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Impact of Whole-Body MRI in a General Population Study by Schmidt Research Paper

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Research Question and Hypothesis

The primary research question is, “What are the long-term intervention effects of a wb-MRI-scan in a general population study on quality of life and depressive symptoms?” which appropriately expresses the variables’ relationship. The research question is specific to one relationship of the independent, the MRI screening, and the dependent, the participants, variables. It relies on theoretical and practical frameworks of the previously conducted studies. The study’s goal was substantiated by the absence of relevant research on the MRI’s long-term effects on quality of life. The research can be potentially used by medical personnel in order to understand how MRI scanning affects their patients’ quality of life.

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Review of the Literature

The authors’ search strategy includes a sufficient number of databases and resources that identify the research and theoretical framework they use. The study follows a theoretical framework, which allows the authors to detect the existing gap in knowledge about the long-term psychosocial effects of MRI. There is both a summary of strengths/weaknesses that help formulate the research question and a logical literature review present.

Internal and External Validity

The authors designed an appropriate way to ensure internal validity, introducing a control group that did not participate in the scanning. The external validity threats were decreased by inviting adult participants of different ages and sex, which eliminated sampling bias, yet the participation in a survey bias was not addressed by the authors. Internal and external validity threats mostly do not affect the quality of evidence, since a large number of people was studied. The intervention fidelity was maintained since researchers completed the study according to the plan.

Research Design

The study relies upon the longitudinal cohort design, its use is appropriately justified by the nature of the research and main questions of the study. The research design increased bias by introducing pre-examination questionnaires and decreased it by carrying out the experiment on a large group of people.

Sampling

The research used a stratified sampling strategy by selecting 4,420 people based on age, sex, and city/county of residence, this strategy is appropriate for the design. The sample reflects the population identified in the research question, and the size of the sample is appropriate because of a large number of subjects, a power analysis was not used, and the findings can be generalized to the adult general public.

Legal-Ethical Issues

The study was conducted in Germany, thus, the rights of the participants were protected Patients’ rights Act (Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety, 2016). It is stated in the article that the institutional review board gave its approval, and the examination was preceded by a consent process that included educational materials, a video, and radiologists’ explanation (Schmidt et al., 2016).

Data Collection Methods and Procedures

The authors use MRI scanning as a research method to find its long-term effects on the population, there is no data given about this instrument’s accuracy. Scans were observed by the radiologists with 1–5 years of experience supervised by a professional with 15 years of experience. They had no access to the participants’ clinical information, which minimized bias, interrater reliability was not calculated, and there is no reason to believe observers could influence the subjects’ behavior. There were no interviewers, instead, questionnaires were used, which eliminated any bias. There were two primary instruments, MRI and questionnaires, their operation definitions are consistent with the conceptual ones, and their format is appropriate. Using questionnaires, a self-report instrument could entail receiving false information from the participants (Leggett et al., 2016). Records and data sets used in the study are appropriate, yet the questionnaires may have affected their bias, overall, intervention fidelity was properly maintained.

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Reliability and Validity

There was no method used to test the reliability and validity of the instruments, yet their strengths and weaknesses are present in the article. It lists the disclosure of incidental findings as a potential threat to the study’s validity, extending intervention to 2-3 years can eradicate it, the study’s prolonged period constitutes its strength.

Data Analysis

There are descriptive statistics used in the paper relevant to the variable’s level of measurement, while inferential statistics are appropriate, too. The tables used to meet the standards of supplementing and economizing the text, having precise titles, and do not repeat the text., while the testing supports the research question.

Conclusions, Implications, and Recommendations

The research question results are presented objectively in a concise and sequential manner, the authors provide a theoretical framework’s discussion. The investigator identifies the study’s weaknesses, limitations, and strengths, implying that a similar study can be conducted in the future in specific groups. The authors discuss the study’s relevance to clinical practice, making a generalization that MRI screening has differential short- and long-term psychosocial implications, which is in the study’s scope.

Applicability to Nursing

Doctors, with the study’s findings, can discard the use of MRI screening to improve patients’ quality of life, thus patients may benefit from not having to experience an ineffective procedure. There is no risk for patients, and the study’s benefits are minor, yet its strengths outweigh its weaknesses since the evidence suggests that MRI screening does not affect the quality of life. The findings are feasibly applicable, generalizable, and can be applied in another clinical setting.

References

Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety. (2016). Patients’ rights in the European Union mapping exercise. Publications Office of the European Union. Web.

Leggett, L. E., Khadaroo, R. G., Holroyd-Leduc, J., Lorenzetti, D. L., Hanson, H., Wagg, A.,… & Clement, F. (2016). Measuring resource utilization: a systematic review of validated self-reported questionnaires. Medicine, 95(10), 1-8. Web.

Schmidt, C. O., Sierocinski, E., Hegenscheid, K., Baumeister, S. E., Grabe, H. J., & Völzke, H. (2016). Impact of whole-body MRI in a general population study. European journal of epidemiology, 31(1), 31-39. Web.

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