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IT273M1 Networking Concepts

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IT273M1 Networking Concepts

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Course Code: IT273M1
University: Purdue University Global

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Country: United States


You will come across many different topologies in networking. It is important to understand the various topologies and which topologies are best for your customers. When implementing the network, and troubleshooting, you must understand the various devices you encounter, their functions, and how they coincide with the various reference models. 
Your Assessment is to write a paper analyzing the various network topologies and explain the differences between them. You will then evaluate the most practical network topology for a customer of your choice. Be sure to support your answer by discussing the customer’s business model and the benefits of your topology choice, while comparing that to the limitations of other network topologies. In addition, discuss the different networking devices you would use in your architecture, as well as what layers of the OSI model those networking devices work. Finally, be sure to discuss how the TCP/IP model is similar and differs from the OSI model and justify why you would use one model over the other in the workplace.


Network Topology
A network topology is defined as a physical layout of a computer network in which two or more computer nodes are connected to each other. It provides a platform to interconnect computer networks and topology refer as a process that describes how the data or information is transmitted between nodes (Al-Sultan, Al-Doori, Al-Bayatti, & Zedan 2014). The main purpose of this report is to describe the various kinds of network topologies and their advantages and disadvantages. There are mainly two types of network topologies used in information technology, for example, physical and logical. Physical topology emphasizes two or more communicating devices with nodes and the logical topology focuses on the shape of the data transmission process.
Differences between network topologies
There are many types of network topologies used in computer systems which are described below:

Bus topology
Ring topology
STAR topology
MESH topology
TREE topology
HYBRID topology



Routing methods





Cabling concerns



In this type of process, the nodes of the network are interconnected to a main central node.

In which all data transfer by the central network system

Very simple and easy

For connection, a new computer is required

More reliable

More costly

Uses twisted pair data cables

DOS attack


In this type of topology, only a single bus is used to connect two or more nodes

One computer device transfer data at a time.

Very simplest for the LAN

To add other peripheral devices people should shut down the devices and remove all data cables

Less reliability 

Very cheap

A single cable is used

Less secure


In which each computer node is connected with two branches

Data is transferred into only one direction

Used for LANs

The connection between node must be removed to add computer system

Large reliability 

More expansive

Needs numbers of data  cables

Less secure


In this type of topologies minimum, two nodes are connected with each other in different paths

Can be used for long distance communication

Used for WANs

Connection systems make combining various types of networks

Troubleshooting is more difficult in this process

Very expensive

Cabling depends upon the type of network devices

More secure

The benefits and limitations of the various network topologies
There are various kinds of advantages and disadvantages of network topologies which are described below:

Figure: network topologies
(Source: Diebold, & Y?lmaz, 2014)
Bus topology

It is very less in cost
Fewer data cables are required
Very cheap to understand
Very easy to connect two or more cables (Betzel, Gu, Medaglia, Pasqualetti, & Bassett, 2016).


If any cable fails then the whole computer network also fails
Performance can be decreased if any traffic signals occur
The lengths of wires are very limited
Very slow process (Diebold, & Y?lmaz, 2014).

Ring topology

The communication system is not affected by any malware signals
Easy to install and expand
Take less time during the configuration process
Very easy for implementation


Troubleshooting is very complex in this topology
Adding and removing the devices distributes the network activity
One computer depend upon another network
Very limited (Gal, et al., 2017).

Mesh Topology

This is a robust process
The fault is diagnosed very easily
More secure and private
Reduced distortion and other losses


Installation is very difficult
The costs of data cables are very high
Numbers of connecting wires are needed
Configuration is very difficult

Tree topology

Extension of star and bus network topologies
Very easy to manage
Can be used for error detection
Expansion of nodes is very easy


Very costly
For large networks, the maintenance is very complex
If the central node fails then the whole network also fails
Heavily cabled

Various network devices that will be seen in the topology
There are different types of network devices are used during the network topologies that are operated on the OSI model layer. Following kinds of devices are used:

Network interface card

It is defined as a network device which is used to form the routing of signals from one device to another. It is operated in the field of OSI model and also called as network layer device that generally transfers data packets from one network to another. In router every packet have a unique IP address that makes it very simple for the process of routing to send data from one location to another (Toju, Guimarães, Olesen, & Thompson 2015).

Figure: Router
(Source: Toju, et al., 2015)
A network hub is a kind of computer device which is utilized to interconnect two or more network hosts at a time. The main application of the hub in the communication system is that it can be used for data transfer and data is sent in the form of packets. It is very less secure due to which user’s personal data can be lost.

Figure: Hub
(Source: Toju, et al., 2015)
This type of network device is used at the time of data-link that is a 2nd layer in the OSI model and the main purpose of this device is to identify the MAC address of the computer system. Moreover, the switch is a physical layer which is developed to produce the connection between two or more peripheral devices.

Figure: Switch
(Source: Toju, et al., 2015)
Difference between Hub and switch





Physical layer

Data link layer


To interconnect a network of the private computer together

To interconnect multiple computers at a time

Data transmission form

Electrical signals

Frame and packets




The TCP/IP model and OSI model
TCP model is a very common type of network protocol which is used in all internet operations but it does not use all the layers of the OSI model. In which the host to host layer is equivalent to the OSI layer and the application layer is very similar to the 5, 6, and 7 OSI layer.

Figure: TCP Vs OSI model
(Source: Diebold, & Y?lmaz, 2014)
OSI is defined as a network protocol which is an independent process that provides communication between the network and the consumers. It follows the vertical approach but the TCP model use a horizontal approach (Liu, Pellegrini, & Wang, 2014).
Figure: the difference between OSI and TCP/IP model
(Source: Diebold, & Y?lmaz, 2014)
 In which the three upper layers such as application, presentation, and session map to the application layer of TCP/IP. The bottom layer of OSI model (physical and data link) are mapped with the network access layer of TCP/IP with the help of internet and the network layer is similar to the IP layer of TCP (Shine, Koyejo, & Poldrack, 2016).People can use the TCP/IP model in their network system because it has the ability to reduce the security-related issues and threats and it is more effective rather than OSI.
Al-Sultan, S., Al-Doori, M. M., Al-Bayatti, A. H., & Zedan, H. (2014). A comprehensive survey on vehicular ad hoc network. Journal of network and computer applications, 37(4), 380-392.
Betzel, R. F., Gu, S., Medaglia, J. D., Pasqualetti, F., & Bassett, D. S. (2016). Optimally controlling the human connectome: the role of network topology. Scientific reports, 6(2), 30770.
Diebold, F. X., & Y?lmaz, K. (2014). On the network topology of variance decompositions: Measuring the connectedness of financial firms. Journal of Econometrics, 182(1), 119-134.
Gal, E., London, M., Globerson, A., Ramaswamy, S., Reimann, M. W., Muller, E., … & Segev, I. (2017). Rich cell-type-specific network topology in neocortical microcircuitry. Nature Neuroscience, 20(7), 1004.
Liu, W., Pellegrini, M., & Wang, X. (2014). Detecting communities based on network topology. Scientific reports, 4, 5739.
Shine, J. M., Koyejo, O., & Poldrack, R. A. (2016). Temporal metastases are associated with differential patterns of time-resolved connectivity, network topology, and attention. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(35), 9888-9891.
Toju, H., Guimarães, P. R., Olesen, J. M., & Thompson, J. N. (2015). Below-ground plant–fungus network topology is not congruent with above-ground plant-animal network topology. Science advances, 1(9), e1500291.

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