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MNO3301 Organisation Behaviour

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Course Code: MNO3301
University: National University Of Singapore

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Country: Singapore


You are required to identify an individual who is willing to be interviewed about the organisation that they work for.  This individual might be a friend or family member of one member of the group.  The organisation that the selected interviewee works for may be a private, a public or a voluntary organisation.  The interviewee may want to focus on a unit, sub division or even a department within the organisation, particularly if the organisation is very large or operates on an international or global scale.  You do not need to disclose the name of the organisation; if you prefer you may disguise the real identity of the organisation by using a fictitious name.
You must refer to a minimum of four journal articles in your assignment.  
Introduce the organisation.  Give a brief description of its background, vision, mission and strategies.  Critically evaluate the following two areas of the organisation.

The style of the leader in the organization (business unit or department), in particular the most senior person that your interviewee relates to and interacts with i.e. the CEO, Managing director, head of division, head of department etc.
The performance management systems in the organization (business unit or department).

You will need to use the theories of leadership and motivation that you learned in class to design a short interview to guide you through the interview and to ensure that you ask the right questions.  You should think about the following issues:

Ask your interviewee to describe his/her observations of the leader’s behaviours.  You should use at least two of the theories of leadership presented in class, or in your text books and readings to identify the style of leadership your interviewee describes.  In your interviewee’s opinion how appropriate is this style of leadership?  Explain why, in his/her opinion, has the leadership style contributed to organisation / division / department’s success or has it undermined the organisation ability to perform effectively?  
Ask your interviewee to describe the performance management and motivation systems used by the organisation.  Explain why, in your interviewee’s opinion, the performance management and reward systems are effective or ineffective.  Use the theories and models presented in the course critically evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the performance management, motivation and reward systems that your interviewee describes. For example, are they effective in encouraging and rewarding excellent performance and ethical behaviours?


Brief background description
Incorporated on January 3, 1977, Apple Inc. manufactures designs and deals with media devices, mobile communication, portable digital music players and personal computers. The organisation deals with a variety of services, software, mobile accessories, third-party digital applications and content and networking solutions (Blenko et al. 2016). The Apple’s operational segments are Europe, Americas, China, Asia and Japan. The products and services of the Company include iPad, iPhone, , Apple Watch, Mac, iPod Apple TV, and a range of professional and consumer software applications.
The company of Apple was started as a company for computers. However, the organisation has expanded into a huge company that has expanded more than just computers. In the year 2001, the Apple became the dominant leader of the market in music players. In 2007 Apple joined the industry of phone in the name of iPhone, which has led to a great successful.
Apple mission and vision
The corporate mission if Apple Inc.’s has changed over the period of time. The organisation considers the change of the landscape of the business, that influences the potential of the company boundaries. Apple inc. recognizes the changing environment of the industry and the market. The  current mission statementof Apple is to give the best personal computers all over the globe, with, iLife, OS X iWork and other professional software. The company leads the digital music revolution with itswide range of  iTunes and iPods online store. The organisation is specific in enumerating its business outputs (Khan,   Alam  and Alam  2015). For instance, the outputs include iPods, Macs, iPods and iPhones. They put more emphasis on the digital distribution services with the help of the Internet.
The corporate vision statement of Apple functions like a business philosophy and values specification. The corporate vision of Apple Inc.’s includes the strategic management of the decisions that the managers of the company make to reach the future of leadership in the variety of industries where the company operates. The company of Apple introduced a new vision that deals with making great products that would focus on innovation. They do not believe complexity rather put stress on simplicity. They aim in deep cross-pollination and collaboration of their groups, that would allow them to innovate in a way that otheir competitors cannot.  The Apple Inc.’s statement of vision gives specific details on the various areas of the multinational operations. The corporate vision of Apple indicates a vertical integration strategy. This would influence the suppliers and the supply chain of the company.
Apple Inc., is a market leader in the technology market. Therefore the company is great at branding and marketing and their products. The Apple provides finest products at best prices along with maintaining a high profit margins and large market share. The main strategy of the company is to provide a groundbreaking product with the help of a great team building culture and a strong development and research team. Along with dictating and changing the movement for future technology, the company focuses on understanding what the customers want and therefore improve their present products from the customer feedback. In addition to that they strategically place the stores in all the large markets and expand abroad in the basis of demand of products and population. When it comes to price their strategy is to price all products at the top of the market base price. In terms of promotion the Apples strategy is to expand band sustain on their strong brand name by always being the trend setter.
Style of the leadership in the organization of Apple
At the time of Steve Jobs that covers the time of 1997 – 2011, leadership of Apple was known for the autocratic leadership style. In this, the CEO Steve Jobs was managing a wide range of operations of business. It has been said that  at the time when Steve Jobs was in charge, all the operations were under him. leadership practices of Apple have been changed dramatically under Tim Cook who is  known as the  Greatest Leader by the Magazine named Fortune. Tim Cook proved to be effective, with the introduction of Apple Watch under his leadership. 
Besides, Tim Cook has been lauded by representatives for rousing administration and helping his subordinates to improve as a person. As of now, Apple Inc. faces a noteworthy authority challenges. Apple Inc. has a progressive hierarchical structure, with eminent divisional qualities and a frail useful network. The pecking order is a conventional auxiliary component in business associations (Bolden 2016). The pecking order in Apple’s authoritative structure underpins solid management control in the association. Hypothetically, chain of command enables top pioneers like Tim Cook to control everything in the association. Through the progressive system, business capacities and item based gatherings are successfully controlled through the choices of the CEO and other best officials. This favorable position of Apple Inc’s. corporate structure encourages fast and compelling vital management usage, and aides in setting up soundness all through the whole association.
Performance management systems of Apple
Performance management is a procedure that gives input, responsibility, and documentation for performance results. It causes representatives to channel their abilities toward hierarchical objectives (Mone and London 2018). It fundamentally takes a look at how an association designs, measures, screens and improves its performance on various levels.
Apple objectives are made known to representatives instantly after hierarchical objectives are set. This is together examined by line-administrators and the vital advances taking so as to accomplish such objectives (Goetsch, and Davis 2014). Performance Management qualities at Apple incorporates appraisal of the performance of the Staff individuals in light of terms of destinations, tasks and results accomplished. Moreover, Apple utilizes two examination instruments for assessing its representative’s performance. The evaluation framework causes the HR to decide any lack in a specific expertise, and in this way embrace enlistment to supplant such productivity.
Since correspondence is imperative in each association, Apple has an extremely solid expertise of conveying data from best to down and the other way around, inputs are given on time and the essential advances are taking to enhance performance Pros and Cons, Employees in Apple are not permitted to utilize internet based life at work, that as well as are not permitted to make any basic remark on the organization on any online networking, since Apple thinks about its picture as the focal point of its prosperity (Akirekadu, et al. 2015). People in the association are no permitted to do anything that will annihilate their picture since it is the focal point of their prosperity.
Interviewer- What do you think is the leadership style followed in Apple Inc?
Interviewee- Apple Inc. is known for the democratic leadership it has been following for a long time. Apple is a company that was started from a very humble beginning. Being an employee of this organization I feel proud that the organization has come this long way and has established as one of the premium most successful tech companies in the world. Apple Inc. as we all know that has been producing some of the most famous gadgets in this world, including the iPhone series and the iMac series. It has been seen that people crave about these gadgets and queue up outside the shops to acquire when these are released in updated version every year. This has been only possible because of the leadership style in the company. When Steve Jobs was the CEO and the leader of the organization he set up some of the legendary leadership trends which is not only followed in this company but also various companies around the world. Steve Jobs had a mixed style of leadership which is democratic but also had dictatorial elements to it when required.
Interviewer- So it is Democratic Leadership in Apple which is followed?
Interviewee- Yes that is the official leadership position that is followed in the company. Tim Cook is also a great leader and he has not endeavored in changing the way leadership is perceived in Apple. Actually I think that the leadership style established by Steve Jobs and the various practices established by him would not ever be changed within the organization. This organization is deeply thankful to Steve Jobs for establishing it from scratch and setting up such wonderful organizational practices.
Democratic leadership is mainly based on the principle that the top management will take decisions after due consultation with the employees of the organization. This style of leadership is effective because it takes into consideration the view of all the employees of the organization which increases the success rates of the various actions that are being taken because it involves opinion of all the employees across the organization. It is often seen that the employees have better ideas because they work directly in the system and have the firsthand experience.
However often it is seen that Steve Jobs showed traits of dictatorial leadership, especially when it came to taking important decisions in the organization. He had his last say in such situations. Tim Cook is more democratic I must say in similar situations.
Interviewer-So what would you say as an opinion as an employee of the organization for last 5 years?
Interviewee- I have been with this organization for the last 5 and half years. I can say this with confidence that the organization takes care of its employees in the best way possible. Therefore it is inappropriate to say that there might be any problem in the style of leadership that is followed. Apple Inc is the best company in terms of employee management and organizational structure. The various leadership styles that prevails across various companies can be divided into the following categories, participative leadership, situational leadership, transactional leadership. Democratic leadership, autocratic/dictatorial leadership, servant leadership, laissez faire leadership among various other leadership styles. The leadership of Apple Inc. has appropriately selected the leadership style that can be aptly applied in this particular organization. Steve Jobs himself had one of the most charismatic leadership styles that has ever been experienced and it has now become a subject to study in various management organization across the world.
Interviewer- Do you think the leadership style followed in Apple Inc. is appropriate?
Interviewee- I am working in this organization because the employee management of this organization is advanced and well managed. This is only possible when the organizational leadership is strong and efficient. Apple strongly believes that the employees are the basic building blocks of the organization and satisfied employees automatically helps in building a successful organization. The satisfied and happy employees are more productive and dedicated. Therefore in the leadership styles such as autocratic or dictatorship the employees are not satisfied because they feel to be under pressure of someone. However when it is seen that the employees are taken into consideration when some important decisions are taken they feel to be a part of the organization and therefore the participation of the employees increase and they give more inputs to the organization. I personally have felt more important when the management asks me about my opinion before taking any important decisions of change within the organization. Management and Leadership of Apple Inc. understands the concept of giving the authority of participation of the management in the decision making process and how it one hand increases the efficiency of the organization by constant innovation by the people who are the basic building blocks of the organization- the employees, on the other hand the employees getting to participate in the organization becomes more motivated and gives more productivity.  The appropriateness of the leadership style of the organization can be understood by the success of the organization. And in this regards Apple Inc is one of the most successful organization in the world today. It is the producer of one of the most popular and successful mobile phone series which reflects the success of the organization.
Interviewer- How do you think the leadership has contributed to the organizational outcome of Apple Inc.?
Interviewee- Apple Inc. started in a garage and the two people who started the organization are Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, they started from a very humble beginning, they started to manufacture the first computers, and had the desire to make the computers available for everyone. The first concept of the successful desktop personal computers were built by Apple Inc. The two primary leaders of Apple Inc. were successful in gathering investments for their first project, the primary employees in the company state that they experienced how the two primary leaders were extremely charismatic in engaging the employees to be an integral part of the organization. They were also very successful in bringing investments in the company. However when it was required Steve Jobs could be using his authoritarian decision making capacity. All these leadership traits in the two primary founder leaders, especially Steve Jobs has resulted in the growth of the organization from such a humble beginning to the present status of tech giant is because of the leadership practiced by the founder. Therefore the contribution of the leaders in the growth of the organization is undeniable. I have already spoken about the appropriateness of the leadership that is followed in Apple, and the people who established this system certainly has contributed greatly to the growth of the organization.
Interviewer- Please describe the performance management and motivation systems used by the organisation.
Interviewee- Performance management is the method which gives accountability, measurement and feedback to the performance of an individual or group of individuals within an organisation. Every organisation which are having a strong management and have their own performance system the main aim of which is to assess that whether the organisation is fulfilling its purpose or it is falling back. At Apple Inc it is certainly believed that the performance of the individuals lead to the total performance of the organisation. A proper performance management system has the objective of enhancing and aligning the different parts of the organisation. The various components of the performance management system includes Appraisal, Coaching, and Goal Setting among others. Apple ensures that the short term organisational goals are made known to the employees very soon after these gaols are formed. The individual employees also put their input about the organisational goals and when a common goal is formed it is the responsibility of the employees to fulfil such gaols. In terms of Appraisal, it is a continuous process at Apple Inc. and it is not made a yearly event. Therefore the motivation of the employees remain high throughout the year. This enhances the performance of the employees in the organisation. The predetermined goals and objectives within the organisation are jointly agreed by all the individual employees and the line managers. The efficient appraisal system of Apple Inc. is helpful for the Human Resource department of the organisation to evaluate the employees for their appraisal efficiently.
In Apple Inc. we have also taken part in the process of Peer Appraisal. Peer appraisal is the process where the colleague appraise each other in terms of performance and behaviour within the organisation. The managers are usually the best people to understand the efficiency of the individuals working under them. However the peer group is also well aware about the performance of the colleagues as they work in the same setting with the same objectives. The team working towards the same objective has to be balanced by different employees of different skills, and in this particular system the employees review the performance of the peer group.
Interviewer—Do you think that the performance management system that is executed by Apple Inc is effective?
Interviewee—Apple is the best company in terms of rewarding the employees in the best way possible. The company has been engaged in business for a long time and has one of the most well developed human resource department. Denise Young Smith, who is the HR head of Apple Inc has herself stated the goals of the performance management strategies at Apple Inc. The main idea is to keep the work environment inclusive and employee friendly. The individuals must feel to be a part of the system and they all must contribute positively to the organization as a whole. It is for the employees that the company runs and therefore the company must be giving good rewards to the individual employees. It has been seen that the employees at Apple Inc are some of the most satisfied ones in the whole industry. We have some of the most employee friendly leave policies at place. The work environment is quite casual and we feel at home even when we are at work. These are some of the reasons that the employee retention level of the company also remains high. People feel that working at Apple is a great opportunity and many people dream about working at the company. The goodwill of the company in terms of dealing with the employees and keeping a hold on the employee attrition is one of the examples that is set in the tech world. Many companies throughout the world try to emulate Apple in managing the employees. However the huge infrastructure of Apple makes it easier for the company to execute the efficient employee management process.    
Evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the performance management, motivation and reward systems that the interviewee describes.
The reward system that is being described by Apple is one of the most efficient ones in the tech world followed today. This is understood simply by the fact that the level of employee satisfaction achieved by Apple is one of the highest. The company has been quite successful in achieving its human resource goals. Therefore it can be stated that the performance management, motivation and reward systems that the interviewee describes is quite efficient and effective. The various leadership theories like behavioural theory or the leadership styles that has been already described in the assignment has been effectively used by the company to achieve its various human resource targets. The leadership of the company is extremely efficient because of the inspiration and legacy left by the founder of the company Steve Jobs.
Akirekadu, A.N., Bhat, D.H., Gaffney, M.J., Fiste III, W.R. and Snyder, C.A., BoxTone Inc, 2015. Mobile application performance management. U.S. Patent 9,158,650.
Blenko, D., Waldron, K., Cornelius, J., Nespoli, G. and Lee, D., 2016. ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS: APPLE RETAIL STORES.
Bolden, R., 2016. Leadership, management and organisational development. In Gower handbook of leadership and management development (pp. 143-158). Routledge.
Goetsch, D.L. and Davis, S.B., 2014. Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: pearson.
Khan, U.A., Alam, M.N. and Alam, S., 2015. A critical analysis of internal and external environment of Apple Inc. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 3(6), pp.955-961.
Mone, E.M. and London, M., 2018. Employee engagement through effective performance management: A practical guide for managers. Routledge

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