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Health: Obesity In Infancy And Childhood

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Health: Obesity In Infancy And Childhood

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Discuss about the case study Health for Obesity in Infancy and Childhood.

A health issue is a matter related to health, which raises the concerns of the people in a particular area. Now a day, many such health issues are appearing in the societies. In order to improve this issues for community or personal supports, many social action, community and personal activities are been conducted. Among many certain health issues, the author has chosen childhood obesity as a health issue. So, this investigation report will be written based on childhood obesity.
Childhood obesity is one of the major serious public health issues of the 21st century. It is a global issue and it is affecting gradually many middle- and low-income countries, especially in urban settings[1]. This health issue has increased at an alarming rate. In 2013, it is estimated that the approximate number of obese children under the age of five is more than 42 million. Among this estimated number, approximately 31 million of children are living in developing countries. The obese and overweight children are prone to stay obese in their early adulthood. These children have high tendency to develop non-communicable diseases, like, cardiovascular diseases, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, metabolic disorders, asthma, menstruation or early puberty, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), sleep disorders and diabetes at younger ages. This issue does not raise the health problems, but also it raises many emotional and social complications, like, depression, problems in learning and behaviors, bullying and low self-esteem[2]. Obesity, overweight, and their associated diseases can be prevented. Therefore, the prevention of this disease needs high priority. According to the WHO Members of the 66th World Health Assembly, the target is to half the rise in obesity and diabetes. According to the WHO growth reference, the prevalence of obesity and overweight in adolescents is described for adolescents and school-aged children (obese= two standards divergence in body mass index for sex and age and overweight = one standard divergence in body mass index for sex and age)[3].
Obesity in the children is such an issue, which generally cannot be diagnosed through necked eyes. Only, the regular health checkups can help to diagnose with this problem. This issue is a major concern of discussing as it not only affects the children, but also it is also affecting the future generation. Along with the children, there are many other sectors like, families, schools, food habits, life styles, who are associated with this issue. Therefore, this issue is affecting all these groups. The main causes related to this health problem are majorly lack of physical activity and poor die try supplements. Apart from that, many hormonal and genetic problems also play major role as well. According to recent researches, certain alterations in digestive hormones lead to the signals that the person is full. Though it is not common, many hormonal disorders and genetic diseases lead the child prone to obesity[4].
In order to improve this health issue, one health promoting activity will be conducted. This health promoting activity will be conducted in a particular community through arranging a survey. This survey will support this promotional activity as primary sources. There are also secondary sources, like, information from electronic media, health agencies, which will support this investigation process.
Methods of Inquiry:
In order to conduct a health promotional activity, clear transparency of obesity prevention is crucial in evaluating the success and structuring an action plan. This plan will be made through conducting a survey in a selected community. The people of the community will be informed about the survey prior to the initialization. All the families and schools will be requested to motivate the children to take part in this survey. This survey will be conducted under the guidance of health experts, nutritionists and physicians. This survey will not only help the community to know the present situation of the childhood obesity of that area, but also provide the action plan to lower down the obesity rate in the children. The survey will be conducted in following steps:
Data collection method:
The data related to childhood obesity will be collected through monitoring the health levels of the children. This health monitoring will be done through conducting interviews, health campaigns in the community and schools. Relevant issues for introducing the obesity prevention action plan in the community include the patterns of physical inactivity and activity, food intake and its potential effects, healthy weight levels, BMI, optimum population concepts. It also includes dietary restrictions, body size, social norms and attitudes related to eating and food[5]. These are the primary adjustable determinants of obesity. This survey will be accomplished by assessing these parameters of the children in that community. For youth and children, these considerations, should be framed not only within the context of cognitive, psychological and healthy physical development but also it will help in recognition of increased prevalence of childhood obesity.
Analysis of data:
The data are collected and it is analyzed through using statistical software later[6]. After analyzing the data, it is found that the obesity is found among 60% of the children. This health issue is generally found among the age group of 6-12 in the children.
Evaluation of data:
After analyzing and evaluating the data, it is found that the community is at high risk of childhood obesity. This will give rise to many other serious problems, if it will not be taken care of. So, based on this, the health improvement action plan will be made.
The health promoting activity plan:
The health promoting activity plan will be framed through following steps:

Figure: Childhood obesity framework
Material production:
In this step, the community including families and schools will be informed about the health report, which was made though conducting he survey. The schools and families will be informed through producing various materials, like, making pamphlets, newsletters. This report can also be published in the school websites[8]. Therefore, both the teachers and the families can access the report.
In this step, many school and community based sessions will be conducted to make the children and their families concerned about this fact. This can be done through cross-age tutoring sessions, parents-teachers meetings and community health sessions. In these sessions the families will be informed about the health condition o their children and its impacts in the future.
Raising awareness:
In this step, the social awareness will be made in order to lower down this health issue. The awareness will be raised through monitoring the daily activities of the children. It also has stretched the importance of dietary guidance to address the physical activity patterns and overconsumption of energy-dense beverages and foods. For youth and children, obesity prevention action plan will focus on maintain the energy balance, i.e., balancing in between consumed calories and expended calories[9]. As per the research studies, this will be done through implementing regular physical activity and healthy dietary behaviors. Healthy dietary behaviors include self-estimation of the body that indicates the physiological fullness, eating moderate portions of foods, choosing a balanced diet. After analyzing the health records, it is recommended that each day, the children need a minimum of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity.
Community involvement:
In order to achieve the goal of activity plan, many health campaigns will be conducted in both the community and the schools. The teachers and the parents will encourage the children to participate in these campaigns. In these campaigns, the students will be advised with healthy dietary plan, exercises and healthy life styles[10]. In order to accomplish this goal, other health agencies and nutrition teams will be called to help these children.
Vocational learning:
In this step, much health related vocational sessions would be conducted in the community. In these learning sessions, the children will be thoroughly practiced with the healthy behaviors, lifestyles, healthy foods and exercises. These sessions can be conducted in the community and schools through vacation training, summer camps. Apart from learning, the children will be provided with certain gifts, so that they can get motivation through these training sessions.
The childhood obesity is the major concern in the society. Due to the heavy pressure in the studies and busy life styles, the lives of the children are becoming sedentary. The children are not getting time to do proper exercises or to perform physical sports. The children are becoming strict to junk foods and videogames due to attractive advertisements. These are the reasons, that childhood obesity is more observed in the children aged between 6 to14. Therefore, this topic is perfect while choosing as a health issue.
In order to estimate the number in the community, the conducted survey is helpful. This helps the community people to know the estimation of the victims of this health issue in the community. The survey is useful, as many children can participate together in this procedure. This will motivate the families and the children to participate and it will help to collect the data within a short span of time. All the procedures in this survey are highly maintained under the super vigilance of health experts. Advanced statistical techniques are used in data analysis.
Based on that the health promoting activity plan is made. This plan is made in such a way, that all children and their families get to know about the importance of maintain healthy lifestyles. This plan also helps the children to deal with this health issue in their busy schedule. There may be much social, cultural and behavioral issue, where the children and their families may not feel free to participate in this activity plan. However, it is the responsibility of the associated volunteers and the health experts to observe the people in their participation. This health promoting activity plan will not only help the children through conducting this plan once in the community. They should maintain the effectiveness of this plan through monitoring the health of the children in a regular time gap.
After evaluating the overall survey and activity plan, it is noticed that sedentary behavioral patterns, lack of physical activities and intake of fast foods and beverages are influenced through many environmental factors. Those factors are lack of opportunities to participate in physical activities among their friends, advertising messages, and affordability and availability of junk foods. In order to implement this activity plan in the daily life of the children, the family members and schoolteachers have to take the initiatives. The families should inform the children about this issue and its impacts in a friendly way. There is a high chance of rejecting this health maintenance if any strictness is observed in any steps. The healthy food items should be implemented in the diet plan of the children through various attractive recipes. The principals and teachers should maintain the healthy habits in the schools. The availability of the fast foods and beverages will be cut down from the school canteens. The school associates should organize monthly health campaigns in the school premises, where the health of the children will be monitored and it will be informed to their parents.
Although families and individuals are situated within such broader political, economic and social environments, which affect the behaviors of the children and it may either constrain or promote the health maintenance. Those environments serve as contexts from the changing prospect. In these environmental settings, like, support networks and home environments, relationships are built. They represent a collection of informal and formal community instructions that monitor the safety and behavior of residents.
After discussing the report, it is observed that, changing economic, physical and social environments that contribute to the prevalence and incidence of childhood obesity, especially in nations and large populations, where, the problem is highly prevalent and long standing may take many years to achieve the goal. Therefore, this action plan is made in community or society basis, where the progress will be assessed through making systematic improvements in physical activity levels and diet patterns of children. In order to conclude this, it can be said that the obesity prevention in children is to maintain and promote the positive outputs both in the individual and population levels through behavioral, environmental and social changes. This will not only help the childhood obesity, but also it will help to lower down the rates of long term diseases in the future gradually.
Ayling, Ruth M. “Obesity in infancy and childhood: diagnosis, incidence and strategy for change.” Nutrition in infancy. Humana Press, 2013. 347-355.
Cheung, Patricia C., et al. “Childhood Obesity Incidence in the United States: A Systematic Review.” Childhood Obesity 12.1 (2016): 1-11.
Cunningham, Solveig A., Michael R. Kramer, and KM Venkat Narayan. “Incidence of childhood obesity in the United States.” New England Journal of Medicine 370.5 (2014): 403-411.
Davis, Rachel E., et al. “”It Hurts a Latina When They Tell Us Anything About Our Children”: Implications of Mexican-Origin Mothers’ Maternal Identities, Aspirations, and Attitudes About Cultural Transmission for Childhood Obesity Prevention.” Childhood Obesity 11.5 (2015): 608-615.
Davison, Kirsten K., et al. “Evaluation overview for the Massachusetts childhood obesity research demonstration (MA-CORD) project.” Childhood Obesity 11.1 (2015): 23-36.
Dooyema, Carrie A., et al. “The childhood obesity research demonstration project: A comprehensive community approach to reduce childhood obesity.”Childhood Obesity 9.5 (2013): 454-459.
Druet, Céline, et al. “Prediction of childhood obesity by infancy weight gain: an individual‐level meta‐analysis.” Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology 26.1 (2012): 19-26.
Go, A. S., D. Mozaffarian, and V. L. Roger. “Sugar-sweetened beverages initiatives can help fight childhood obesity.” circulation 127 (2013): e6-e245.
Gupta, Nidhi, et al. “Childhood obesity in developing countries: epidemiology, determinants, and prevention.” Endocrine reviews 33.1 (2012): 48-70.
Karnik, Sameera, and Amar Kanekar. “Childhood obesity: a global public health crisis.” Int J Prev Med, 2012. 3 (1) (2015): 1-7.
Ogden, Cynthia L., et al. “Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012.” Jama 311.8 (2014): 806-814.
Park, M. H., et al. “The impact of childhood obesity on morbidity and mortality in adulthood: a systematic review.” Obesity Reviews 13.11 (2012): 985-1000.
Peña, Michelle-Marie, Brittany Dixon, and Elsie M. Taveras. “Are you talking to ME? The importance of ethnicity and culture in childhood obesity prevention and management.” Childhood Obesity 8.1 (2012): 23-27.
Pulgaron, Elizabeth R. “Childhood obesity: a review of increased risk for physical and psychological comorbidities.” Clinical therapeutics 35.1 (2013): A18-A32.
Wang, Youfa, et al. “Childhood obesity prevention programs: comparative effectiveness review and meta-analysis.” (2013).

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