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Health Promotion Needs Assessment Planning

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Health Promotion Needs Assessment Planning

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Why Health Promotion Needs Assessment and Planning?


Smoking in pregnancy is very dangerous for the health of both the mother and child as the smoke contains a large number of toxic chemicals. These toxic chemicals lead to various harmful effects in the body. It contains more than 4000 chemicals like lead, cyanide and various cancer causing chemicals (1). The toxic chemicals during smoking go into the bloodstream, which depletes the important nutrients and oxygen levels.
Carbon monoxide and nicotine lead to various complications during smoking in pregnancy. These complications include low weight of the baby during the birth, premature delivery of the baby, which makes him weak in the future, and stillbirth. These harmful chemicals narrow the blood vessels of the mother and deplete the oxygen supply to the baby (2). There are various complications due to smoking and it damages the fetus and leads to slow fetal development. Toxic chemicals from the smoke can also lead to still birth and miscarriage. Nicotine present in the smoke can lead to fallopian tube contractions and it prevents the embryo to pass by. Smoking can also result in ectopic pregnancy (5).
Anglo- Australian Population
It has been found that Anglo – Australian females of the age group 16-24 are found to smoke during pregnancy to have small size of the babies. This population is originally Australians who have their ancestors originating in the countries of British Isles (8). Smoking in pregnancy during teenage is one of the most prevalent issues among this community and has a negative effect on the intellectual development and physical growth of both the mother and the baby after birth(6). These women are more prone to babies having low weight as they belong to low income groups. Therefore, it is important for the community members and the government to make them aware of the negative effects of smoking during pregnancy (4). The health care cost involved is higher for females who smoke during pregnancy since their babies require special attention by the doctors as compared to those who do not smoke.
Teenage Pregnancy Statistics
It was reported that pregnancy rate in teenage population in Australia was 12.9 per 1000 females (3). The fertility rate in Anglo-Australian females is much higher as compared to the pregnancy rate in the general population. There are various reasons of the low fertility rate such as low socioeconomic status. Adversity during childhood, early puberty, sexual abuse during childhood, issues in family, low level of self- esteem and depression. They have a poor knowledge of contraception methods, which leads to pregnancy at a very young age. Pregnancy rate of females (age 16-24 years) in the indigenous populations is more as compared to that of non-indigenous populations (6).There are various other reasons of teenage pregnancy like violence in the family and physical and sexual torture by the partner.

Immediate Factors

Contributing Factors

Low Socioeconomic status of the females  an their wish to have low weight babies after the birth.

Low self esteem in the teenagers due to poor economic status(9).

Early Puberty of the females of Anglo-Australian community (7).

Depression, which leads to frustration and anger.

Sexual Abuse during childhood suffered by the females.

Poor education and knowledge about the contraception methods to avoid pregnancy (10).

Smoking in teenagers in the Anglo- Australian community is an important concern these days. It leads to various health effects in the mother and the child such as low birth weight, premature delivery, miscarriage and death of the baby after the birth. Government and various international organizations should take various strategies and measures to make these teenagers about the ill effects of smoking. They should be provided proper education in schools and should be made aware about the contraception methods to avoid pregnancy
Dahlen HG, Schmied V, Dennis CL, Thornton C. Rates of obstetric intervention during birth and selected maternal and perinatal outcomes for low risk women born in Australia compared to those born overseas. BMC pregnancy and childbirth. 2013 May 1;13(1):100.
Hilder L, Zhichao Z, Parker M, Jahan S, Chambers G. Australia’s mothers and babies 2012.
Hoekzema L, Werumeus Buning A, Bonevski B, Wolke L, Wong S, Drinkwater P, Stewart K, George J. Smoking rates and smoking cessation preferences of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of two large Australian maternity hospitals. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2014 Feb 1;54(1):53-8.
Hollams EM, De Klerk NH, Holt PG, Sly PD. Persistent effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on lung function and asthma in adolescents. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2014 Feb 15;189(4):401-7.
Lewis LN, Skinner SR. Adolescent Pregnancy in Australia. InInternational Handbook of Adolescent Pregnancy 2014 (pp. 191-203). Springer US.
Marino JL, Lewis LN, Bateson D, Hickey M, Skinner S. Teenage mothers. Australian Family Physician. 2016 Oct;45(10):712.
Mendelsohn C, Gould GS, Oncken C. Management of smoking in pregnant women. Australian family physician. 2014 Jan 1;43(1/2):46.
Rhodes K, Chan F, Prichard I, Coveney J, Ward P, Wilson C. Intergenerational 
transmission of dietary behaviours: A qualitative study of Anglo-Australian, Chinese-
Australian and Italian-Australian three-generation families. Appetite. 2016 Aug 1;103:309-Siegel RS, Brandon AR. Adolescents, pregnancy, and mental health. Journal of pediatric and
adolescent gynecology. 2014 Jun 30;27(3):138-50
Eng C, Karki S, Trivedi AN. Risk factors of stillbirths in Victoria (Australia): A case–contro study. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2016 Aug 17;36(6):754-7.

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