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CVE80001 Research Paper

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Course Code: CVE80001
University: Swinburne University Of Technology

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Country: Australia

Question:
Discuss about the CVE80001 Research Paper. Implementation of BIM and lean construction is becoming a challenge in the construction industry and this can only be enhanced by identifying the barricades and defies which is a basic requirement needed before adopting BIM.
Answer:

BIM Barriers to adopting lean construction and BIM technique
Adoption of Business information modeling and lean construction will remain a challenge unless these barriers are approached promptly. Building companies are challenged with the need to creatively integrate the procedure of construction and addressing challenges facing the development of projects. However, due to the lack of clear understanding and the absence of holistic execution guidelines, numerous companies are not capable of achieving BIM potential or implementation of BIM in their projects. Implementation of BIM and lean construction is becoming a challenge in the construction industry and this can only be enhanced by identifying the barricades and defies which is a basic requirement needed before adopting BIM.
In recent years, Lean construction and BIM is considered as a creative way to do away with outdated problems gotten from the AEC industry. The way construction is executed is changed by these techniques and they also provide numerous chances for improving the supply chain in construction by minimizing errors, design and building faults by providing a dependable and recyclable digital data about a whole life of the building.
The construction companies are faced with the need to innovatively integrate the construction process and address project development challenges. Building Information Modelling (BIM) is being signaled as a remarkable innovation in the built environment sector with expectations.
Adoption and implementation of BIM in a given construction industry come with many inherent risk and uncertainties thus making it a complex business process for many construction companies. BIM is considered by certain people as a simple technological invention but it needs to be re-classified as an organizational innovation. Implementation of BIM in an industry entails adjusting the culture of the industry and value for its outline. It also involves a change in infrastructure and structure of the firm but most significantly, implementation of these integrated techniques entails a high degree of difficulties since it deals with significant change in management and resistance of the individual to embrace it. The implementation of lean construction, as well as BIM, needs a proper arrangement and synchronized approach while considering diverse phases of invention management and execution. Some of the barriers to the adoption of BIM and lean construction include; 
Compatibility
The degree of consistency and adaptability of a new innovation within an organization existing operating procedure needs, beliefs, values, and past experience has been defined as being compatible. Increased compatibility between existing policy and technology of an organization is positively correlated with the rate of innovation adoption. Interoperability and compatibility have been major technology-related barriers to adoption of BIM and lean construction (Hardin, 2013, p. 78).  
Trialability
The degree of experimentation available with the new innovation of BIM is defined as trialability. Trialability has an added advantage of examining different benefits of BIM without putting company’s bottom line at risk. Greater possibility of innovation trilability reduces uncertainty and tends to enhance the rate of adoption. Thus trialability positively affects BIM adoption.
Top management support
The support top management is giving to an association is a wide condition accepted in the innovation. Adoption of lean construction and BIM increases when a greater support is received from top management. With support from top management, the construction industries can also ensure that appropriate changes in the organization are made (Kumar, 2015, p. 453).
Cost
A high setup cost is demanded by these techniques during initiation of BIM and lean implementation on a construction project. The costs of these techniques are classified into cost of setting it up and general system-related costs. The building industry is more likely to adopt BIM having a lower financial cost thus high seeming cost depressingly affects the adoption of BIM. 
Expertise
The level of innovation increases in case there is an availability of expertise which increases the feeling to adopt multifaceted technological inventions. Availability of skilled workers in the construction industry enhances high chances of adopting BIM and lean application and it positively affects Building Information Modelling.
Trade Partner Readiness
Adoption of Building Information modeling relies on partner relationships as well as the competitive pressure which are significant determinants of inter-organizational system adoption. Competitive pressure has long been recognized as an important impetus for adopting innovations.
Client requirements
In construction, an increased and effective adoption of these techniques such that when project owner actively participates. The client-driven BIM mandate programs can enhance the rate of BIM adoption within the construction firm thus affecting adoption positively (Kumar, 2015, p. 55).
Performance
Adoption of BIM is believed to assist in time, process efficiency and cost optimization. BIM is seen as a way of organizing, envisioning data and enabling communication. The adoption of Building Information Modelling will only take place when its performance behind achieving a better result is really recognized and helpful.
Training
The workers in construction need to be trained and the company needs to invest more in the software in order to give training to staff. Workers should have knowledge concerning the benefits of BIM and practicing lean construction as well as how it is used and also how it can be applied in an organization to achieve better results in the construction industry. Skilled workers will be capable of acquiring the knowledge from the training being conducted to ensure the construction industry benefits from these particular technologies that have been introduced. Lack of training among workers will hinder the industry from adopting essential technologies due to the scarcity of knowledge (Waldner, 2013, p. 228).
 
Resistance to change
There are certain construction players that are always resistant to changes. It will hard to adopt new technologies in the construction industry in caseworkers are resistant to change. In construction structure dominated by traditional methods of project delivery, the necessity of radical change in the current working routines that is required for adopting BIM and lean construction faces a great level of resistance change by construction practitioners.  When workers in the construction industry are able to adopt new changes brought in by the management, the adoption of new Building Information Modelling and lean construction then workers will be in a position of learning the new technology in the market and applying them in the current situation for the benefit of the organization.
Lack of clear benefits
The BIM and lean construction has several benefits which include greater productivity, time-saving, enhances the design, planning, construction projects, and a clean environment. These benefits should be clearly highlighted so that the organization to be convinced of adopting BIM.
Availability of financial resources
The construction company needs financial resources before adopting these techniques. There are financial costs that are required in every industry before the adoption of this system and they also require skilled human resources who can put these techniques into practice in order to achieve a better result in the construction sector.  When there is a lack of financial resources in a given construction industry, then many firms will try to avoid adopting the Building Information Modelling and lean construction.
Start-up costs
The cost involves in starting up the Building Information Modelling is high and the high cost of implementing BIM makes many construction firms to run away from adopting that particular technology. And the start-up cost act as a barrier that hinders many construction industries from putting BIM into use (Kumar, 2015, p. 321).
Inappropriate legislation
Adoption of BIM and lean construction depends greatly on the government such that when the strict restriction is put in place before the adoption of BIM then many construction firms will run away from adopting this particular system since they will not adhere to certain policies and regulations enacted by the government. Many construction industries may only find it easy to adopt new technologies arising in the construction market only if there exist favorable rules and regulations imposed by the government.
Risk of commercializing innovations
It will take time to convince people to adopt new technologies in the market as a result of the risks involves. Many construction industries do find it difficult to adopt new technologies since technologies are bound to fail thus a big blow to the industry. The risk involves in adopting BIM may hinder the organization from adopting it since the risk that may arise after the adoption and these particular risks may be as result workers lacking knowledge concerning BIM and also lack proper training among workers causing failure of the BIM.
The belief that industry is doing well without innovation
There are certain industries that are progressing very well in the construction sector thus making other industries to believe that there is no need of adopting new technologies in industries. Despite the benefits the BIM and lean construction are having in current industries, with this believe going around, adoption of Building Information Modelling will be hindered unless that particular belief is changed through educating people concerning the benefits of adopting the BIM in an industry (Jason, 2009, p. 218).
Lack of government support
There are so many ways in which government can render support to the construction industries. After realizing the benefits of lean construction and BIM as a government, then they should try as much as possible to convince people or citizens to employ new and effective technology in the market. The government should also come in by offering free education to workers concerning the benefits arising from the adoption of these techniques. Free training should also be done by the government and by doing this, the BIM and lean construction will become popular and many industries will be attracted towards it but lack of government support becomes a barrier to adoption of these techniques.                                           
Temporary nature of construction projects
There are certain projects in the construction industry which are not meant to last for a very long time thus they find it very difficult to adopt a new system since its dissolution will take place very soon.
Lack of buy-in from other traders in the market
Construction market entails competition between various firms in the market. Lack of buy-in from trades in the construction market minimizes the adoption rate because construction companies normally interested in implementing innovative methods adopted by their competitors in the market. Slow uptake and general lack of interest in the market deters decision makers to put in effort into adopting BIM in construction industries.
Cost of hardware upgrade
The use of BIM technology in the construction industry is somehow costly and after the adoption of Building Information Modelling, it requires a regular upgrade of hardware to ensure it is up to date. The cost of upgrading the hardware is very expensive thus retreating many construction companies from adopting this type of technology. Many industries require only technology which is cheap in all every aspect to cut on expenses which may be incurred after the adoption.
BIM requires radical changes in our workflow, practices, and procedure
Before the adoption of Building Information Modelling, there are certain changes that need to take place within the organization so that the system can carry out its operation effectively. They include changes in workflow and certain procedures thus many construction industries find it difficult to deal with thus retaliating from adopting the Building Information Modelling system.    
Lack of support and absence of incentives for promoting BIM and lean technique by policymakers in the construction industry.
Where the government carry out a significant task in promoting the adoption of BIM and lean technique in the construction industry, the construction industries in a given country have to conform to the requirements of the policy makers since their business strongly relies on the budget allocated to construction projects by policymakers.
Enablers to adopting Lean construction and BIM technique
Before the application and implementation of Building Information Modelling and lean construction technique, it behooves proper documentation of the advantages this two techniques, which is one of the imperative areas to well thought-out as an organization. Enablers are simply taken to mean success factors needed by the organization to adopt lean technique and BIM.
The issue of low productivity in the construction industry needs to be enhanced and this will only take place as a result of adopting new technologies which are beneficial to people as compared to the existing technology. The adoption of these techniques will only take place only if barriers hindering the adoption of BIM and lean technique are approached promptly.
Any significant change in the business process needs a planned inventiveness whereby visualization is enhanced by the top management. A construction industry with a prepared behavior of acquiring knowledge, sharing of knowledge willingly and a ability to learn, should ease the execution of agreed process management (Isikdag, 2010, p. 412).
In the case of lean construction, the organization fails to successfully adopt lean because they lack a broad-based acceptance of the critical success factors to the adoption. Embedding improvement techniques into the culture of a business requires the integration of the improvement process into the organizational system as a whole.
Cultural readiness
Effectiveness of communication is important to the adoption of BIM and lean construction. Management of communication, education, and expectations to enhance adoption of these techniques. Communication is very important in the adoption of these techniques and this can be achieved by ensuring proper education to the people working in the construction industry.
Promoting BIM training programs
To enhance adoption of BIM, there is a need for carrying out training on a free service so to make people be aware of lean construction and Building Information Modelling. The training will enable members to be aware of the benefits accruing as a result of employing this particular technique in the construction sector.
Increased client demand
The demand of the client needs to be increased and this can only be done by enhancing public awareness. Not all construction industries are aware of lean construction as well as BIM but there is need of passing the message to people in large number so that many people to be aware of the technology and start using.
Support and enforce the adoption by the government.
After the realization of the benefits of using Building Information Modelling in construction such as shortening of the construction period then there is a need for the government to stand with people concerning the adoption of BIM and lean construction. This will force all other construction firms not using this technology to start using it to achieve their goals.
Deep understanding of the customers
It is important to identify the need of customers and identify their needs and this can be achieved through regular interaction and public awareness so that they can be equipped with new knowledge concerning the latest technology introduced in the market.
Emphasis on research and development
Research and development is an important aspect in the construction sector and there is need of encouraging people to do research in the various sector since it will enhance the introduction of new ideas into the market which will later be beneficial to the construction sector. Research and development will enable construction industries to gain more knowledge concerning new technologies which include how to use it and the requirement.
Encouraging staff to get involved with external networks
Staff working in the construction industry needs to be encouraged to get connected with the external networks. Involvement between the staff and external networks will create a sharing of knowledge between various people and this will enhance greater skills thus enhancing the adoption of Building Information Modelling.
Favorable government policy and regulations
A favorable government policy and regulations put in place enhance the adoption of these techniques. Policies and regulations favoring construction industries will increase the morale of various industries to try the new technologies which are beneficial to the construction industries. Imposing strict rules in the construction industry can delay the process of the adoption process.
Adequate financial resources
The adoption of the Building Information Modelling and lean construction by a given construction requires adequate finance to champion its adoption and any firm with enough resources can facilitate adoption because in the case of BIM, there is need of upgrading the software which is termed to be expensive and this can only be done by firms having a strong financial base. Therefore, adequate finance in a firm enhances the adoption of BIM and lean construction.
The flexibility of the construction industry
The adoption of lean construction, as well as Building Information Modelling, will only take place smoothly when the management is ready to adopt new technological changes and also the workers are ready to be trained and acquire knowledge before the adoption of new technology. In a case where people are free to learn new things which is beneficial to all members then adoption of BIM and lean construction will be very easy.
Minimization of regular hardware upgrade
Regular upgrade of software is becoming expensive to the construction industry and that is the reason why many construction industries prefer using the technology they are used to. And it will be difficult to convince many construction industries to drop the kind of technology they are using and adopt the new one because they do not see anything wrong with the current technology. But when introducing a new technology with great benefits and costs involves are greatly reduced then, many construction industries will start developing interest towards that particular technology and in this case, it is lean construction and Building Information Modelling (Hardin, 2013, p. 342).
Supportive working environment
The adoption of the lean environment and Building Information Modelling requires support from the workers and even the top management. It is difficult to detect progress in an organization where people criticizes every new idea arising in the market. Research and development need to be enhanced in every organization such that in case there is new technology in the market, research is conducted to verify whether it is appropriate for the organization, the benefits behind it and its effect on workers’ morale before the adoption. The existence of a supportive environment will facilitate the adoption of BIM and lean construction in any construction industry (Ashworth, 2015, p. 123).
Bibliography
Ashworth, A., 2015. Cost of studies of buildings. 1 ed. s.l.: Hauffe Gruppe.
Hardin, B., 2013. BIM and construction management. 3 ed. s.l.: Cassava publishers.
Isikdag, U., 2010. Enhanced building information models. 4 ed. s.l.: OLMA Media Group.
Jason, U., 2009. Handbook of research on building information modeling. 2 ed. s.l.: Adventure Works Press.
Kumar, B., 2015. A practical guide to adopting BIM in construction projects. 3 ed. s.l.: Media participation.
Waldner, J., 2013. Principles of computer-integrated manufacturing. 2 ed. s.l.: Carlton books.

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