Tutor Quora

MKT 466 International Marketing

Academic Anxiety?

Get an original paper within hours and nail the task

156 experts online

Free Samples

MKT 466 International Marketing

.cms-body-content table{width:100%!important;} #subhidecontent{ position: relative;
overflow-x: auto;
width: 100%;}

MKT 466 International Marketing

0 Download12 Pages / 2,790 Words

Course Code: MKT 466
University: Augsburg University

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States


For each of these questions, you are encouraged to make cross-industry and cross-country comparisons amongst Asia Pacific multinationals, and to employ lessons from international business theory and research. Consider therefore a number of perspectives, including the aims of Japanese multinationals in relation to global strategies; the aims of Korean and Chinese multinationals and international business strategies; major differences between industries and types of business; the degree of global versus regional control, and changes in operational control over time; the competitive advantages or capabilities of multinationals compared to those of rivals; variations in management, organization, and operations between home country and host nations; the comparative abilities of Japanese, Korean and Chinese multinationals to compete in Europe, Asia and North America, and their ability to adapt to changes in policy and markets; and the policies of host governments and the relevance of the EU.
Suggested Analysis and Structure for Assignment 1
1.What is the question, and how do you provide a precise answer? What is your overall response, and then what analytical structure will you adopt to substantiate your stated view?    2.When did the case/firm/industry move towards FDI? Where did the investment go? Are there differences in FDI histories or patterns with other industries or countries? How and when did a firm become an MNE or TNC? Why did firms decide to become multinationals? What therefore was their strategy or motivation? Entry mode? Are differences in strategy and capabilities because of timing of FDI, because manufacturers are unlike services, or because multinationals come from different countries? To what extent are choices and decisions related to existing FDI theories and approaches? Have selected firms, industries or nations been market, efficiency, resource or asset seeking? Are there different patterns in the timing, location, strategy and entry mode of multinationals from different nations?
3.How did MNEs, once they have decided to ‘multinational-ize’, succeed as multinationals? What O advantages, capabilities or resources did they possess to succeed, or what advantages, capabilities or resources did they need to acquire or develop when ‘multinational-izing’? Does the case fit the OLI or the LLL framework better?(a)Production and operations? Management of global production chains, or SCM?(b)R&D, innovation?(c)Brand, design, product, and marketing? Distribution networks or relations?(d)Management skills and experience? Human resource management skills, training?(e)Building external networks and client relations, in host economies, as in service industry?(f)Access to resources such as finance and capital? Or key supplies?
(g)Management and organization. To what extent have strategic needs evolved after the act of FDI, and how is this related to management, organisation, levels of centralization, decentralization, or regionalization? Employment of expatriates v locals? Usefulness of FDI theories and approaches?
(h)Role of government in stimulating inward FDI, and allowing and supporting outward FDI? Notion of institutional advantage? Political economy and macro-economic perspectives in FDI theories and approaches?
(i)Conclusion. AP multinationals have some common characteristics that have allowed them to compete globally and in Europe, alongside companies from North America and Europe? Or differences between AP nations fundamental? Japanese, Korean or Chinese multinationals show very specific and important differences? Or differences between industries more important? Or general trends in 1980s, 1990s, or since 2000 show similar pattern over time?


One of the important topics used for media interests and academic research which is quite famous all throughout the world is the globalization of the business firms from the developing economies. The increase in the flow of outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) from developing nations like Singapore and Hong Kong and transition economies consisting of Russia and China is not very surprising (Rugman, Nguyen and Wei 2016). Over the past thirty years, the mainland China have witnessed a huge economic development along with transformation which in turn allows many firms from the mainland China to accumulate enough location specific and firm specific advantages before they go for venturing abroad. In the recent years, China has joined the newly industrialized economies (NIEs) of Latin America and Asia in order to produce many competitive transnational corporations (Cherry 2015). The high-profile international acquisitions of the modern age along with the takeover bids by the Chinese companies have dramatically shifted the attention of media from stating China as a “giant seeking vacuum cleaner” in the case of global inward foreign direct investment (FDI) to making the country as a cash-rich predator on a global buying binge. The firms of China which have listed in Fortune 500 have been the main players in the cross- border mergers and acquisitions (M & As) of China which has been carried out since the year 2002 (Fan, Cui and Zhu 2016). Some of the examples include the takeover of the Addax petroleum, which is a Swiss-Canadian Company, and the partial acquisitions of Repsol YPF Brazil. Other examples include Sync rude Canada by Sinopee, acquisitions of twenty percent stake of the South African Standard Bank by The Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) (Wang, Wang and Liang 2016). The takeover of Petro Kazakhstan by the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) is some of the important examples. Under this scenario, the report ids aimed to analyse the motive, impact and factors that influenced the cross-border multinational transformation of the firms.
Transformation of firm into multinational organization and its motives:
The term foreign direct investment refers to those capital invested in a particular country which provides manufacturing for both consumers and world market. The multinational companies, which are based in post-communist transition economies, emerged during the year of 1990. There was a boom in the outward foreign direct investment dramatically around the year 2000 to 2007 (Kawai and Strange 2014). The economy of china has made a quite remarkable profit over the past few decades. The outward foreign direct investment is regarded as an important factor for the development of the nation’s industry, which us also used as a measure of competitiveness. As there was a bursting in the bubble economy of Japan in 1990, the multinational companies in Japan have been facing new competitive challenges (Walsh 2016). The engagement of the Japanese in the international economy has went under a number of phases. After the Second World War, there had been an economic miracle in Japan. A lot of transformation which had taken place in the government policies in many developed countries such as the United States and Western Europe have forced the manufacturers of Japan to convert themselves into the multinational corporations and also to transfer their capabilities which are home grown to overseas subsidiaries (Cherry 2015).Majority of the scholars agree that the main motivation of the Chinese multinational enterprises is to invest abroad. The innovations that are mostly market seeking are one of the logical consequences of the export-oriented policies over the last few years. Mainly the strategic asset seeking motivations play an important role for the Chinese investors abroad.
Factors that affect the company transformation:
Cooperation in the creation of knowledge process in China has become quite diverse. Therefore, Transnational Corporations play an important role for the innovation of any kind of new ideas. One of the important changes in the world economy is shifting within a group of leading enterprises, which is also termed as transnational corporations (Kawai and Strange2014). The transition of market in China first took place between the years 1978-1983 where both the industry and the industrial enterprises formed the major reforms (Wang and Wang 2015). China also started moving away towards market-oriented system in the year 1978 from an economy, which was centrally planned. The strong leadership skills of the government had also been one of the important factors for the economic development (Rasiah 2017).  The next stage of transformation took in the year 1984 where enterprises were forced to buy more raw materials. The expansion of FDI was taken up by domestic enterprises so that there is an increase in revenues and profits. The proper outflow of FDI in China took place mainly in the third stage after the year 1993 (Cai, Lu, Wu and Yu 2016). In this stage the government of China appointed the state-owned enterprises which helped in investment expansion and also are capable of pursuing international management successfully. The policies, which encouraged outflow of FDI by the Chinese Firms, were coordinated by the highest levels of the government bodies. The third stage of economic reforms also saw the Chinese government activating policies related to technologies such as significant rise of research and development activities and also implementing different kinds of new technologies in the economy with the help of both private and public expenditures (Lee 2016). Chinese TNCs started growing after the emergence of Western transnationals. The FDI outflow from China reached five other continents by the mid-2000s. The foreign expansions of the Chinese TNCs have both external and internal effects. The flows of the foreign direct investment followed trade expansion of China in countries like Africa and Latin America (Li, Strange, Ning and Sutherland 2016). The outflows were also used for acquisitions of innovative companies in Europe and America.
Advantage, capabilities and barriers in case of company transformation:
Multinational cooperation has a lot of advantages in developing countries. When the MNCs tries to invest in the host countries, there should be significant scale of investment. There are lot of advantages when the multinational companies invest which includes providing a huge scale of employment. FDI will provide employment benefits for the countries where employees will be locally available.  A multinational organization aims to produce goods and services in order to sell in different countries. It has been observed by many scholars that firms try to become multinationals when they try to exploit the three sets of advantages (Bebenroth and Hemmert 2015).One of them is the ownership advantages, which states that firms, which are multinationals usually, develops their own brands and owns proprietary technology, which the other competitors will not be able to use. They are often the technology leaders in the market. Next comes the localization advantage, which states that when the products are sold near the locations of the consumers it helps to reduce the transportation costs and also helps the company to fit the local taste and preference. Firms also tries for “multinational-sizing” so that they can internalize the benefits with owning a particular technology, patents or expertise.
Firms which tries to enter the foreign market might face several problems might face increased cost of the different environment of business and the different ways in which the companies can operate. Small and medium size enterprises may sell the products, technologies and different kinds of services in China have faced many problems while multinational-sizing. One of the most important barriers is the red tape which states that in China opening a bank account or registering a company can take a lot of time ( Lee 2016). The time required to complete all the process can be exceptionally lengthy. There is also a presence of cultural misunderstandings which arises due to misunderstandings are one of the biggest challenges which the firms face. The western companies also face many problems while working with China. China has also rated human resources as one of the biggest challenges while doing business.
Difference between the linkage leverage model and ownership location internalization model:
A multinational corporation is a type of organization that owns the production of services and goods in one or more countries other than the home country (Boyd et al. 2014). On the other hand, transnational corporation is a type of commercial enterprise that operates substantial facilities and it also does business in many countries without considering any particular country as its national home. All MNCs are not transnational companies whereas the transnational corporations are the multinational corporations. Most of the multinational enterprises usually originated from the developed countries ( Bebenroth. and Hemmert.2015). During the last decade there had been a dramatic growth in FDI in China. There are however a large number of advantages and disadvantages in the ownership-Location-Internalization model (OLI) and in Linkage-Leverage-Learning model (LLL). However, the OLI model is very important for understanding the FDI pattern from China to the other developing nations. However, the LLL model is a powerful tool for examining the FDI in the developed economies. The OLI model that is much modified can help in explaining why the different companies from the developing economies carries out the different cross border business and is also a very important framework for comparing different MNEs. There are different types of knowledge acquisition of firms according to the LLL model. There is a presence of lot differences between the LLL and OLI model. China has always been a very active in both inward and outward FDI.
Importance of FDI in company transformation:
There has always been a strong relationship between the foreign direct investment and the economic growth. A huge amount of foreign investments is needed for the country in order to achieve an economic growth. Foreign direct investments are also considered to be a powerful instrument which is needed for the economic growth (Luo and Jiang 2014). Studies have also revealed that FDI also help to generate domestic investment, which facilitates transfer of technological knowledge.FDI, is also important for developing and for countries that are emerging. It benefits the global economy as well as investors (Kawai and Strange2014). Another advantage of foreign direct investment is that it also offsets the volatility, which is also created by hot money. FDI by MNCs in the developing countries plays a crucial role in the entry of advanced technologies. Another benefit of the foreign direct investment is capital accumulation (Sutherland and Anderson 2015). Multinational companies also contribute to economic growth by exporting services and goods, which maximises the rate of savings and economies of scope. MNCs can also provide different types of different worthwhile asset by different types of transactions related to FDI like modern technology, capital and production. Multinational companies also cut their costs by making use of cheap labour from different developing countries (Rasiah 2017). The process of globalization has allowed multinationals to optimize competitive variable in the market. FDI also removes the problem of unemployment and scarcity of technology can also be solved at some extent. Outward foreign direct investment in the recent years has support economic development in the developing countries. Selecting a different mode for expanding in a foreign market is one of the crucial stages for the international firm.
Role of government in stimulating FDI:
The host country government policies play a very important role in order to attract foreign direct investment and also influence the behaviour of the Transnational Corporations. They also try to focus on the inequality of income along with the effects of the human capital formation. The policies related to the foreign direct investment made by the government also affects formation of the human capital (Boydet al. 2014). The policies therefore introduce a simple framework of demand and supply which also analyses the effects of the Transnational Corporations on the income inequality and human capital (Rudy, Miller and Wang 2016). One of the major challenges that the developing countries face is making globalisation work for the purpose of development and for the poor. The government always wants to attract the FDI since the characteristics that are associated with FDI fit the development objectives of the government which includes growth and poverty reduction. International agreements with different countries can both facilitate or constrain the attraction of FDI (Thite et al. 2016). Agreements related to TRIPs and TRIMs somehow gives more protection to the foreign investors. In order to build FDI policies effectively, the governments of the developing countries need to address the different kinds of market failures which are related to FDI and development. The Japanese government had also set up Invest Japan Business support Centres in order to promote FDI in Japan (Fitzgerald and Rowley 2015). However, Japan in the recent years no longer ranks among the top countries receiving the highest FDI. As Japan has always been a leader of research, development and high-end technologies, it has a steadily growing economy along with the rock-solid stability (Long, Yang and Zhang 2015). The Chinese government had also taken new policies in order to attract foreign manufacturers in the country. Since the year 2008, China has been one of the tops their destinations in case of foreign investment. The government of China forms policies in order to support foreign projects that will facilitate economic development and employment.
The appearance of several multinational ventures of China in the world economy can be considered as one of the very important steps towards Chinese development. Over the last few years, the emergence of the multinational enterprises in China has become quite apparent because of the implementation of Go Global Strategy where the Government of the mainland China has encouraged the Chinese firms for investing abroad. The outward foreign direct investment is also enlarging at an increasing rate. Unlike the Multinational Enterprises in the industrialized countries, the firms of China have a quite weak ownership advantage. Firms usually invests in other countries when they can purchase the ownership advantages with the exploitation of  proprietary assets and capabilities along with using the  advantages related to location specific that the host countries provide by internalizing cross border activities. However, most of the Chinese MNEs have a very limited knowledge on the foreign market and on the international investment experience.
Bebenroth, R. and Hemmert, M., 2015. Country-level antecedents of target firms’ post-acquisition business performance: A study of inbound Japanese and Korean M&As. Asian Business & Management, 14(4), pp.303-325.
Boyd, J.E., Adler, E.P., Otilingam, P.G. and Peters, T., 2014. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale: a multinational review. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55(1), pp.221-231.
Cai, X., Lu, Y., Wu, M. and Yu, L., 2016. Does environmental regulation drive away inbound foreign direct investment? Evidence from a quasi-natural experiment in China. Journal of Development Economics, 123, pp.73-85.
Cherry, J., 2015. Korean multinationals in Europe. Routledge.
Fan, D., Cui, L., Li, Y. and Zhu, C.J., 2016. Localized learning by emerging multinational enterprises in developed host countries: A fuzzy-set analysis of Chinese foreign direct investment in Australia. International Business Review, 25(1), pp.187-203.
Fitzgerald, R. and Rowley, C., 2015. Japanese multinationals in the post-bubble era: new challenges and evolving capabilities. Asia Pacific Business Review, 21(3), pp.279-294.
Kawai, N. and Strange, R., 2014. Subsidiary autonomy and performance in Japanese multinationals in Europe. International Business Review, 23(3), pp.504-515.
Lee, L.X.H., 2016. New East Asian Economic Development: The Interaction of Capitalism and Socialism: The Interaction of Capitalism and Socialism. Routledge.
Li, J., Strange, R., Ning, L. and Sutherland, D., 2016. Outward foreign direct investment and domestic innovation performance: Evidence from China. International Business Review, 25(5), pp.1010-1019.
Long, C., Yang, J. and Zhang, J., 2015. Institutional impact of foreign direct investment in China. World Development, 66, pp.31-48.
Luo, Y. and Jiang, H., 2014. Effective public relations leadership in organizational change: A study of multinationals in mainland China. Journal of Public Relations Research, 26(2), pp.134-160.
Rasiah, R., 2017. The role of institutions and linkages in learning and innovation. Institutions and Economies, pp.165-172.
Rudy, B.C., Miller, S.R. and Wang, D., 2016. Revisiting FDI strategies and the flow of firm?specific advantages: A focus on state?owned enterprises. Global Strategy Journal, 6(1), pp.69-78.
Rugman, A.M., Nguyen, Q.T. and Wei, Z., 2016. Rethinking the literature on the performance of Chinese multinational enterprises. Management and Organization Review, 12(2), pp.269-302.
Sutherland, D. and Anderson, J., 2015. The pitfalls of using foreign direct investment data to measure Chinese multinational enterprise activity. The China Quarterly, 221, pp.21-48.
Thite, M., Wilkinson, A., Budhwar, P. and Mathews, J.A., 2016. Internationalization of emerging Indian multinationals: Linkage, leverage and learning (LLL) perspective. International Business Review, 25(1), pp.435-443.
Walsh, K.A., 2016. China R&D: a high-tech field of dreams. In SEEKING CHANGES: The Economic Development in Contemporary China (pp. 191-212).
Wang, J. and Wang, X., 2015. Benefits of foreign ownership: Evidence from foreign direct investment in China. Journal of International Economics, 97(2), pp.325-338.
Wang, K.C.A., Wang, Y.J. and Liang, W.J., 2016. How Does International Licensing Affect FDI?. Academia Economic Papers, 44(3), p.361.

Free Membership to World’s Largest Sample Bank

To View this & another 50000+ free samples. Please put
your valid email id.


Yes, alert me for offers and important updates


Download Sample Now

Earn back the money you have spent on the downloaded sample by uploading a unique assignment/study material/research material you have. After we assess the authenticity of the uploaded content, you will get 100% money back in your wallet within 7 days.

UploadUnique Document

DocumentUnder Evaluation

Get Moneyinto Your Wallet

Total 12 pages


*The content must not be available online or in our existing Database to qualify as

Cite This Work
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:


My Assignment Help. (2020). International Marketing. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/mkt-466-international-marketing/outward-foreign-direct-investment.html.

“International Marketing.” My Assignment Help, 2020, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/mkt-466-international-marketing/outward-foreign-direct-investment.html.

My Assignment Help (2020) International Marketing [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/mkt-466-international-marketing/outward-foreign-direct-investment.html[Accessed 18 December 2021].

My Assignment Help. ‘International Marketing’ (My Assignment Help, 2020) accessed 18 December 2021.

My Assignment Help. International Marketing [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2020 [cited 18 December 2021]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/mkt-466-international-marketing/outward-foreign-direct-investment.html.

.close{position: absolute;right: 5px;z-index: 999;opacity: 1;color: #ff8b00;}


Thank you for your interest
The respective sample has been mail to your register email id


$20 Credited
successfully in your wallet.
* $5 to be used on order value more than $50. Valid for
only 1

Account created successfully!
We have sent login details on your registered email.



Economics is a difficult subject to tackle with principles and characteristics of oligopoly and other forms of market. However, if you are finding it hard to answer oligopoly characteristics, you should avail expert service at MyAssignmenthelp.com. Our experts act as the ghost writer behind your success story and provide ideal solutions. The assistance involves gathering insightful data, proofreading, revision and plagiarism check all at an affordable price.  Moreover, the business report is also provided by our writers to cover a wide array of topics in economics.

Latest Management Samples

div#loaddata .card img {max-width: 100%;

MPM755 Building Success In Commerce
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: MPM755
University: Deakin University

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

The process of developing a successful business entity requires a multidimensional analysis of several factors that relate to the internal and external environment in commerce. The areas covered in this current unit are essential in transforming the business perspective regarding the key commerce factors such as ethics, technology, culture, entrepreneurship, leadership, culture, and globalization (Nzelibe, 1996; Barza, 2…

SNM660 Evidence Based Practice
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: SNM660
University: The University Of Sheffield

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United Kingdom

Critical reflection on the objective, design, methodology and outcome of the research undertaken Assessment-I
Smoking and tobacco addiction is one of the few among the most basic general restorative issues, particularly to developed nations such as the UK. It has been represented that among all risk segments smoking is the fourth driving purpose behind infections and other several ailments like asthma, breathing and problems in the l…
Australia Maidstone Management Business management with marketing University of New South Wales Masters in Business Administration 

BSBHRM513 Manage Workforce Planning
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: BSBHRM513
University: Tafe NSW

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Task 1
1.0 Data on staff turnover and demographics
That includes the staffing information of JKL industries for the fiscal year of 2014-15, it can be said that the company is having problems related to employee turnover. For the role of Senior Manager in Sydney, the organization needs 4 managers; however, one manager is exiting. It will make one empty position which might hurt the decision making process. On the other hand, In Brisba…

MKT2031 Issues In Small Business And Entrepreneurship
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: MKT2031
University: University Of Northampton

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United Kingdom

Entrepreneurial ventures
Entrepreneurship is the capacity and willingness to develop, manage, and put in order operations of any business venture with an intention to make profits despite the risks that may be involved in such venture. Small and large businesses have a vital role to play in the overall performance of the economy. It is, therefore, necessary to consider the difference between entrepreneurial ventures, individual, and c…
Turkey Istanbul Management University of Employee Masters in Business Administration 

MN506 System Management
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: MN506
University: Melbourne Institute Of Technology

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

An operating system (OS) is defined as a system software that is installed in the systems for the management of the hardware along with the other software resources. Every computer system and mobile device requires an operating system for functioning and execution of operations. There is a great use of mobile devices such as tablets and Smartphones that has increased. One of the widely used and implemented operating syste…
Australia Cheltenham Computer Science Litigation and Dispute Management University of New South Wales Information Technology 


Need an essay written specifically to meet your requirements?

Choose skilled experts on your subject and get an original paper within your deadline

156 experts online

Your time is important. Let us write you an essay from scratch

Tips and Tricks from our Blog

11174 Introduction To Management

Free Samples 11174 Introduction To Management .cms-body-content table{width:100%!important;} #subhidecontent{ position: relative; overflow-x: auto; width: 100%;} 11174 Introduction

Read More »