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EECT016 : Disaster Risk Management Plan

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EECT016 : Disaster Risk Management Plan

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Course Code: EECT016
University: Coventry University

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United Kingdom


1. Coursework 1: Critical Reflection Assignment 
(i)  the key issues relating to formulating, writing and implementing an emergency plan for a relevant organisation and;?
(ii) the potential and real implications for the wider use of crisis and disaster management training
2. Coursework 2: Informative Abstract Assignment 

(i)  Opportunities for developing risk reduction strategy, culture and commitment at all levels of national life and society.
(ii)  Challenges in delivering ownership, integration, coordination and/or cooperation of participating stakeholders both in theory and practice in relation to risk reduction strategies.
(iii)  Possibilities for reform and/or enhancements in the future


Disaster Risk Management plan is a documented process that is used to address disaster risk. These risks are potential losses of life, damaged assets and injuries. In other word, this plan uses administrative decision, operational skills, and capacities to implement strategies and policies in order to lessen impact of natural as well as manmade hazards. Disaster Risk Management plan is essential, as it is vital for building sustainable and equitable future. It can be considered as necessary part of some systematic efforts to increase resilience towards disasters. The assignment will focus on the key issues relating to formulating, implementing and writing an emergency plan. Potential and real implications for the wider uses of disaster management training are covered in this assignment. The process of formulating and writing a relevant national risk reduction plan is incorporated here. In addition to this, two plans will be compared based on their strengths and weaknesses.  Opportunities and challenges faced by policy makers with respect to development of national risk reduction strategies are illustrated in this assignment.   
Course Work 1
Part 1
The process of formulation of emergency plan
An emergency plan is prepared to react to a risk or threat efficiently and effectively. This plan includes planned procedures, disaster staffs and informed staffs. It maps out the process of resuming normal business process, recording various data, reconstructing. The goal of this plan is to create a culture of preparedness and awareness as well as to develop resilience for people. The plan can be considered as a guide for employees and managers during and after a disaster. Disaster management plan is prepared by a recovery committee, which includes representatives from different critical departments. It must include representatives from risk management, security, record management, building maintenance and computing department (Paton and Johnston, 2017). The plan needs to spell out function and titles of each team member associated with disaster recovery process. In addition to this, the emergency plan must include certain methods for communicating vendors, supplies, support agencies alternates, consultants and departments with whom disaster agreements and contracts are in effect.
The disaster management plan is provided for both minor and major disasters. It must address community wide and individual natural disasters. The disaster plan must include initial and ongoing training provision for members involved in recovery process (Fekete et al., 2014). Skills are highly needed in salvage and reconstruction phase of the recovery process. The objectives of disaster risk management plan are as follows.

Execute efficient and rapid response during an emergency situation
Provide continuous and uninterrupted education
Reduce disaster risk in different areas

Key elements involved in emergency plan are preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation. Preparedness includes preparing some protective measures before disaster events. Response includes implementing emergency procedures, which can lessen the impact of disasters. Recovery means repairing any damage occurred due to disasters. The fourth element is mitigation, which involves identifying the causes of disasters.  
The steps involved in process of formulation of emergency plan are as follows.
To establish a planning team: There must be a group in charge of formulating emergency plans, in order to be ready when required. Participation of each member in the planning team is mandatory for making improvements in the emergency plan. A mission statement needs to be issued to demonstrate organization’s commitment towards emergency management. The planning team should develop an initial budget to meet the expenses required during development process.  
Analyze hazards and capabilities: This step is about collecting and gathering information regarding current capabilities and possible hazards. A vulnerability analysis must be conducted in order to determine facility’s capabilities for handling risks and hazards. Certain documents are required to initiate this step such as risk management plan, security procedures, and process safety assessment. The planning team needs to identify local, state and federal regulations for smooth operation of emergency planning.
Develop the plan: This step includes facility’s approach to core elements of emergency management such as communication, life safety, recovery and restoration and property protection. The team has to coordinate with other organizations to assist in development of emergency plan. It is essential to determine local and state requirements as well as incorporating those into procedures. Another duty of the planning team is to share certain sections with Government agencies for approval.  
Implement the plan: Implementation of plan is more than just exercising plans during emergencies. It means acting on certain recommendations made during vulnerability analysis and integrating a particular plan into organization’s operation and evaluating that plan.  
Review the plan periodically: The final step is all about reviewing the plan from time to time. This needs to be done after each emergency. The planning team should carefully analyze when procedures and changes should be made and how much change is required to handle the next emergency effectively.
Key issues associated with formulation of emergency plan

It is hard to determine amount of resources available for recovery
Differences in views of team members
Lack of financial resources to implement a plan
It is hard to organize everything during implementation of plan
Commitment is considered to be an issue with respect to exercising plans  
Lack of proper communication among team members can lead to formulation of a poor emergency plan

Stakeholders are organizations and individuals having a stake in the outcome of a particular risk. They are directly responsible for reducing specific community risk. They have important information for assessing and mapping risks. During development of a disaster plan, Disaster managers and specialists set a priority and focus on partnership building in order to coordinate multiple agencies, Government and society.
Key stakeholders involved in disaster management plan are emergency managers, ESF lead, transportation officials, first responders, decision makers, private sector partners, volunteer organizations and others. These stakeholders cooperate with each other for making decisions and designing operational, contingency and strategic plans.  They execute emergency orders and response operations. ESF leads and emergency managers gather important players, recommend specific actions and provide resources for facilitating emergency operations. Transportation officials provide and order traffic operation resources for recovery process. Decision makers collect information and provide appropriate recommendations for rescue process. First responders are major stakeholders and considered as first line of response.  These stakeholders include fire, police, and emergency medical officers (Djalante, 2012). They coordinate with volunteers and provide knowledge on local area. Volunteer organizations serve as local assets after or during disasters. They provide relief services as well as support services. They open staff shelters during disasters. Private sectors partners provide technical and personnel assistance along with supplies and equipments. Another important stakeholder is civil society. These stakeholders play important role during disasters. They involve in activities like food, supplies, equipments and transportation. They engage in contingency planning for providing best services to victims during and after disasters.
Agreeing Hazards
Disasters occurring due to certain natural forces are called as natural hazards. Individuals and community have no control over such hazards. Such hazards cause numerous losses to property and life. Common natural hazards are droughts, cyclones, floods and cyclones such as volcanic eruptions, wildfires and Tsunamis. Disasters causing due to mishandling of dangerous equipments and carelessness of human is called as manmade hazards. Some examples of manmade hazards are plane crashes, train accidents, collapse of bridges, buildings, tunnels and others. Both natural and manmade hazards have significant impact on environmental, social and economic condition of a country (McCall, 2012).
Assessing risk
Risk assessment is defined as the process of determining the nature and extent of risk through analyzing hazards and evaluating conditions of vulnerability that could harm exposed services, property, people, environment and the livelihood (Rausand, , 2013). A comprehensive risk assessment evaluates likelihood and magnitude of potential losses. It also helps in understanding the impact and cause of looses occurred by different disasters. There are five steps involved in risk assessment.
Identify the hazards: This step includes identifying a potential hazard that can cause losses. It is essential to identify location, nature, likelihood and intensity of hazards.
Decide who might be harmed: It is required to identify and analyze the things and lives that can get harm due to certain hazards. This step should be performed for each hazard. Disaster risk management team can prepare themselves for rescuing victims affected by such disasters.   
Evaluate the risks and identify precautions: This step estimates potential losses of and their impacts on society. The team can identify precautions through evaluating such risks. These precautions many include transportation facility, arrangement of shelters and supply for food and non food items.
Record findings and implement: By evaluating the risk, the management team keeps record on analysis. After that, the team takes major steps to implement the disaster management plan effectively.  
Review risk assessment: After a successful implementation, it is necessary to think on the assessment again. The management team needs to review the assessment from time to time. Risk assessment should remain up to date. The required improvements should be done immediately to deal with further hazards (Rausand, 2013).    
Policy domain and the relevant principles operating procedures
Disaster management procedures detail all processes for identification, treatment analysis, monitoring and reporting of risks. There are four principles that cover all aspects of operating procedures. The first principle involved in operating procedures of disaster management is avoiding risk. The feasibility of risk management approach is dependent upon complexity of operation, legal requirements to eliminate risk along with financial and opportunity cost. If any activity or operation is found to be the cause of disaster, then it should be eliminated and avoided before it is approaching (Paton and Johnston, 2017). The second principle is about assessing the risk, which means identifying, analyzing, evaluating and controlling risks. Effective methods should be undertaken for assessing certain risks. Control measures should be carried out against the hazardous situation. The third principle is all about monitoring and reviewing control measures, whether they are successful in controlling the situation. The fourth principle focuses on keeping record on hazard management. The record should contain each aspect of hazard management such as type of hazard, control measures and exposures.
Disaster management policies recognize different changes that contribute to increasing vulnerability to disasters. It also identifies the influences of disasters on lives and livelihood of different communities. The policy aims at institutionalizing certain mechanisms to deal with disasters. It emphasizes preparedness on the part of communities, Government and stakeholders and the sole purpose is to strengthen disaster management organizations. Some major policies under disaster management are risk management policy, quality management policy and others (Paton and Johnston, 2017).  All these policies focus on relief, preparedness, rehabilitation, mitigation and prevention involving diversification of vulnerable livelihood. The aims of such policies are as follows.

Promoting behavioral change towards disaster management
Establishing evaluation and management system
Establishingintegrated approach towards disaster management

Policy domains are described in four levels such as international, national, regional and local.   
According to the policy International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) of United Nations coined between the years 1990-1999, many experts from numerous fields and departments shaped the global frameworks of risks and particularly those of disasters and their overall management. Some of the major concepts of included within the particular policy are mainly hazard, exposures, and risk, so that the overall sustainable development is guaranteed within the communities worldwide.
Another policy that was sanctioned particularly in favor of disaster-risk management is World Conference on Disaster Reduction (WCDR). The particular policy was sanctioned within Kobe, Japan in January 2008 among the United Nations offices for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) and the national government of Japan. The framework generally included 168 Member states with which it was possible to mark an objective of catalyzing national as well as the local efforts to reduce the risk for disaster, so that international cooperation among the global nations is guaranteed (Chan, 2015).
Among the major policies and frameworks, SENDAI framework for Disaster Risk Reduction is considered one of the major and renowned frameworks in order to reduce the risk for disasters in an international approach. The main aim and objective of the particular framework was to maintain sustainability through smooth reduction of risks for disasters in contrast to live hood, health, economic, physical, social, cultural and ecological aspects of the individuals, organizations, communities and the overall nations through completing the four distinct priorities for action and seven international targets of disaster-risk management.
The following plans that were supplied as case studies for the overall project of disaster-risk management are connected to disaster-risk management within the national boundaries of two nations Ghana and Botswana respectively. The contribution of both the plans towards sustainability and disaster-risk reductions in a national context is described below:
Ghana Disaster-Risk management Plan
In order to understand how the national government of Ghana managed the disaster risks, first it is mandatory to coin out what the major disaster risks presently are occurring within the particular nation. Some of the major risks are as follows:

Pest and Insect Infestations
Disease epidemics
Fire disasters
Hydro meteorological disasters
Geological disasters
Ethnic conflicts
Aviation and marine accidents
Water pollution of seas and other water bodies
Oil spillage and others

The overall plan is broadly divided into three phases:
Pre-Disaster Phase
Within the particular phase, the responsible members associated within the overall plan are said to identify hazardous and other harmful emergencies and according to that, they have to coin out the major safe havens. In favor of disaster risk reduction, the responsible members have to educate and train in order to make the citizens of Ghana aware of the causalities that are caused due to the disasters (Samaddar et al., 2015).
Emergency Phase
After the first stage, the members have to form essentially the risks factors that are required to understand the scope of disaster generations. Within the particular phase, the responsible members are seemed to restore the utility services evaluating the crises.
Post Disaster Phase
Lastly, within the particular phase, the members have to continue the procedure of restoration that was once striated in the previous phase and the national government shall incorporate to construct accommodation structures.
Botswana Disaster-Risk management Plan
The particular plan is similar to the above in defining the most common risks that are involved within the disasters within the national boundaries of Botswana. The major national governmental bodies and aspects that are associated with the plan are mainly:

The constitution of Botswana
Emergency Power act
National Po0licy Disaster management
Finance and Audit Act of 1996
Hyogo Framework for action (2005-2015)
SADC regional water policy

The Office of the President of the nation is said to be responsible majorly for ensuring the security, safety, social and economic well-being within the national boundary Botswana. The National Committee on Disaster management (NCDM) has the major role to advise the office of the president in order to require the declaration statements when a state is involved within an emergency posed due to the disaster or number of disasters (Krüger et al., 2015).
Among the major regional departments, only the SOPAC division of SPC is recognized to have connection with the disaster risk management (DRM) systems along with the close relationships of regional cooperation. Within the regional boundaries of major continents, most of the nations have developed concern for promoting sustainable growth through reduced risks generation of disasters (Pal and Shaw, 2018). They have seemed to developed weather forecasting and early warning systems within the regional boundaries, so that they are able to mitigate the risk generated due to the disasters. There are seem to developed scope for the geographical focused technical developed organizations that are responsible to recognize the need for disaster planning in a much wider ratio, so that larger part of the populations are saved within the regional boundaries of those nations.
Within the local boundaries of certain nations and regional groups, the bodies that are associated with the identification of risks disasters, are seemed to adopt the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) system along with the miniature systems, afforded by the local groups. The particular system is prominent in providing sustainable development within the local cities and towns (Scolobig et al., 2015).
Disaster management plans
SWOT Analysis of the plans
SWOT Analysis of Ghana disaster risk management plan



· Ghana risk management plan includes a number of natural and manmade disaster fields such as fire, epidemics, geological, war, and pollution of water bodies and oil spillage, in such a detailed manner that it is considered a unique but highly applicable document (Oteng-Ababio, 2013)
· This disaster management plan is divided into three phases and each phase takes different responsibilities during hazard situations for which all activities become easy to operate. Plan can be undertaken by every organization due to its simplicity
· The plan highlights hazard mapping as a preliminary activity to risk assessment and vulnerability, whereas specific training and education program provides detailed information for public awareness.   It facilitates preparedness planning and risk reduction so that people can get in depth knowledge on hazard management   
· Disaster management vision of Ghana focuses on reducing risk, especially disadvantaged and poor people from effects of environmental, natural and human induced hazards. through coordinating resources of both Government and Non-Government institutions, which helps in developing capacity of communities and individuals on preparedness, recovery, response and prevention from disasters
· The plan is getting support from lead agencies like MOFA, GHS, GNFS and Gmet and collaborating agencies like COCOBOD, TCPD and MMDAs in terms of funding for implementation during different situations.

· Lack of coordination among the people associated in the disaster management plan for which it may delay or slow the recovery process
· Ghana is affecting by various man-made disasters such as ethnic conflicts, war and pollution of water bodies. The plan is unable to  overcome the consequences of these disasters due to unavailability of specific solutions  
· The plan is lacking in strategic stock and disaster management scheme and funds, because of which it is not possible to implement it effectively  
· The Act 517 of 1996 incorporated in this plan is lacking in co-coordinating and regulatory functions
· Due to unavailability of proper rescue and search mechanism, the recovery activities of disaster management plan are affected



· The Ghana Government is trying to develop e-government system to help in the disaster management system, which may give opportunity for further improvements like in the plan. These improvements may include responding immediately towards hazard and effective post recovery plan.
· This plan can be implemented incorporation with Ghana National Fire Service, Ghana Meteorological Agency (GMet), Ghana Health Service, Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MOFA) Ghana Police Service and Ghana Armed Forces, who can support in terms of providing disaster management funds
· The disaster management plan is getting supports from international level organizations such as International Civil Defense Organization. This has made the disaster management plan  to adopt  new strategies that can be applied in disaster issues of Ghana

· The risk management plan can face political threat due to lack of continuity
· The global economic crisis is creating various issues for the country to maintain their disaster management plan. The plan may find difficult to fund different activities during recovery processes.  
· Local people are not much aware of the situation and conveying the situation to them or making them understand regarding disaster management issues  is a difficult task for the disaster plan

                                                  Table 1: SWOT Analysis of Ghana disaster risk management plan

                                                                        (Source: Created by the learner)
SWOT analysis of Botswana disaster risk management plan



· NDRMP of Botswana is prepared through consultations with various non-Government stakeholders and private organizations, which has made it more efficient in comparison to other disaster plans
· National policy on Disaster management (1996) is the key driving force for making this disaster plan, which gives the base for eliminating impact of future disasters and chances of possible disasters
· Botswana Government has helped the disaster plan to facilitate on various international agreements, which has allowed it to get quick and easy confirmation for implementing strategies
· There is ample support from ESF primary agencies like district council, central transportation organization, DWNP and BDF for which the plan can be implemented smoothly in local areas.

·  Communication is not effective within the disaster management plan in the country, because of which conflict arises among members of disaster management planning team
· The disaster risk management plan of the country face various issues like due to poor knowledge management for disaster risk reduction. These issues are ineffective ways to address the vulnerability and risk exposure.   
· EMERGENCY POWERS ACT included in the plan does not contain specific guidelines to disaster management for which proper solutions cannot be provided by it
· The implementation of NDRMP faces major challenges due to lack of clear legislation on disaster management
· There is a huge gap between the objective and application of the disaster management plan for which it may not get appreciation from Government and private organizations  



· The disaster management plan can expand its network  due to presence of multi hazard approach and precautionary development planning
· Several Non-Government agencies are dealing with rural people to make them understand related to hazard situations and its preparedness which has can reduce the efforts of planning team involved in disaster plan  
· Botswana Government is also supporting the disaster plan for which it may  get an opportunity to expand the network in rural areas of the country

· There are huge threats in terms of losing many lives and properties from numerous natural and human induced hazards. The plan may not serve effectively in situations.
· There is a high risk of industrial accidents due to increase in industrial sites

                                                  Table 2: SWOT analysis of Botswana Disaster Risk Management p
                                                                      (Source: Created by the learner)

Compare and contrast disaster management plan
Disaster management plan of Ghana has three phases and each phase has different responsibilities to handle with disasters, where as disaster management plan of Botswana has no such phases. It has become easier for Ghana to tackle with challenges of disasters as it tries to manage the disasters at different level.  In addition to this, disaster plan of Ghana mainly highlights on hazard mapping as well as training aspects to create public awareness. However, disaster plan of Botswana is focused on outlining structures for coordinating and organizing disaster risk management functions.
Disaster management plan of Ghana has a proper mission and vision to handle natural, environmental and human induced hazards (Oteng-Ababio, 2013). The sole objective of this plan is to create well-coordinated programming framework incorporating non-Governmental organizations, Government departments and private sectors, where as objective of disaster management plan of Botswana is to establish set of working definitions for important components of disaster risk management.  Risk treatment by the disaster management plan by Ghana involves ranking of different risk in priority basis and addressing those risks through determining effective actions for eliminating those risks. However, risk treatment of disaster management plan by Botswana do not focus on setting priority for different risks rather facing each risk as per its influence on communities.            
Part 2
Training Implications
For disaster management plan of Ghana
Implications for the weakness of lack of coordination among members: In Ghana disaster management plan lack of effective coordination among its members can be observed. This can be considered as a major concern in its functioning. The reason being, it may have adverse impact on overall functioning of the team and make the plan ineffective (Burke, 2013). Lack of coordination among members of Ghana disaster management plan may have adverse impact on the overall functioning of the team members and increase chances of conflict and mistrust among them. Focus of Ghana disaster management plan, which is to rescue individuals stuck in calamities would not be achieved in such a situation. In the process of providing training to team members, this aspect is needed to be emphasized upon (Pelling & Wisner, 2012). With the help of providing with required training to team members and performing required activities, coordination level among them may be enhanced. Team members may become aware regarding the way in which they may effectively coordinate among themselves during rescue programs.
Implications for the weakness of no specific solution for mitigating manmade hazards: One of the major challenges for Ghana disaster management plan is having no particular solutions for dealing with manmade hazards. Absence of particular initiatives and, lack of awareness about issues major it a major challenge for Ghana disaster management plan. This issue can be effectively mitigated by providing needed training to team members about ways to create awareness about it (Paton and Johnston, 2017). Training is also needed to be provided to the larger community in general which would help them to be aware of the action they need to take to deal with it.  Formulation and implementation of policies and laws can help in making significant changes to this issue.
Implications for the weakness of lack of strategic stock and disaster management scheme: A mentionable weakness of the plan is absence of disaster management scheme and funds. In order to resolve the issue team members are required to be provided with training on different government provisions and laws (Ahadzie & Proverbs, 2011). With the help of such training, team members would be able to perceive about different government initiatives in regards to disaster management and learn about any government funds available for disaster management. Team members are also required to be provided with training about different government organizations from whom they may ask for financial help. With the help of such initiatives, this issue may be effectively resolved.    
Implications for the weakness of unavailability of proper rescue and search mechanism: Lack of search and rescue mechanisms act as a major hurdle in effective functioning of Ghana disaster management plan. As a result of its absence, the disaster management team, cannot navigate in remote areas and respond in a prompt manner during disaster (Asumadu-Sarkodie et al., 2015).  This can be effectively dealt with the help of providing the team with required training about ways to develop effective mechanisms on their own at low cost. Other than that, providing them with training on new rescue initiatives can also be effective.
Implications for the weakness of lack of regulatory function during incorporation of act on disaster management: Lack of regulatory functioning being incorporated in disaster management act is a major issue in the functioning of Ghana disaster management plan. The underlying reason being, in its absence, the functioning of the team cannot be effectively regulated (Cozzolino, 2012). For this purpose, formulation and implementation of regulatory framework and providing teams, training on these frameworks may turn out to be effective in dealing with these issues in an efficacious manner.    
For disaster management plan of Botswana

Implications for the weakness of lack of communication: In the Botswana Disaster Risk Management plan, there was lack of effective communication between the members of the team. This is a critical issue that weakens the overall plan and may make the plan futile as it sometimes results in conflicts between the members itself, which affects the people who are trapped due to the calamities. This condition can be improved by training the members, which can be done by providing communication classes to the members, so that they learn how to communicate effectively during critical conditions and help reduce conflicts.
Implications for the weakness of inefficient teams:Teams are not so efficient to serve the rural, remote areas, this condition can be improved, and the teams can be made more efficient by training them about the new ways, technologies, machineries and modern techniques.
Implications for the weakness oflack of knowledge: The people also have lack of knowledge about the various disasters that can take place and affect them; this causes many problems, as the people are unaware about the steps to be taken as precautions to reduce the risks of the disaster. This can be overcome by providing exercise sessions to the people and train them on the various disasters that can affect them and how they can protect themselves and take necessary measures.
Implications for the weakness ofno proper guidelines in Emergency Powers Act: The Emergency Powers Act included in the disaster management plan of Botswana does not state all the guidelines properly for which the guidelines need to be designed to prove advantageous to provide proper solutions during the emergencies.
Implications for the weakness oflack of legislations: The Natural Disaster Risk Management Program (NDRMP) is implemented in the Botswana disaster risk management plan; however, this also faces major challenges, as there is a lack of legislation on the disaster management. This situation can be handled by training the team members as well as the people and making them aware about the various laws, acts and legislations on the same. News and improved laws need to be made, which can be implemented to further improve the conditions.

Many objectives have been set for the Botswana disaster risk management plan, which are advantageous; however, not all these objectives can be achieved in the real scenario as they are far from application. This is a major issue, creates a gap in the implementation of the plan, and is not appreciated by the private organizations and the government. The objectives needs to achieved and this can be done by arranging for training programs for the team members and making them aware about the new and improved technologies around the globe. These new technologies can help to achieve the objectives and hence helps in proper implementation of the plan. These trainings measures, exercises and drills can help in overcoming the weaknesses and make the Botswana Disaster Risk Management plan efficient and effective.
Both the disaster risk management plans have many weaknesses, which need to be overcome by proper implementation of proper training and exercises. The training should be in favor of team members and the victims, who will be affected by the calamities. They should implement it effectively to overcome the weaknesses and providing proper services to all people during hazard situations.
Coursework 2
Opportunity and challenges for the development of national risk reduction strategies
In the process of formulation of risk reduction strategy, policy makers, officials have to experience various challenges at local as well as national level, which is associated with issues of integration, ownership and coordination. However, there are certain opportunities, which are also experienced on their part in the process of developing risk reduction strategy (Conway, & Schipper, 2011). Effective utilization of these opportunities would help in dealing with these challenges in an effective manner.    
Opportunity for development of risk reduction strategies
Formulating risk management strategies with the help of active participation of vulnerable communities of the society acts as a contributing factor in identification of local hazards. Based on this identified local hazards, development activities and strategies can be formulated which is in accordance to local preference (Gaillard & Mercer, 2013).. Hence effective implementation of these activities at local level helps in successfully dealing with hazards at national level as well. With the help of effective community, participation in the process of formulating and implementing of these plans helps in ascertaining ownership that result in contributing to its sustainability (Elliott, 2012). . This also acts as a contributing factor in effective decision making in regards to prioritization and allocate available resources for developing plans. With the help of advance planning and implementing apt development strategies helps in minimizing cost and labor of relief, rescue, reconstruction and resettlement. Disaster risk management plan, which is, community based helps in sensitize public about disaster risk reduction and thus help in minimizing poverty. It also encourages Land development and land pooling. These are some of the mentionable opportunities associated with development of risk reduction strategies.        
There are certain challenges, which may be experienced in the process of development of risk reduction strategies. In context to ownership, barriers are associated with lack of skill, control, leadership, time and knowledge. To get in depth of the matter, local bodies which forms the edifice for the functioning of national bodies, has limitation in regards to its staffs. This limited staffs have to work in different sectors that result in increased workload on the workforce (Bhattarai, 2013)..  For dealing with disasters in such a manner in which needs of individuals from every section of the society gets addressed, initiatives are required to be taken locally. However, local bodies are seen to mainly focus on documentation. Herein, if there exists, lack of leadership, it would result in ineffective integration among the team members in efficaciously implementing and mainstreaming aspects of documents into reality and incorporate it in development planning (Bass & Dalal-Clayton, 2012). For local bodies, co-ordination is essential in mainstreaming risk reduction and enhancement planning when relief activities are held. Herein, lack of coordination among local stakeholders and line agencies makes it difficult for successful implementation of projects.
Possibilities for the enhancement in future
For avoiding workload on workforce, disaster risk reduction tools and methods are required to be made directly relevant and incorporate in present procedures and structures. (Seppänen and Virrantaus, 2015).Allocation of focal person is needed for management of associated activities which would further help in developing leadership. In local bodies, enabling strong leadership is required to ascertain integration in their functioning.
The above assignment highlighted on process of formulation of emergency plan, which should include some key elements such as response, preparedness, recovery and mitigation. It is essential to analyze hazards and capabilities before developing a plan for natural as well as manmade disasters. In addition to this, other parameters should be considered during implementation of emergency plan such as involvement of stakeholders and assessing vulnerability of hazards. It is concluded that, both disaster plans of Ghana and Botswana are giving more importance on post consequences of hazards rather than eliminating possible hazards. Emergency plans should focus on implementation of advanced technologies, which can help in eliminating hazards. Disaster training and exercises are useful for addressing consequences of hazards and facilitating development in urban areas. It is concluded that policy makers getting many opportunities from risk reduction strategies in terms of getting knowledge on new rules and regulations and building relationship with communities. The major challenge involved in risk reduction strategies is the different opinion by stakeholders. 
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Krüger, F., Bankoff, G., Cannon, T., Orlowski, B. and Schipper, E.L.F. eds., 2015. Cultures and disasters: understanding cultural framings in disaster risk reduction. Routledge.
McCall, G.J., 2012. Geohazards: natural and man-made. Springer Science & Business Media.
Oteng-Ababio, M., 2013. ‘Prevention is better than cure’: assessing Ghana’s preparedness (capacity) for disaster management. Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies, 5(2), pp.1-11.
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Samaddar, S., Yokomatsu, M., Dayour, F., Oteng?Ababio, M., Dzivenu, T., Adams, M. and Ishikawa, H., 2015. Evaluating Effective Public Participation in Disaster Management and Climate Change Adaptation: Insights From Northern Ghana Through a User?Based Approach. Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, 6(1), pp.117-143.
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Seppänen, H. and Virrantaus, K., 2015. Shared situational awareness and information quality in disaster management. Safety Science, 77, pp.112-122.

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