know their health status as well as provide education and counseling on preventing and dealing with COPD.
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References Jin, J. (2016). Screening for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. JAMA, 315(13), 1419. Kenneth, D., Kochanek, M. A., Sherry, L., Murphy, B. S., Xu, J., & Arias, E. (2017). Mortality in the United States, 2016. Web. Tilert, T., Dillon, C., Paulose-Ram, R., Hnizdo, E., & Doney, B. (2013). Estimating the US prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using pre-and post-bronchodilator spirometry: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010. Respiratory Research, 14(1), 103.