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ELEC3550 Wireless Communications

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ELEC3550 Wireless Communications

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Course Code: ELEC3550
University: The University Of Newcastle

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Country: Australia


1. In a case where reliability is not of importance, UDP would make a good transport Protocol. Give examples of specific cases.
2. Are both UDP and IP unreliable to the same degree? Why or why not?
3. Do port addresses need to be unique? Why or why not? Why are port addresses shorter than IP addresses?
4. Distinguish between network layer and transport layer services.
5. Distinguish between an IP address, a Port address and a Socket address
6. Distinguish between connection oriented and connection-less services.
7. Distinguish between reliable and unreliable services.
8. What are the three stages of connection oriented transmission?
9. Describe the three-way handshake used for TCP connection establishment.
10. What is Flow Control?
11. Distinguish between the flow control provided by the data link layer and the transport layer
12. How does TCP provide error control?
13. Distinguish between the error control provided by the data link layer and the transport layer
14. What is congestion control and how does TCP provides congestion control?
15. Discuss the three phases of TCP congestion control policy.


1. The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is defined as an unreliable and connectionless transport protocol, which would be able to perform limited checking of errors. Some cases include – If a certain process would send small messages and would not care about the reliability, it would be used by UDP. Sending of a particular message with the use of UDP would take much level of interaction between a sender and receiver rather than using TCP.
2. UDP and IP are both unreliable and connectionless protocols. The primary difference is based on reliability.
The IP would calculate a checksum for the IP header and not on data.
The UDP would calculate checksum based on the entire diagram.
3. The port addresses need not to be unique as long as the pair of IP addresses would be able to uniquely identify a particular kind of process that would run on a particular host.
Port addresses would generally be shorter than IP addresses. This is because of the reason that the domain would be based on a single system that would be smaller than the domain of each of the IP addresses.
4. The primary function of the Network Layer would be based on delivering packets from the source till destination across several forms of networks. The layer provides connection services that would include the network layer flow control.
The Transport Layer would be mainly responsible for the transportation of message from the source till the destination. The layer could be either connection oriented or connectionless.
5. The IP Address is mainly used for the identification of the computer. The Port Address is a number that would be used for identifying the data coming from internet. The software that includes Chrome, IE, Skype and many others. The Port and IP address would be known as socket, it would be used by another computer for the purpose of sending data to another particular software of a computer.
6. The services based on connection-oriented would mainly involve the establishment and the establishment and conclusion. The connection-less services would not require any form of creation of connections and processes of termination based on transferring data.
7. In the field of computer networks, the reliable services could be defined as a form of tested service that have been proved to be right. The reliable service would be able to produce the positive outputs or results in the past. The unreliable service could be defined as such services that have been proved to be wrong in the past.
8. The three kinds of stages based on the connection of establishment, transfer of data and connection of termination phases are:

Three-Way Handshake
Data Transfer
Connection Termination

9. The three-way handshake could be defined as a method that could be used for the creation of a connection between the client and server. It is a method based on three steps that would require the client and server for the purpose of exchanging ACK and SYN based packets before the actual form of data communication would begin.
10. Flow Control could be defined as the management of the flow of data between different computers or nodes within a network . This is due to the data to be handled at an efficient manner. Too much of data that would arrive at a device could lead to overflow of data that would mean that the data would be either lost or could be retransmitted.
11. The flow control within the data ink layer would be used for controlling the hop to hop based transmission. The flow control within the transport layer would mainly apply to the end to end transmission in which the source should not be pushed to more data than the receiver would be able to process.
12. TCP would help in controlling of errors in a reliable manner. This would include the mechanism based on the detection of corrupted segments, out-of-order segments, lost segments and duplicated segments. They would also include a mechanism based on controlling of errors based on the correction of errors after they would be detected.
13. The Error Detection in Link Layer would be used for the verification of the integrity within the frames when they would be transmitted over the media.
The Error Control in Transport Layer would be used for sending the segments of data that would be divided into multiple form of packets at the network layer. Each of the packet would be divided into multiple frames at the link level.
14. Congestion control could be defined as a method of controlling the rate of congestion within a network and the various methods of prevention.
If a certain form of acknowledgement for a particular segment would not be received, then it would be re-transmitted. TCP would make use of a congestion window in the side of the server based on avoidance of congestion. The congestion window would be able to indicate the maximum form of data that would be sent on a particular connection.
15. The Three Phases of TCP Congestion Control Policy are:

Slow Start Phase
Congestion Avoidance Phase
Congestion Detection Phase

Johnston, Alan B. SIP: understanding the session initiation protocol. Artech House, 2015.
Quinn, Paul, and Tom Nadeau. Problem statement for service function chaining. No. RFC 7498. 2015.
Troan, O., Wojciech Dec, Xing Li, Congxiao Bao, Satoru Matsushima, Tetsuya Murakami, and T. Taylor. Mapping of Address and Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E). No. RFC 7597. 2015.
Lopez, Jessica A., Yali Sun, Peter B. Blair, and M. Shahid Mukhtar. “TCP three-way handshake: linking developmental processes with plant immunity.” Trends in plant science 20, no. 4 (2015): 238-245.
Bacon, Jean, David Eyers, Thomas FJ-M. Pasquier, Jatinder Singh, Ioannis Papagiannis, and Peter Pietzuch. “Information flow control for secure cloud computing.” IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management 11, no. 1 (2014): 76-89.
Gohil, Asvin, Hardik Modi, and Shobhit K. Patel. “5G technology of mobile communication: A survey.” In Intelligent Systems and Signal Processing (ISSP), 2013 International Conference on, pp. 288-292. IEEE, 2013.
Winstein, Keith, and Hari Balakrishnan. “TCP ex machina: computer-generated congestion control.” In ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 123-134. ACM, 2013.

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