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DEVT90058 Disaster And Humanitarian Aid

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DEVT90058 Disaster And Humanitarian Aid

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Course Code: DEVT90058
University: The University Of Melbourne

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Country: Australia

Overview Topic:
Students are to choose either an historical or contemporary Humanitarian Crisis/Intervention other than those Case Studies used in the lectures in this unit. This crisis may be the result of a con?ict between Nation States or cultural con?ict within a Nation State; or the result of a natural disaster.
It is important to note all humanitarian crises whether the result of war or natural disaster contain an element of con?ict – either as being the instigator of the crisis or as part of the response to the crisis.
Consequently all case studies are required to-
Describe issues of diplomacy and mediation in con?ict resolution situations; identify, examine and critique actions of the State, Business and Third Sectors during humanitarian crises and community development initiatives; design a needs-based program related to peace-making and peace-building.
In their case study students must ensure they address these 3 aspects of their chosen case.
Students must succinctly describe the humanitarian crisis clearly articulating its cause(s) and magnitude. Care needs to be taken to avoid too much description. This section should be the smallest of the 3 aspects.
Critical analysis of the actions by the State, Business and Third Sectors during the crisis and subsequent community development initiatives is an absolute requirement and should be the largest aspect of the work.
Critically evaluate the appropriateness of the responses of the parties involved. It is also expected that the work will contain both a brief introduction and conclusion. Marks are awarded for:-Clear, succinct and thorough description of the humanitarian crisis-Thorough and relevant research.

This report is based on the matter of Myanmar Rohingya. In 2016, Myanmar’s forces started crackdown in northwestern resign on Rohingya people. It was a bad incident for all those Rohingya people and it was a matter of humanity. Many organizations take action against that incident. Some countries make restriction after genocide in Myanmar. It was a lesion for them, so that will never happen again in future. In the next part of this report, I will discuss about the genocide and refugee crisis.
myanmar rohingya“ genocide”
ide is a word means killing of lot of peoples without any reason and there are many examples for this word but it is so bad for social and commercial purposes. Sometimes many nations term genocide as a tribal war to change the scenario.  They also destroyed the evidence of genocide (Schimmel, 2011). 
Many human rights agencies have found evidence of large-scale violations, including infanticides, extrajudicial killing, gang rape and arson. Different human rights groups were take action against this incident, such as the U. S. Department of State, United Nation, Amnesty International, and government of Malaysia, Government of Bangladesh, and many more. Aung San Suu Kyi was the leader and state counselor of Myanmar at that time, but she has silence over the problem.
Humanitarian intervention was a debate topic between philosophers, and political theorists. There are many discussions points for humanitarian intervention, such as legality and legitimacy as intertwined with the humanitarian intervention (Macklem, 2008).   The requirement of justice rose, when some type of impartiality happened with someone, which was incorporated that was a part of injustice (Sen, 2008). It was an indiscriminate killing of people, living places burned to the ground, women gang-raped, and many more in august 2016. It has very bad memories for all that persons who are involved in that crisis ( Hughes, 2018). There are different types of evidence of that crisis, such as satellites images. According to satellite images,    80 percent of villages were partially or totally burned in Raphine State. About 37,700 buildings were affected by military campaign. 
It happened because of long term historical tensions between Rohingya people and Rakhine. According to the World Bank, Burma has 78 % poverty rate. Because of poor infrastructure, and lack of social service has led to this type of conditions. Rohingya people take shelter in the different nearby areas of Bangladesh. Casualties in that incident were still unknown. Less than one lac Rohingya people had been displaced, because of violence in Rakhine state. According to refugees, they kept people, making them kneel down, and fire by gun.  
It was an example of inequality and exploitation, so many people were disturbed, murdered, assaulted. Those deaths brought a new face with the central problem posed by nationalism (Anderson, 2016).  Rohingya community has a different culture in that part of Myanmar. Mainly Buddhist and Muslim’s family lived in those villages (Yates & Paquette, 2010).  Libya also had that type of crisis. In that, NATO coalition began an army intervention in public places of Libya. United Nations Security Council takes ‘responsibility to protect’ norm for Libya as a response (Dunne & Gifkins, 2011). First attack was on Tula Toli village by a military helicopter. They fired of villagers without any reason. No one can understand what is going on. People are finding places for hiding from that attack. However, few were escaped from that crisis ( Motlagh , 2018). There are lots of restriction of local government for using media, financial work, and visiting of other places. They arrest so many Rohingya people for breaking rules between ages of 15-40 years.  In that time, they also stop media and news for hiding this crisis.
Refugee crisis
Many political and social issues appeared for betterment of living standard and legalization of person from that incident. United Nation has the responsibility to maintain peace in the different nations. There are other organizations also for Peacekeeping Corporation. European and African organizations are organized number of mission for peacekeeping at regional level. They organized different task forces for maintaining peace in the different region of a state with help of laws. Ethics are also helped for avoid those type of crisis (Yamashita, 2012). 
Bangladesh government announced a plan for relocating the Rohingya refugees to different island of Bay of Bengal. Those islands are not safe place although but there are number of quarters for Rohingya refugees. Neighbor countries are not providing support for these types of crisis, because of different international rules and security purposes. It was announced by India, that they deport 40000 Rohingya refugees. In interviews of Rohingya peoples, they are thankful for Canada government and all other national societies for helping them. Rohingya peoples faced many problems, such as marriage restrictions, higher education, they cannot vote for selecting government, and without permission, they cannot move.   
Different NGO has provided 876050 kilograms rice for Rohingya peoples. There some good facilities are provided by NGO’s for refugees, such as wells, toilets, women’s showers, heath training, and tarps to give shelter. UNICEF provided lots of facility for food, residence, and medication for the Rohingya people. They used online portals for taking donations from different peoples and organization, and provide that funds to Rohingya peoples.   
China Mediating in Rohingya Crisis
China has stepped for Rohingya crisis with the three-point plan. First, one is Myanmar and Bangladesh must hold all small wars and make an agreement for this type of crisis, which has been achieved by china. Second step was that, Myanmar must halt the ceasefire in Rakhine and provide immediate relief to Rohingya people. Third, one was that, china will provide different resources for development of the crisis resign and asked for help from international communities to the Rakhine state.   
It is concluded form previous part of this report that Myanmar Rohingya crisis was an illegal thing happened with Muslim’s of Myanmar. United Nation take action on it and try to stop that type of incident in future. Many human rights agencies are involved in that crises to solve it and never happened again. It was called genocide, because of killing people, children assaulted, and burning villages by armed forces and police forces of Myanmar. After that incident, those people known as ‘world’s most persecuted minorities’. United Nations frame a team of nine members to look into the matter and make suggestions on improving the situation of Rohingya. 
Finally, it is concluded that it was so bad thing for human rights as every human being have a right to live in their nation peacefully. There are so many actions taken by different human rights organization against Burma.     
Hughes, R., 2018. Myanmar Rohingya: How a ‘genocide’ was investigated. [Online] Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-45341112[Accessed 5 October 2018].
Motlagh , . J., 2018. An investigation into Myanmar’s state-orchestrated murder of thousands of Rohingya Muslims — and the second tragedy unfolding in the refugee camps. [Online] Available at: https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-features/rohingya-genocide-myanmar-701354/[Accessed 5 October 2018].
Anderson, B., 2016. Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. 10 ed. London: Verso Books.
Dunne, T. & Gifkins, . J., 2011. Libya and the State of Intervention. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 65(5), pp. 515-529.
Macklem, . P., 2008. Humanitarian intervention and the distribution of sovereignty in international law. Ethics & International Affairs, 22(4), pp. 369-393.
Schimmel, N., 2011. An invisible genocide: how the Western media failed to report the 1994 Rwandan genocide of the Tutsi and why. The International Journal of Human Rights, 15(7), pp. 1125-1135.
Sen, . A., 2008. The idea of justice. Journal of human development, 9(3), pp. 331-342.
Yamashita, H., 2012. Peacekeeping cooperation between the United Nations and regional organisation. Review of International Studies, 38(1), pp. 165-186.
Yates, D. & Paquette, S., 2010. Emergency knowledge management and social media technologies: A case study of the 2010 Haitian earthquake. In Proceedings of the 73rd ASIS&T Annual Meeting on Navigating Streams in an Information Ecosystem-Volume, 47(1), p. 42

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