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MGT5OBR Organisational Behaviour

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MGT5OBR Organisational Behaviour

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Course Code: MGT5OBR
University: La Trobe University

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Country: Australia

Question:

The individual assignment should be written in a neat, professional and engaging manner using an essay format. 
Your essay should have the following sections: 
IntroductionTry to write something engaging to capture the reader’s interest.Clearly identify the topic that ties the three articles together (e.g., motivation, organisational citizenship, etc.).Include a brief overview of the assignment and how it is organised. Article summaryBriefly summarise the articles. Focus on describing the key concepts and main points from each article (e.g., the theoretical concepts). Article analysis Identify and discuss on which points they agree and on which points they differ. Can the differing opinions be synthesised? If you deem an author’s position more credible explain your arguments. If you disagree with an author’s position, explain your reasoning. Do the research findings matter, and can the research be applied in real work settings?Recommendations Based on the above analysis, what specific recommendations can you make for managers or organisations? Aim for 2 to 4 clear and concise recommendations. Don’t simply re-state the authors’ recommendations from each article; develop your own recommendations based on all three articles. If it isn’t possible to make any recommendations (e.g., all the articles were severely flawed), explain your reasoning. 

Answer:

Introduction
In the twenty first century, Inequality is the major issue faced by employees in the organisations. Inequality refers the unequal treatment with the individual on the basis of gender or relation with the employee (Bapuji, 2015). Gender, and income inequality has become the major issues in the organisation. Inequality in the organisation leads to weak relation of employees with the employers. In this paper the discussion will be made on “Inequality in organisation”.  Inequality increases the unemployment in the economy and it affects the productivity of the company due to decrease in the efficiency of employees (Freeman, 2016). The report is based on the three articles which are on inequality of gender and income. In the first phase of this report, articles are summarised and after that critical analysis will be done. In the context of inequality, the recommendations will also be provided in the last phase of the report.
Article 1: Toward an understanding of inequity
The first article is written by Admas, J. with the name of “Toward an understanding of inequity”. The article is focuses on “Inequality in the organisation”. According to the authors, there are many problems raised due inequality raise in the organisation. Distribution of wages is the first major issue according to this article which increases the problem of employment dissatisfaction (Durkheim, 2018). Inequality at the time of no work situation is the second phenomena that affect the employee’s relation with the employers that raises the conflicts. The article talks about Homans theory; a person who feels inequality with others is always dissatisfied with the employer’s decision. But Frestinger theory said that the wrong thought encourage the person to find many ways to reduce the imbalance (O’rand, 2018). This article provides the theoretical structure which defines the different ways of occurrence of inequality. The authors have also discussed how inequality can be reduced. This article is divided into four theories such as annual growth rate, second is increasing researchers, and third is inequality in salary and wages and the last theory is modified in parts (Admas, 1963).
Article 2: Gender disparity in the C-suite: Do male and Female CEOs differ in how they reached the top?
In the second article, the authors took examples of organisations to define the inequality in gender in the workplace. The gender inequality is explained by Fitzsimmons, W., Callan, V., Paulsen, N. with the name “Gender disparity in the C-suite: Do male and female CEOs differ in how they reached the top?”  The authors took thirty males and thirty female CEOs of the large organisations and interviewed them in order to explain the gender disparity in the organisation.  In this article, authors have defined many reasons for inequality within the organizations. First reason which is used by authors to explain the difference in gender is early life experience. It states the difference between male and female from their birth to working in an organisation. Authors have proved that early life experience plays an important role in developing leadership qualities in an individual. The second reason explained by authors is “Acquire career capital” and the last reason is culture of an individual. In this article, different methods are applied to research the causes of inequality with the appropriate logics. The article summarises that women face a lot of challenges in reaching to the top of an organization due to gender inequality (Fitzsimmons, Callan, Paulsen, 2013).
Article 3: The employment relationship and inequality: How and why changes in Employment Practices and reshaping rewards in organisations
The third article is with the name of “employment relationship and inequality: how and why changes in employment practices are reshaping rewards in organisation” which is written by Bidwell, M., Briscoe, F., Mateo, I. and Sterling, A. The article focuses on the causes and consequence of inequality. The authors defined that the changes affected the inequality. It explains the changes which affect the inequality that is distribution of rewards within the organisation. The second is distribution of rewards at the macro level that is distributed among the stakeholders. In the end of the article, the author explains the areas which are required by an organisation to work on. The article is written on the basis of past, present and future which tell that from where this inequality came, what has changed and what will be in the future. The authors found different causes where they also explained about the changes in the workplace that affect the inequality. Such as new rights affects the employment relationship, sorting into contingent work and others. The author’s main focus is on the causes of inequality in an organisation (Bidwell, Briscoe, Mateo, and Sterling, 2013).
Analysis
In the First article author describes the conditions under which inequity rises and reduces. This article is based on research on the many areas like rights and justice of an employee. According to author, there are many reasons of inequality in which the first reason define by the author is employment dissatisfaction. The second article is focused mainly on inequity due to gender disparity but the first article talks about many reasons of inequity. The second and third article is based on the US employment and Australian employment. According to the author, the external factors affect the inequality in organisation like social relationship in the non-working situations. Author has applied Homans theory to find the reasons of inequality which describes the human behaviour. The author also uses the Festinger theory which describes the thoughts of an individual which encourages him/her to do things in several ways. In this article, authors used the theories to find the reasons but the third article did not apply any theory. First article is highly dependent on the qualitative theory as same as the second article. The third article uses statistics to explain the statements; it includes quantitative analysis as well unlike first and second article. This article provides the theoretical structure which defines the reasons of inequality. It also defines the different modes that reduce the inequality. In this article, 170 different researcher views are taken to analyse the topic of inequality. The original theory is tested under the consequence and which is modified in different parts. This article did not use the pictures and graphs like the second article. Authors could have presented their ideas in a better way if they could have used diagrams or tables (Schmidt, Burroughs, Zoido, & Houang, 2015).
Article 2: Gender disparity in the C-suite: Do male and Female CEOs differ in how they reached the top?
The second article is on Gender disparity; this article states the challenges which are faced by women to attain the CEO level position. In this article, authors discussed about the challenges which are faced by women from their births till working in organisation. According the authors, Women live in an environment which affects their personality from their birth. It has been seen that the article has limited scope because the authors only mentioned the challenges faced by women for CEO position.  The authors conducted the research on 30 male and 30 female CEOs of large organisation of Australia. Thus, it can be said that the research is conducted at the limited boundaries which contain the limited content. Authors have not talked about small organizations. Also, they have considered specific types of organizations. They have not considered CEOs from government or non for profit organizations. This certainly affects the future scope of the research. In this article, diagrams and pictures are used to explain the causes and timing of gender disparity in CEO roles (Nicolson, 2015). This makes the article easily understandable for readers unlike the first article. Although the article contains the qualitative and quantity research but it is mainly dependent on qualitative research only. The research is conducted on the basis of Bourdieu’s conceptual framework on the big organisations. The analysis has been done on the big organisation which is not enough to find the right result because small organisations also appoint CEO (Lutter, 2015). According to the authors, the CEO is selected on the decision taken by the board of director and generally this decision is biased. Male Board of Directors prefers Male CEOs; is one outcome of the article (Fitzsimmons, Callan, Paulsen, 2013).
Article 3: The employment relationship and inequality: How and why changes in Employment Practices and reshaping rewards in organisations
The previous article was mainly about the gender inequality but this article conduct the research on the many factors of inequality such as rewards, payments, social relations and others. The authors conducted the research on the US employment relationships. According to the authors, US adopt the open system of employment where external factors affect the employment. Earlier, the country followed the closed system where internal factors were being considered while giving employment (Denk, 2015). Change in employment relationship affects the distribution of rewards, payments and benefit. The changes affect the distribution of income to employees; it creates an inequality within the organisation (Abraham, 2017). The authors discussed inequality among workers and the different stakeholders of firm. The authors have explained the changes in employment relationship such as what has changed and reason of the change. This article explains the inequality in many areas but second article is based in gender inequality in position. This article conducts the research on the US employment but the second article is based mainly on Australia employment (Bidwell, Briscoe, Mateo, and Sterling, 2013).
Recommendations
Inequality is a serious concern for every organization and it needs to be resolved. The organization should take care of the partiality. It is the responsibility of the manager to maintain their personal relation with the employees outside the workplace. The organizations have to maintain the percentage of women vacancy too (Entwisle, 2018). The companies should maintain equal seats for women and it should maintain the equal responsibility of women as compare to the men. This will certainly lead to less disparity. Communication is the source to reduce the inequality in the organisation. By organising conferences and meetings; the misunderstandings for the employers is reduced. The managers have to build the relationship with the employee so that they can easily discuss their issues. The managers have to recruit the employees without any biasness. It can be said that by adopting appropriate human resources policies; inequality will be reduced in an organisation. The managers should allocate the authorities and responsibilities to women employees so that their personality is developed (Stainback, Kleiner, & Skaggs, 2016). This will further lead to less gender discrimination.
To remove the payment inequality, an organisation has to appoint the experts and pay fairly to an employee (Tumin, 2018). It has been seen that the organisations provide the incentive to the people for extra efforts or extra work hour to male employees (Lewis, Benschop, & Simpson, 2017). Thus, it becomes the responsibility of an organisation to take care about these things and provide an opportunity to women employees so that the women can also take the benefits and rewards (Hacker, 2017).  It is observed that the civil rights affect the employee’s relation and raise the inequality. The government has the responsibility to give the equal rights to all the employees.
Conclusion
From the above analysis, it has been concluded that the articles focused on the topic of inequality, its reasons and its impact. All three articles focused on inequality but in different areas. It has been seen that the topic is briefly defined in all the three articles by applying the theories. The first article is focused on the consequences of rising and reducing the inequalities in the workplace. The second article defined the challenges which are faced by women in reaching to CEO position in an organisation. The third article talked about inequality in US employment and their rewards and payments. All three articles have same topic but with the different content, the second article mainly focused on gender inequality but the third article focused on inequality in different areas. It has been seen that there are many differences in the articles; different authors have different point of views. Overall, they all have discussed the same issue of inequality and have provided suggestions as well.
References
Abraham, M. (2017). Pay formalization revisited: Considering the effects of manager gender and discretion on closing the gender wage gap. Academy of Management Journal, 60(1), 29-54.
Admas, J. (1963). This Week’s Citation Classic. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychological. 67, 422.
Bapuji, H. (2015). Individuals, interactions and institutions: How economic inequality affects organizations. Human Relations, 68(7), 1059-1083.
Bidwell, M., Briscoe, F., Mateo, I. and Sterling, A. (2013). The employment relationship and inequality: How and why changes in Employment Practices and reshaping rewards in organisations.
Denk, O. (2015). Financial sector pay and labour income inequality: evidence from Europe. OECD Economic Department Working Papers, (1225), 0_1.
Durkheim, E. (2018). The division of labor in society. In Inequality (pp. 55-64). Routledge.
Entwisle, D. R. (2018). Children, schools, and inequality. Routledge.
Fitzsimmons, W., Callan, V., Paulsen, N. (2013). Gender disparity in the C-suite: Do male and Female CEOs differ in how they reached the top?.
Freeman, R. (2016). Inequality around the world. Springer.
Hacker, S. (2017). Pleasure, power and technology: Some tales of gender, engineering, and the cooperative workplace. Routledge.
Lewis, P., Benschop, Y., & Simpson, R. (2017). Postfeminism, gender and organization. Gender, Work & Organization, 24(3), 213-225.
Lutter, M. (2015). Do women suffer from network closure? The moderating effect of social capital on gender inequality in a project-based labor market, 1929 to 2010. American Sociological Review, 80(2), 329-358.
Nicolson, P. (2015). Gender, Power and Organization: A psychological perspective on life at work. Routledge.
O’rand, A. (2018). Age and inequality: Diverse pathways through later life. Routledge.
Schmidt, W. H., Burroughs, N. A., Zoido, P., & Houang, R. T. (2015). The role of schooling in perpetuating educational inequality: An international perspective. Educational Researcher, 44(7), 371-386.
Stainback, K., Kleiner, S., & Skaggs, S. (2016). Women in power: Undoing or redoing the gendered organization?. Gender & Society, 30(1), 109-135.
Tumin, M. M. (2018). Some principles of stratification: A critical analysis. In Inequality (pp. 7-20). Routledge.

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