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Ideological Terrorism And Jihadist Networks

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Ideological Terrorism And Jihadist Networks

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Disruptive technology is an innovation which creates value networks resulting in new markets. The emergence of new markets has eventually disrupted existing and established markets. Disruptive technology displaces established and leading firms, appliances, products and business contracts. Disruptive technology, therefore, has the capability of disrupting business operations[1]. This kind of technology can alter the way in which business organizations carry out their operations. Business may lose market share or even become irrelevant. Despite the fact that business entities always put efforts to improve the efficiency of their operations and the activities in which they are involved in, they are unable to make plans for disruptive technologies[2]. Disruptive technologies include e-commerce, smartphones, mobile internet, internet of things, cloud computing, blockchain technology, autonomous vehicles, 3D printing and renewable electricity among others. Disruptive technologies can appear suddenly. However, there are business companies that have realized the potential of disruptive technology. Some business organizations have embraced disruptive technology into their operations. Many businesses are putting in place innovative technologies that are likely to increase the turnover of the business. Companies that may ignore disruptive technologies at this age of living can easily lose their market share. It is, therefore, necessary for companies and business organizations. Disruptive technologies have impacts on how business contracts are negotiated. Business contracts are binding agreements that are made between business organizations[3]. There are several types of contracts. However, there are some are some details which are compulsory during contracts. After the signing of contracts, such details have to be safely kept. In addition, there must be privacy for all the information data of the contracts.
Cloud computing
Cloud computing is the use of remote servers which are based on the internet in storing information. Such remote server internet is capable of processing, managing and storing information. There are very many processes that people undertake without necessarily understanding that they are using cloud computing. Cloud computing technology works behind the scenes (Furht & Escalante, 2010, p. 23). The use of online services such as sending  emails, watching movies, playing games, playing music online and storage of information is made possible by cloud computing. Cloud computing has been in existence for close to ten years. However, very many business organizations ranging from small businesses to big businesses have embraced the technology. The technology has become a necessity to almost every business organization across the world. It has hosts websites and blogs for various companies. It analyses data that was initially impossible to analyze. Business data has also been stored, backed up and recovered in case of loss. All these have been made possible because of the existence of cloud computing[4] (Chee & Franklin, 2010, p. 53).
Benefits of cloud computing

Cheap and efficient

The technology is generally cheap and can be afforded by most business organizations. Business organizations are able to save the resources that they would otherwise use on software, data storage hardware, IT experts who manage data storage infrastructure, electricity, setting and running of data centers. The technology takes care of Information technology infrastructure Cloud computing makes use of remote servers in processing, storage, and recovery of data. In addition, cloud technology can be accessed using any internet device[5].


Services of cloud computing are very fast and in high demand. Cloud computing transacts data services within seconds and minutes even if the data amounts are huge. Business organizations have therefore been relieved from the duty of carrying out intensive plans when uploading r retrieving information data. Global scale Cloud computing can be used from any part of the world. The technology has the capacity of drastically scaling. It is, therefore, capable of delivering information technology resources in the manner in which they are required[6].


Data centers which are located within business premises are associated with a lot of activities. There are hardware set-up duties, patching of software and other time-consuming duties that have to be performed by people who are trained in information technology. Cloud computing, on the other hand, eliminates the responsibilities. The IT personnel of any business organization can, therefore, perform other important duties. In addition assessing cloud computing require very little skills[7].

Performance and reliability

Most of the world leading data centers are run on cloud computing. Cloud computing are frequently upgraded. The latest generation of the technology which is currently used by companies and business organizations across the world are very first.  Since the introduction of cloud computing, 10nyears ago, no business company has never raised any concern in regard to its efficiency. Its efficiency has been at an all-time high. Many people have since regarded the technology as the permanent solution to data storage problems. On reliability, cloud computing is capable of carrying out several operations that are very instrumental to the smooth running of most business organizations[8]. The technology provides data back- up. It also recovers lost data through its highly networked data backups.


Cloud computing covers flexibility whereby users are able to choose various offerings based on their security needs. Users are free to make storage choices such as public hybrid or even private based on any company’s considerations. Business organizations can also have varying control levels from which they can choose from. These software levels include SaaS, IaaS and PaaS[9].
Development of Cloud computing in the world
Cloud computing has undergone a rapid growth in the last 10 years that it has been in existence. Companies, business organizations, and institutions have embraced the technology. People across the world have developed the belief that cloud computing in the best technology when it comes to storage of data. The technology has been widely embraced because of the many advantages that come with it.
Development of Cloud computing in Australia
Cloud computing is widely used in Australia. The government has permitted its citizens to use the technology because after due diligence, it has been established that the technology has the capacity to safeguard the privacy of personal information. There are laws and regulations in Australia that have been enacted in order to safeguard evils that may be promoted by various emerging technologies across the world. One of the laws is the 1988 Privacy Act. The act has permitted the use of Cloud computing since the technology guarantee privacy of personal information. There is also the 1997 financial management and Accounting Act[10]. The act was put in place to protect privacy and security of financial information. Once again, the government established that cloud computing has measures that ensure security and privacy of financial information. The privacy Act was amended in 2012. The amendment gave more powers to the Australian Information Commissioner. The commissioner was empowered to continuously assess privacy performance in government agencies as well as in businesses[11].
Type of contract
Bilateral valid contract
This is a contract whereby its considerations would be moved in one direction once it has been signed. The contents of the contract must be presented before a judge and hence enforceable in court. There are some features that a contract must have in order to be approved as valid under the law. After the signing and presentation of the contract in court, copies of the contract detail are produced. Two copies are presented to the parties who are involved in the contract agreement. The court also keeps a copy of the contract for future reference if the need arises. In order to safely store the contents of the contract, it would be necessary for such storage to be done in the cloud. The contract contents that would be stored using cloud computing technology include proposal and acceptance, directional considerations of the contract, legal formalities of the contract explaining how the contract would be fulfilled. Other details such as the capacity of the involved parties and performance possibility of the contact would also be stored using cloud computing technology[12].

Proposal and acceptance

Proposal and acceptance details signify the willingness of one person in the agreement and also the consent of the other partner .For a valid contract, there is one person who must show the willingness of entering an agreement. The person must also obtain an acceptance from another person who is ready and willing to take the presented offer. The proposal becomes a promise once it has been accepted[13]. A contract is made up of two important parts, the promise, and the consideration itself. A promise is made by one party on the condition that there is a return promise from the other party who is also involved in the agreement.

Performance feasibility

Performance possibility details provide step by step accounts of the contract. It also explains the roles of all the parties who are involved in the contract agreement once it is signed and put into action.

Legal formalities of the contract

Legal formality details should provide an explanation of the reasons why the contract is valid and protected by the law. The contract should not prove to be a hindrance to other people who are not part and parcel of the contract. However, if someone feels aggravated, then he should present his or her case to the court. In addition, if one party is also aggravated following a breach of contract then relief can only be obtained through the same court[14].

Directional considerations

These details provide actions and directions that should be taken by the parties involved in the event that there is a fall out between them after the agreement has been signed.
Impact of Cloud computing on bilateral valid contract
Cloud computing provides for the safety of the contract details. Safety of the details is very important for all the parties who are involved in the contract. If safety is not guaranteed then, the contract details may get lost altogether. The contract details are always kept as a reference tool.  One party in the agreement may willingly or unwillingly decide to go against the agreement in the contract. If that happens, the contract would be recalled from the cloud computing for reference purposes. Keeping of the contact in computers or any other electronic devices may bring anxiety among member of other parties who is involved in the agreement. They may also develop a fear that the document may get lost. Cloud computing guarantees complete security. No one can do away with the document, be it the involved parties or even an external party who is not involved in the contract agreement. Cloud computing has a backup for all the data which are stored. It has therefore brought a lot of impact on the safety of contract details. Loss of contract details can bring a big quagmire. Every party which is involved in contract agreement always seeks for the most safety place where contract details can be kept[15].
There is the privacy of information data if such data is stored through the use of cloud computing. Governments of several countries across the world have carried out research on the privacy level of information kept on cloud computing[16]. Finally, the countries have established that the technology guarantees the privacy of all the information that it stores. By storing contract details in the cloud, there will be no worries that a non-party to the contract details may get access to the information details of the contract agreement. A contract is a bilateral agreement between two parties or more and can only be made public if the involved parties have approved such a move. However, if they have decided that all the details should be kept private then cloud computing is the best place to store the details of the agreement. In the absence of cloud computing, there would be very few storage areas that would have kept privacy details secret.
Cloud computing is relatively cheap compared to other modes of data storage. Other modes of data storage would require the acquisition of ICT infrastructure in the first case. There would then be the hiring of ICT experts. Some parties which are involved in the signing of contract agreements may not be capable of raising the financial cost required for other that kind of storage devices[17]. Cloud computing provides a digital environment. Its use in completing contract processing agreements promotes digitalisation of contracts. The world has become digitalised and it is important for all operations to be changed so that technology can be embraced.
Technology improves efficiency. Business organizations have been forced to embrace cloud computing as the only alternative that works best, be it in contracts or any other business activities. Business entities that opt to ignore cloud computing in their operations are highly likely to pay the price in the long run. Their IT processes are likely to be disrupted in very many ways.  Despite the benefits and all good things that have been said about cloud computing, there are other negative disruptions that it has brought to contract negotiation deals. There are many people who still do not believe in the security of data stored in the cloud. The people, therefore, have reservations for the use of cloud computing to store information[18]. Such reservations can lead to disagreements during contract agreement meetings. People who are involved in the contract agreement may disagree and fail to come to terms in the best place of storing information regarding contract details.
Cloud computing technology is a new idea whose time has come. Many governments across the world have tested it and have approved the technology for use. However, there are several people who still have reservations when it comes to using of the technology. It is necessary for concerned parties to educate such people on the benefits that come with the technology. The technology has generally become disruptive. It has completely changed the manner in which people operated their business activities. Traditional data storage devices have been replaced with the new ways that technology has provided. Contact modalities and processes have equally been affected. There are very many benefits that come with the adoption of cloud computing technology. The technology is cheap, efficient, reliable and flexible. In regard to contracts, it is necessary for the details of any contract to be stored in a secure place where one party of the contract agreement cannot access and change its details. At the same time, the system should eliminate cases such as loss of information data. Cloud computing has interconnected networks that provide backup to all the information that have been stored in the Cloud. Cloud technology is indeed very disruptive in nature. The disruption can either be positive or negative depending on how it is undertaken.
Antonopoulos, N and L Gillam, Cloud Computing: Principles, Systems, and Applications (Springer Science & Business Media2010)
Australian Law Reform Commission, Cloud computing (February 2013)
Buyya, R, J Broberg and AM Goscinsk, Cloud Computing: Principles and Paradigms (John Wiley & Sons2010)
Chee, BJ and C Franklin, Cloud Computing: Technologies and Strategies of the Ubiquitous Data Center
Christensen, Clayton M, Michael E Raynor and Jeff Dy, “Disruptive Innovation: The Christensen Collection (The Innovator’s Dilemma, The Innovator’s Solution, The Innovator’s DNA, and Harvard Business Review article “How Will You Measure Your Life?”) (4 Items)” [2011] Harvard Business Press
Dru, JM, The Ways to New: 15 Paths to Disruptive Innovation (John Wiley & Sons2010)
Furht, B and A Escalante, Handbook of Cloud Computing (Springer Science & Business Media2010)
Information management office, Privacy and Cloud computing in Australia (2013)
Jamsa, K, Cloud Computing (Jones & Bartlett Publishers2012)
Magoules, F, J Pan and F Teng, “Cloud Computing: Data-Intensive Computing and Scheduling” [2016] CRC Press
Miller, R, Cengage Advantage Books: Business Law Today: The Essentials (Cengage Learning2015)
Stem, R, “Contracts: The Essential Business Desk Reference”
Christensen, Clayton M, Michael E Raynor and Jeff Dy, “Disruptive Innovation: The Christensen Collection (The Innovator’s Dilemma, The Innovator’s Solution, The Innovator’s DNA, and Harvard Business Review article “How Will You Measure Your Life?”) (4 Items)” [2011] Harvard Business Press.
Dru, JM, The Ways to New: 15 Paths to Disruptive Innovation (John Wiley & Sons2010).
Stem, R, “Contracts: The Essential Business Desk Reference.”

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