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MN503 Overview Of Internetworking

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MN503 Overview Of Internetworking

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Course Code: MN503
University: Melbourne Institute Of Technology

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Country: Australia


This assignment is designed to assess students’ knowledge and skills related to the following learning outcomes:

a. Explain human factors in achieving business and technical goals through planning and design.
b. Investigate and develop an architectural internetworking design for the business and application domains.

Explanation of present-day technologies used in internet
A brief discussion of major internet protocols with pros and cons specific focus on routing protocols – static and dynamic routing Comparison of Internet speed past, present and future,
Analysis of Human-centric design aspects focus on modern days ergonomics e.g., sitting arrangements to CPU inbuilt computer screens, touch screens, mobile apps etc.
Discussion on future computer networks How would the future computer networks be like?
Discussion of the human-centric approaches during the development of computer networks for example: OSI model and TCP/IP model, networking accessories such as the evolution of mouse, keyboard layout, first GUI design etc.
A discussion following Years versus data speed is expected.
Focus on modern days ergonomics, sitting arrangements to CPU inbuilt computer screens, touch screen, mobile apps.
How would the future computer networks be like?


A computer network is a type of digital communication method which allows the users to connect with each other and to share resources [1]. In this network two computer device can exchange the data using the connection between the nodes. This type of connections can also be established wirelessly using wireless media devices such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. The nodes can originate, terminate and route the data packets. The internetworking is a type of network which is used to form a large network. The internetworking is a global system of interconnected computer system which uses the TCP/IP network protocol. The internet first began at the U.S. Defence network. The main motto of the internet was to link the professors and scientists from various part of the world.
The internet service of today serves as total data communication system which is linking millions of peoples, business and private sectors via a broad communication network which consists various types of network and electronic technologies. The internet is decentralized network, which means no one owns the internet. The decentralization network has a major advantage which is it is less vulnerable during the terrorist attacks and wartime. In present situation the computer networking or the internet not only influenced the computer communication field or the technical field. Beside that the internet influenced the public sector to use the online services.
The internetwork or the internet has a major vast impact on the daily life of a human being. Today it is very much easy to enjoy a service while sitting in home which can include the online shopping services, food ordering services, booking services and many more but some years ago it was like an impossible task to the humans. To provide this type of services the internet has developed in small stages and in the following section the chronological development of the internet will be discussed.
Chronological development of Internet:
In the early development stages the Internet has got its first concept through the ARPANET which was introduced by the Leonard Kleinrock in the year of 1961 [2]. After the introduction of the ARPANET the internet technology has started to grow. As a result, in 1965 two computers successfully communicated with each other using the packet switching technology in the MIT Lincoln Lab. After this incident a major incident take place in the year of 1973 when University College of London and Royal Rader Establishment connected with each other through the ARPANET. This is considered as the incident of born of the internet. In the next year first internet service provider was introduced which was based on the same ARPANET but this time it was the commercial version. This commercial version of the ARPANET was named as Telenet. After that in the same year Packet Network Interconnection protocol was introduced by Bob Khan and Vinton Cerf. This protocol was containing the design details of the TCP. Then in the year of 1982 the transmission control protocol and the internet protocol merged together forming the TCP/IP. This TCP/IP protocol still remains the standard protocol for the internet services. Next year Domain Name System was introduced for the naming purposes of the websites. In 1991 the World Wide Web became available for the public and from then the main journey of the computer networks begins [3].

(Figure 1: History of Internet)
(Source: sciencenode.org)
Human Centric Design Aspects:
The layer approached protocols in the networking are the TCP/IP and the OSI model. The TCP/IP protocol is the universal protocol for the internet where the OSI model is dividing the network into seven layered structure. The data packets cross all these layers and ends at the physical layer. The TCP/IP has the four layers and both of the TCP/IP and the OSI have the security layer common in them [4]. This advanced network protocols are proving a better internet experience in today’s date. Not only the structure of the network improved but also the accessories related with the networks has also improved with the time. For an example the mouse can be considered. In the first stages the mouse was having a set of wheel one for each X-axis and Y-axis but in the present generation the laser mouse is used which more convenient to use and has more accuracy. In the case of the keyboards the first keyboard was not having any type of cover to protect it. The first proper keyboard was the model M keyboard by the IBM. Form then the keyboards has developed much better. Now the keyboards have dedicated shortcut keys for performing various operations. The vast change can be seen at the graphical user interface. The first webpage was consisting only some texts but now the webpages looks more attractive as new technologies is implemented in the webpages like CSS and JavaScript.

(Figure 2: OSI Model)
(Source: webopedia.com)
Present Technologies used in Internet:
In present time the main protocols technologies which are used in the networking are the TCP/IP protocol, ARP protocol, DHCP protocol, FTP protocol, HTTPS protocol and the routing protocol [5]. In the routing protocol there are total two types of system. First is the static protocol and another is the dynamic protocol. The static routing is the statically configured router which is used for directing the traffic in a predetermined way. In the case of dynamic routing which consists various types of protocols, automatically can choose the required path. These protocols are the OSFP, EIGRP, ISIS and BGP. A normal network uses the dynamic protocol which consists the OSFP protocol to find the best routes. The BGP protocol can decide the best exit point. The static routing is used for providing a permanent gateway. In the following table some more internet protocol is described.



Electronic Mail




File Transfer


Comparison of Internet Speed:
The speed of the internet has improved over the time drastically. The latest inclusion in this internet technology was the 4G LTE technology [6]. In the following table a quick comparison of past, present and future internet speed will be evaluated.





Speed of Internet

In the past times when the 2G internet connection was introduced the initial speed was the 0.1 Mbit/s. Then the 2G connection succeeded by the 3G connection. The speed of the basic 3G internet was  0.3 Mbit/s while the HSPA technology of 3G network was having an improved speed of 7.2 Mbit/s.

The present internet connection is dominated by the 4G LTE network which is having an average speed of 50 Mbps. The global average of 4g speed is 16.6 Mbps. For a private case NASA is having a whooping internet speed of 91 Gbps.

For the future cases 5G will play a big role in the internet connection. It is expected that the average speed of the 5G will be 1.4 Gbps.  

(Figure 3: Internet Speed Comparison)
(Source: dedwarmo.com)
Modern day’s ergonomics:
In these modern days the technologies has improved a way better than the previous generations. In present time built in computer screen is available which can give a better user experience by directly interacting with a computer screen. Also, it is more convenient to use different from traditional keyboard-mouse setup. The touch screen facility in these days give user a much better experience compared to the previous generations. A touch screen device can save more space which can be used for other extra features in the device. Also, the latest mobile apps can serve the users any services they want. This can be online shopping, food ordering, cab booking and many more [7].
Future of computer networking:
In the future generation the computer network will have a major growth in terms of speed and network coverage. It will able to seamlessly content many devices in a single terminals and can serve all of them at same time. The cloud computing will have a huge growth over the time. Also, the SDN, intelligent networking and IoT will have a major impact on the future of the computer networks.
Future networking technologies:
In the future generations of networking the emerging technologies will be cloud computing, software defined networking, internet of things and intelligent networking. In the following table the above discussed technologies will be compared.

Cloud Computing


Intelligent Networking


The cloud computing is a process of using and managing data directly from the cloud servers avoiding the local storages [8].

The SDN is a typical approach of cloud computing which can make the network configuration efficient to improve the performance of the network.

The intelligent network system is a standardized network system which can support the mobile telecommunication network.

The IoT devices are sort of physical devices which is embedded with the software and networks to exchange data and which can improve the efficiency of the computer systems.

From the above discussion it can be concluded that the computer networking have changed the way of working of humans. The digital networks has simplified the human life reducing the communication barriers and by providing digital facilities. New technologies of the computer networks will ease the human life further. In the next generations the cloud computing will finish the storage problems and IoT devices will enhance the life style of the humans. Overall the computer networks will reflect some positive influence on the society which can help to develop new technologies.

Sunshine, Carl A., ed. Computer network architectures and protocols. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.
Russell, Andrew L., and Valerie Schafer. “In the Shadow of ARPANET and Internet: Louis Pouzin and the Cyclades Network in the 1970s.” Technology and Culture55, no. 4 (2014): 880-907.
McGann, Jerome. Radiant textuality: literary studies after the World Wide Web. Springer, 2016.
Alani, Mohammed M. “Guide to OSI and TCP/IP models.” (2014).
Li, Zhongkui, Wei Ren, Xiangdong Liu, and Mengyin Fu. “Consensus of multi-agent systems with general linear and Lipschitz nonlinear dynamics using distributed adaptive protocols.” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control58, no. 7 (2013): 1786-1791.
Dahlman, Erik, Stefan Parkvall, and Johan Skold. 4G: LTE/LTE-advanced for mobile broadband. Academic press, 2013.
Dotzel, Thomas, Venkatesh Shankar, and Leonard L. Berry. “Service innovativeness and firm value.” Journal of Marketing Research50, no. 2 (2013): 259-276.
Arora, Rachna, Anshu Parashar, and Cloud Computing Is Transforming. “Secure user data in cloud computing using encryption algorithms.” International journal of engineering research and applications3, no. 4 (2013): 1922-1926.

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