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ENEC20003 Research Project Report

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Course Code: ENEC20003
University: Central Queensland University

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Country: Australia


Why there is need of vibroflotation?

Loose soil in the ground surfaces is a very common problem in the construction industries. This problem of loose soil required immediate solution which can be achieved by vibroflotation. Vibroflotation can be defined as a technique to enhance the strength of the soil and capacity of bearing of the ground surface with the help of vibration and spouting of the water. It is used at the depth of the ground surface where the soil is loose.
Vibroflotation sometimes also called as vibrocompaction in general, but there exists a difference between two. Vibroflotation is one kind of vibrocompaction technique, in vibroflotation a device called as vibroflot is used which moves horizontally for settling of the loose soil. While in the second kind of vibrocompaction technique a device names as vibrating plate is used which moves vertically for settling of the loose soil. It is a vibro-replacement mechanism combining the backfilling of gravel and vibroflotation to produce the columns of the stone.
As stated above in vibroflotation, a device called vibrofloat is utilized with water to lessen the friction between the small particles of the loose soil in the ground surface. It helps in the dense settlement of the soil particles which indirectly enhances the strength and decreases the compressibility of the soil or material. This decreased compressibility and increased strength results in upgraded liquefaction resistance. Figure 1 below shows the positive effect of the vibroflotation.
Vibroflot is a steel device having vibrator and tubes of steel. Vibrator consist a hollow shape device, dimensions of this device is around 3.5 m length and 350 mm diameter. With the advancement of time vibroflot is working with the help of electrical power instead of conventional hydraulic power, this helps in increasing the large amount of power generation.
Vibrocompaction is a vibro-densification procedure utilizing as a part of situ material or get material with fundamentally the same as attributes as the material in-situ, at the building site. The procedure is to some degree like solid vibration by methods for a solid needle vibrator, the point of every activity is to build the minimization. In the field of soil mechanics, a profound vibration treatment, for example, vibrocompaction brings about a change of the geotechnical qualities critical in establishment building.
These qualities are as per the following.

Modulus of elasticity
Internal friction angle
In-situ density

With enhancement in the parameters of soil, it is conceivable to increment extensively bearing limit and to lessen the auxiliary burdens clearings. Compact soil accomplished with the help of profound vibro process. Notwithstanding, viability of system relies upon in-situ attributes. Vibro-compaction consequences are not indistinguishable for each experienced. Results of strong soils and granular soils are altogether different.
Process of vibrocompaction
Strategy behind process is that it is very straightforward and depends on reality inter-granular powers of cohesion-less soils and vibration impacts. Reworking of soil grains obtain a compactness under the effect of gravity, which is maximum. Figure 2 demonstrates a misrepresented instance of the impacts of Vibrocompaction on soil particles. It was found at an early stage, that shear disappointments were probably not going to happen with ordinary establishment loadings on free granular soils; however combination settlements could be unnecessary. Vibro-compaction use can be thought of as a pre-stack, for hardware establishments. 
Material for vibrocompaction
These procedures are most appropriate for densification of clean, cohesion-less soils. Experience has demonstrated that they are by and large inadequate at the point when fine particle weight rate (0.074mm distance) surpasses twenty five %. Insufficiency is because of unreasonable fines diminished material impermeability. It won’t permit quick seepage of pore water weight required for densification after liquefaction under the vibratory powers. It is moreover likely the expanded inter-granular powers of the firm materials are hard to disrupt.
As expressed already, the basic bit of gear in the Vibrocompaction is the vibroflot. It is situated over chosen point. Procedure starts by bringing down vibroflot into dirt to coveted profundity.
Amid compaction arrange (withdrawal) vibroflot is raised gradually enough to create the required densification; ordinarily a rate of one foot for each minute is suitable. At the point when utilized as a part of spotless, coarse sands, an expansion in thickness makes the obstruction vibroflot movement to build, in this way expanding the engine vitality. The vitality increment, when checked, can give the premise for controlling the compaction procedure. This procedure refills the soil with extra compactness with high thickness.
When processing densification measure by checking the measure of fill settlement, it is vital to represent soil in the exit of vibroflot. 3 Level of compaction is most extreme at focal point of round and hollow section, and declines with outspread separation. Compaction measure is relative with the radially outward.
Design of vibrocompaction
Normal establishment outline issues are stresses foreseen circulation foundation. Geotechnical specialist picks attractive establishment sizes and profundities in view of foreseen settlements inside a middle of as far as possible. All establishments, accordingly, ought to be intended to give bolster with least differential settlements. Whenever pushed, generally auxiliary architects will concur the lion’s share of structures, due to a great extent to strategies utilized as a part of the plan of the structure individuals.
The outline of Vibro-compaction methods separates to two variables – profundity and separating. Profundity of the treatment can ordinarily be dictated by the connection of actuated worries by the foreseen establishment loads. Dispersing is dictated by the level of change of the dirt properties required to restrict settlements and to accomplish safe bearing limits.
Construction procedure
The vibroflot is embedded into the ground and ordinarily can be utilized to enhance soil up to profundities of 150 feet. Vibroflotation uses water and the mechanical vibrations of the vibroflot to move the particles into a denser state. Average outspread separations influenced go from 5 to 15 feet.
The vibroflot is suspended from a crane and seats on the surface of the ground that will be moved forward. To infiltrate the material, the base fly is enacted and the vibration starts. The water immerses the material to make a “sand trap” condition (i.e. incidentally melting the material), which permits the vibroflot to sink to the coveted profundity of change. By then, the base fly is ceased and the water is exchanged to the upper fly. This is done to make a soaked domain encompassing the vibroflot, subsequently improving the compaction of the material. The vibroflot stays at the coveted profundity of change until the material achieves satisfactory thickness. The thickness of the dirt is estimated by utilizing the power input (by means of the electric present or water driven weight) as a list. As the material densities, the vibroflot requires more capacity to keep vibrating and soon thereafter an ammeter or weight measure shows a crest in required power.
When this point is come to, the vibroflot is raised one lift (for the most part running from 1 to 3 feet) and compaction results until the pinnacle amperage or water powered weight is come to indeed. The pinnacle control prerequisite can be connected to the thickness of the dirt, so a precise estimation of the in situ thickness can be recorded.
Quality control during the process
Amid the procedure, guarantee that the method is working proficiently and viably with the goal that low soil densities are not found after fruition of the site change. In the same way as other development exercises, quality control is critical amid development. A few perspectives can be checked amid execution, including infiltration profundity, entrance rate, withdrawal rate, legitimate test area, volume of included inlay, refill degree, ammeter or water powered weight crest, and vibroflot working recurrence.
Upon the finish of vibroflotation exercises, densities are generally checked to guarantee that satisfactory compaction was accomplished. While the standard infiltration test (SPT) was the most utilized and accessible technique for doing this, it gave a poor measure of bearing limit and relative thickness. Today, CPTs are most ordinarily utilized for confirming relative thickness. Connections have been created which associate CPT results to relative thickness.
Factors affecting the vibroflotation quality:

 Size of the equipment
Quality of the equipment
Soil type
Technique of the vibroflot withdrawal
Type of backfill material
Skill of the employ 

Increment in the population, construction and industrialisation is resulting in the development in the areas where quality and strength of the soil is poor, which needs to be upgraded. And due to the environment effect features of the quality soils are getting degraded regularly. To enhance the strength and decrease the compressibility vibroflotation is conducted before starting of any construction, this increases the life and bearing capacity of the building structures.
Advantages of vibroflotation

Reduction in the foundation settlement
Arrange for slope steadiness
Prevention of natural disasters like earthquake
Reducing the potential of liquefaction

Literature review
Numerical modelling on vibroflotation soil improvement techniques using a densification constitutive law is conducted. They utilized finite element modelling to analyse soil improvements using vibroflotation. They developed a mean densification function for each and every spatial point. They also optimize the distance between the vibration points (Querol, Peco & Trujillo 2014).
A simplified homogenization method in stone column design is conducted by establishing the equivalent material properties. They proposed an effective way of predicting the performance of stone column, and are termed as equivalent column method. Their model provides permeability and stiffness. Model developed by them is simpler to the other models available in the literature as it accurately predicts the consolidation time (Ng & Tan 2015).
Evaluation of the ability to control biological precipitation to improve sandy soils is conducted. They utilized microbiologically induced calcite precipitation technique for soil improvements. They targeted their study towards finding the time and location when calcium carbonate sediments are biologically formed. Model developed by them works very well and can be used in different applications like control of soil erosion, mitigation of liquefaction and pollution immobilization (Kalantary & Kahani 2015).
Experimental study of remediation measures of anchored sheet pile quay walls using soil compaction is conducted. They analysed the effectiveness of soil improvements near to embedded regions using recorded dynamic responses. The countermeasures used by them help in reducing the anchor and wall deformations. They found that front densification increases the tensile force and limited the seaward displacement (Zekri et al 2015)
Experimental research of spatial variation of compaction effect on vibratory probe compaction method for ground improvement is conducted. They conducted field pilot test for analysing the spatial variation of the compaction. They found maximum strength at the point where vibration occurs (Cheng et al, 2017).
Ground improvement with the help of rapid impact compaction (RIC), vibroflotation with stone columns and dynamic cone penetration is conducted. In their study the studied various ground improvements techniques and selected rapid impact compaction as per the requirements of the place of the application. They used total of five drills between 15 ft to 30 ft depth. Dynamic cone penetration technique was utilized to check the soil dense quality. The dynamic cone penetration technique was further increased to 38-46 ft. Their results indicate that there is chance of liquefaction in the site. They adopted RIC over vibroflotation and dynamic compaction for the liquefaction as this technique gives better results (Kristiansen & Davies 2004)
(Liausu and Scache 2009) depict investigation, with impressive dug fill volumes, set generally thick up to depth of 15m. Paper exhibits part of auxiliary solidification what’s more, broad site observing. The settlement expectation is in light of the technique, dissemination of pore water with what one anticipates from the combination hypothesis. (Esfahanizadeh & Atashband 2012) conducted analysis on vibro-probe technique evaluation in soil improvements against liquefaction. They conducted experimental analysis before and after the use of vibro-probe to study the liquefaction on the site. They calculated the safety factor shown in eq. 1 based on the liquefaction. 
Where, CRR1ave is cyclic resistance ratio
MSF is magnitude scaling factor
Kσ is stress concentration factor
Kα is ground slope correction factor
(Kim et al. 2009) portrays adjusted application of vacuum weight through pre-assembled vertical channels. Primary contrast is the non-attendance of any extra charge fills in the suction depletes technique, which is most helpful in alleviating parallel removals that are unavoidable under extra charge fill dikes. Likewise, this strategy embraced round depletes into distinctive segments. Without add up to pressure (surface additional charge fill), the suction deplete strategy enhances the powerful pressure increment specifically through most extreme suction impact. This process sometimes suggested as most appropriate process for shear terms changes. Limited component examination gives an adequate correlation in field perceptions and figured qualities at different types of soil profundities.
(Burgos, Samper & Alonso 2009) analysed place with mud, by joining spiral waste with a dirt bond surface outside for included base firmness supporting right around 10 meter of additional charge. This demonstrates over multiyear is taken for the mud to merge to a decent level of combination (@ 95%) and to acquire a worthy increment in shear quality drawing nearer or surpassing the plan an incentive. It appears contrasted with the locales where vacuum preloading can essentially eliminate the tallness of extra charge fill and solidification period, this approach may not be the best if the test is to lessen sidelong developments that are tragically not given by the Creators.
(Karunawardena & Nithiwana 2009) display a preliminary bank balanced out by vertical depletes and vacuum union on an extremely delicate and soil which is compressible. The dike was built multi-organize what’s more, rose to a most extreme stature of 11m to accomplish a high level of solidification with essential combination completely finished following multiyear of stacking. The settlement and pore weight plots, which obviously demonstrate that the settlements step by step happen even at hindered abundance pore water weight scattering. Decrement in the pore water is noted and plotted for 300 days (generally little increment of suction noted), however increment in settlement is watched and found that there is very less change, given 25 kPa pressure. Taking note of the simple high bank fill stature nearly achieving 12m, the little estimation of vacuum weight is by all accounts adequate for this undertaking. Independent of cost suggestions, an expanded vacuum weight up to state – 50 kPa has shown very large decrement, and required extra charge fill tallness and in addition giving a superior control of parallel developments.
(Basu, Basu & Prezzi 2009) talks about a diagnostic answer for outspread combination catching soil aggravation, for a progression of various profile of water. They also studied the relation between the undistributed and spread zone, to make these water driven conductivity circulations smoother and that’s only the tip of the iceberg sensible, and take after some change of the first water driven conductivity profiles of the spread zone. They explored the impact of soil unsettling influence or on the other hand spread impacts utilizing 6 test zones with a scope of PVD separating differing from 0.9m to 2m. Of course the rate of union expanded as the dividing diminished, however when the separating was decreased beneath a basic esteem, the dirt unsettling influence caused was critical that the related increment in combination was peripheral. They have proposed based on great field information, that the solidification adequacy will be immaterial if the deplete dividing to successful mandrel measurement is diminished to an esteem under 8.
(Indraratna, Fatahi, & Khabbaz 2006 and Indraratna et al. 2005) studied about vacuum preloading and PVD. This type of hypothesis of two dimensions combinations gives nearly a similar bends as that of three dimensional analyses. It is likewise demonstrated that a relative high vacuum weight of up to 70 kPa can essentially diminish the required fill tallness for accomplishing an attractive level of combination surpassing 95%. They additionally demonstrate that for this regularly solidified delicate dirt, the altered Cam-earth parameters are adequate to anticipate with satisfactory precision, the settlements, pore weights and sidelong removals.
(Kurka and Zavoral 2009) exhibit a complete logical strategy to ascertain strains and stresses, enhanced by a gathering of smashed rock sections in their study, Takahashi et al. in their study utilized a model to examine distortion examples of sand compaction heaps. They reason that the uprooting of enhanced ground expanded with refill stacking. Execution of granular heaps introduced with oil tank capacity. (Ranjan, Sundaram & Gupta  2009) watch that the proportion of settlement amongst soil and heaps isn’t in an indistinguishable proportion from the expansion in the heap top size. (Indraratna, Fatahi, & Khabbaz 2006) concluded that the use of sand compaction helps in controlling the dislodging of the soil and also helps in increasing the strength.
(Kasper et al. 2009) in their study used joined bond profound blending to control the very fine type of dirt settlements. SCP value is clarified to quicken abundance pore weight dispersal along these lines accomplishing brisk quality pick up of the marine dirt, while the bond profound blending technique was utilized to build the firmness of the establishment for the small duration. SCP quality liquefaction study is also carried out with the help of triaxial type testing. They concluded that liquefaction quality can be enhanced by SCP with infused air. They conducted analyses on soil and foundation stability improvements by stone column. They selected the Adapazari city of Turkey as their place of study because painful experience of its in earthquakes. As most of the structures build in this area have very less strength due to the loose soil. They targeted their study towards strengthening the building structure with the improvements in the soil quality. They introduced a new method of using modified dry bottom feed stone column. They also conducted the numerical analysis considering the same type of initial conditions and validated them with the results. They utilized finite element modelling for the plain stress condition numerical analysis. Finite element analysis is an advanced method to analysis any practical application. In finite element analysis we divide the domain into number of smaller elements, all the elements has some kind of boundary conditions. Finite element analysis is basically an approach of design in which one divide its domain or system into elements, on which analysis is conducted. Finite element analysis has two siblings named as finite volume analysis and finite volume analysis. Finite difference analysis is the easiest way of solving a problem using numerical methods while finite volume method is the most difficult one. As the name suggest in finite difference method one divide the system into small number of discrete part, while in finite element analysis one divide the system into smaller number of elements while in finite volume method one divide the system into smaller number of finite volumes. Finite difference method is mostly utilized in the academic industries while finite element method and finite volume method are mostly utilized in the industries dealing with real life problem solution. All the methods finite difference method (FDM), finite element method (FEM) and finite volume method (FVM) are based on the partial differential equation. These all three method converts the partial differential into some sort of algebraic form which further utilized to solve the problem with the help of applied boundary conditions. In these methods we divide the domain into number of nodes or elements, which is also called as meshing. Meshing is a very important part of the finite element analysis, as meshing can also give inaccurate results in spite of the accurate boundary condition or mathematical model used. Higher the meshing accurate the results will be, but higher meshing also results in higher large computation time and memory used of the computer. So to solve a problem using FEM one needs an expert before doing the solution of the problem.
(Ameratunga et al. 2009) display a contextual investigation of profound soil blending utilizing the Cutter Soil Mixing procedure under a capacity tank. They composed the heap top to encourage the heap dispersion and breaking point the differential settlements over the establishment. (Ishikura, Ochiai, & Matsui 2009) in view of the profound blending section, examined the idea of homogenized composite ground to foresee the settlement precisely. Green et al. proposed a scope of coordinated quality control of twist drill heaps to kill vulnerability with respect to the pressure exchange between the heap base what’s more, bedrock. Various 100mm measurement steel tubes were put in a round course of action into the augured opening along with the steel strengthening to check for voids or inconsistencies in the solid.
(Martin and Olgun 2009) think about the waste condition and quality of micro piles, they utilized a scaled physical model in the research facility to contemplate the execution of micro piles. The test comes about suggest that the micro piles can initiate spiral union, and furthermore lessen add up to settlement by expanded distance across. They utilized a 3-D dynamic FEM to examine a conceivable lessening in seismic ground movements in different ground change methods including stone sections, stream grouting, and soil blending. Their outcomes demonstrate that solid ground fortifications masterminded in cross section write soil-blend boards may essentially diminish ground developments.
Rich research facility axes think about was led by (Pooley 2005) on a dirt landfill that is exceedingly inhomogeneous. These earth knots are twofold porosity by definition due to the between molecule voids inside the over-united single earth protuberances, and the intra-molecule voids between the knots. Scale down earth knots (from 50cm to 10mm) were utilized as a part of the drum axis and dynamic compaction was done in trip to demonstrate the worry in the dirt, utilizing a formerly created compaction apparatus (Chikatamarla 2006). The pore weight reaction because of effect is all around checked over the affect zone. By and large, the test outcomes gave a great relationship between compaction vitality and the related soil firmness, subsequently the net soil weight dislodging connections. Be that as it may, a confinement of the investigation could be the real exchange of the vitality levels to the field, given the distinctive limit states of the rotator.
(Ouni, Bouassida, & Das 2009) portray the utilization of this strategy for enhancing the liquefaction capability of Tunisian sand, with both SPT and CPT comes about previously, then after the fact densification for an earth dam establishment, principally comprising of alluvial sands and rises. The made strides soils are found to limit potential harm from tremors at 0.15-0.20g. Run of the mill enhanced SPT esteems. (Rodriguez 2010) analysed vibro techniques for ground improvements. They analysed different vibro techniques like Wet Top-Feed or Blanket Feed Method, Wet Bottom-Feed Method (Aquacaster System), Marine Vibrocompaction, Dredged Trench Method.
Profound blending strategy was produced in Japan and Scandinavian nations in mid-1970’s. From that point forward a considerable measure of investigate have been done on the around there of ground change. (Lemanza & Lesmana 2009) have exhibited profound blending with fly grouting strategy as a moderately new system. Creators trust that the joining of the two techniques can join the upsides of the two strategies and diminish the restrictions in fact and financially. In view of the case consider comes about, both mechanical blending part and stream grouting part can deliver sensible treatment likenesses as far as thickness, quality and firmness.
(Dejong et al. 2009) have exhibited the capability of biomediated soil change for geotechnical application. Biomediated soil change depends on the geotechnical forms that are encouraged by huge natural action. Creators have introduced the aftereffects of their starter examination completed on extensive scale research centre types of gear, non-dangerous geophysical estimations and demonstrating to build up an improved advertisement unsurprising bio-interceded treatment strategy. Creators additionally feature the on-going examination in this territory and have called attention to the requirement for more ecological well-disposed techniques in the territory of soil change. (Molendijk, Van-der-Zon & Van-Meurs 2009) displayed the dirt change technique in view of microbiologically prompted precipitation of calcium carbonate. The hastened calcium carbonate precious stones shape connects between the sand grains, which builds the quality of sand mass and named this new method as BioGrout/brilliant soils. As of late, they have demonstrated the potential advantage of lignosulfonate for delicate soil change. Lignosulfonate has a place with a group of lignin based natural polymers inferred as a loss result from wood and paper handling industry.
(Khasanov, Khasanov, & Ikramov 2009) examined base twisting structures and (ii) diverse strategies for reinforcing establishment for various chronicled landmarks. Creators assert that the principle explanations behind base disfigurements might be non-uniform structures and materilas. Likewise, contextual analyses they prescribe utilization of innovation for fortifying soils on establishments of landmarks. (Noorzad, Falamaki, & Shariatmadari 2009) studied change of fine grained soils by electro-kinetic infusion. (Mohammad, Hashim and Salman 2010) analysed effective improvement depth for ground treated with rapid impact compaction. They analysed the rapid impact compaction efficiency and compared it with the deep dynamic compaction technique. They utilized this technique with the help of 7 tone weight. They dropped it from a height of 0.8 meter, 35 times per minute. They compared the tip resistance before and after the pre-treatment process. They developed a formula for calculation of the effective depth, they also discussed the improvements in the effective depth and factors which affect the effective depth. They concluded that effective depth measure by rapid impact compaction technique is depending upon the energy applied and properties of the soil. They concluded that vibrations measure by rapid impact compaction machine is within the permissible limit.
(Jiang et al 2015) conducted numerical simulation of vibroflotation without the use of backfill. They targeted their study towards analysing the macro reinforcement mechanism of the vibroflotation. They utilized discrete element method for their numerical simulation study as this technique is very helpful in studying the failure and deformation. They utilized a model proposed in the literature based on the inter-particle rolling resistance. They proposed a new variable β, which includes the effect of the irregular shapes of the particles. They also examined the other rolling resistance parameters which affect the passive earth pressure. They conducted total of 12 number of numerical simulation for their analysis. They utilized UCM (under compaction multi-layer) technique for development of the ground surface. They concluded that their results are good and matched with the practical observations. They calculated the void ratio and fond that it fluctuates with the process and slowly diminishes. 
(Kachra, Patel, & Patel 2016) studied different ground improvements techniques.  They utilized different vibrocompaction techniques like, vibro consolidation, grouting method, dewatering method and soil nailing. They used vacuum pump for softening of the soil in vacuum consolidation.
In the present work a study of different ground improvement techniques have been studied in details. Different techniques which help in increasing the soil strength and decreasing the compressibility are also studied in details. There are wide varieties of methods and techniques which can help in increasing the soil strength. Rapid impact compaction is a very great method which increases the strength of the soil by great amount which further helps in increasing the strength of the building or structures. Vibroflotation is a very good technique which automatically increases the soil quality after the utilization of the vibroflot which increases the strength at the point where necessary.
Ameratunga, J., Brown, D., Ramachandran, M., & Denny, R., (2009), Ground improvement for a large above ground storage tank using cutter soil mix columns, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2280-2283.
Basu, D., Basu, P., & Prezzi, M., (2009), Analytical Solutions for Vertical Drains Considering Soil Disturbance, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2220-2223.
Burgos, M., Samper, F., & Alonso, J.J., (2009), Very soft dredged mud improvement in the Port of Valencia, 7th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2342-2345.
Cheng, Y., Zhu, H., Jing, F., Du, G., Yan, C., & Liu, Z., (2017), Experimental research of spatial variation of compaction effect on vibratory probe compaction method for ground improvement, Procedia Engineering, 189, 466-471.
Chikatamarla, R., (2006), Modelling of rock falls on protection galleries, 2nd International Conference on Physical Modelling in Geotechnical Engineering, 331-336.
Dejong, J. T., Mortensen, B., Martinez, B., & Nelson, D., (2009), Upscaling of bio-mediated soil improvement, 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2300-2303.
Esfahanizadeh, M., & Atashband, S., (2012), Vibro-Probe Technique Evaluation in Soil Improvement against Liquefaction, 15 WCEE, LISBOA.
Indraratna, B., Fatahi, B. and Khabbaz, H. (2006), Numerical analysis of matric suction effects of tree roots. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Geotechnical Engineering, 159, 77–90.
Indraratna, B., Sathananthan, I., Rujikiatkamjorn, C., & Balasubramanian, A. S., (2005), Analytical and numerical modeling of soft soil stabilized by PVD incorporating vacuum preloading, International Journal of Geomechanics, 5(2): 114-124.
Ishikura, R., Ochiai, H., & Matsui, H., (2009), Estimation of settlement of in-situ improved ground with a combined technology of shallow stabilization and floating type columns, 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2394-2398.
Jiang, M.J., Liu, W.W., He, J., & Sun, Y., (2015), A simplified DEM numerical simulation of vibroflotation without backfill, IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 26, 1-7.
Kachra, N., Patel, M. K., & Patel, S.D., (2016), Ground Improvements Techniques, Recent Advances in Civil Engineering for Global Sustainability, 407-414.
Kalantary, F., & Kahani, M., (2015), Evaluation of the ability to control biological precipitation to improve sandy soils, Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 15, 278-284.
Karunawardena, W.A. & Nithwana, W., (2009), Construction of a trial embankment on peaty ground using vacuum consolidation method a highway construction project in Sri Lanka, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2200-2203.
Kasper, T., Jackson, P.G., Rotwitt, C., & Massarsch, K.R., (2009), Foundation of an immersed tunnel on Marine Clay Improved by deep mixing and sand compaction piles, 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2415-2418.
Khasanov, A. Z., Khasanov, Z. A., & Ikramov, F. A., (2009), Long-term Technologies of Bases and Foundations for Strengthening of Monuments in Conformably with Ground of Central Asia, 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2161-2164. 
Kim, S.S., Kim, Y.Y., Han, S.J., Kim, K.N. & Kang, B.Y., (2009), Field Application and Numerical Analysis of Suction Vertical Drain Method, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2151-2154.
Kristiansen, H., & Davies, M., (2004), Ground Improvements using Rapid Impact Compaction, 13th World Conference of Earthquake Engineering.
Kurka, J., & Zavoral, J., (2009), New approach to calculation of stresses and strains in compressible ground improved with vibrated gravel-sand columns and model verification, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2288-2291.
Lemanza, W., & Lesmana, A., (2009), Deep soil improvement technique using combined deep mixing and jet grouting method, 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2439-2442.
Liausu, P., & Scache, H., (2009), Treatment of soft marine clays by vacuum consolidation, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2386-2389.
Martin, J.R., & Olgun, C.G., (2009), Numerical modelling of the seismic response of soil-mixed reinforced ground, 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2296-2299.
Mohammad, M. M., Hashim, R., & Salman, A., F., & (2010) Effective improvement depth for ground treated with rapid impact compaction, Scientific Research and Essays, 5(18), 2686-2693.
Molendijk, W. O., Van-der-Zon, W. H., & Van-Meurs, G. A. M., (2009), Adaptation of soil properties on demand, 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2443-2446.
Ng, K. S., & Tan, S. A., (2015) Simplified homogenization method in stone column design, Soils and Foundations, 55(1), 154-165.
Noorzad, A., Falamaki, A., & Shariatmadari, N., (2009), Fine-grained soil improvement by electrokinetic injection, 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2192-2195.
Ouni, M., Bouassida E.L., & Das, B., (2009), Vibro compaction improvement of Tunisian liquefiable sands, 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2366-1369.
Pooley, E., 2015, Centrifugal modelling of ground improvement for double porosity clay, Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Geotechnik (IGT) der ETH Zürich Band, 246.
Querol, S. L., Peco, J., & Trujillo, J. A., (2014), Numerical modelling on vibroflotation soil improvement techniques using a densification constitutive law, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 65, 1-10.
Ranjan, G., Sundaram, R., & Gupta, S., (2009), Performance of a Large Diameter Tank on Improved Clay Deposit, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2268-2271.
Rodriguez, J. M., (2010), Vibro-techniques for ground improvement, VIth Argentine Congress of Port Engineering.
Zekri, A., Ghalandaradeh, A., Ghasemi, P., & Aminfar, M. H., (2015), Experimental study of remediation measures of anchored sheet pile quay walls using soil compaction, Ocean Engineering, 93, 45-63.

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