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MOM705 Operations Management

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MOM705 Operations Management

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Course Code: MOM705
University: Asia E University

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Country: Malaysia


Operations management growth is incredible, and it is amazing to see the contributions of researchers from the early nineteenth century to today in applying scientific methods to integrate firms globally to manage production and services, along with the unprecedented growth of technology.  Today’s business environment expects firms to be flexible and agile to deal with uncertainties in decision-making.  To understand the extent to which sustainability has attracted researchers and practitioners in dealing with various facets of operations management.
Discuss the role of  Operations Management (OM) in the future organisations .
Select three (3) academic articles/journals on Operational Entrepreneurship (List of reference is requied), conduct a literature review on it.  
Facing  the Industry 4.0 and Digitalisation, as a Chief Operations Officer (COO),  discuss 
(a) how does it affect your organization?(b) what will be your plan to face this challenge? 


In the recent years there has been lot of articles which has witnessed the role of operations management associated to the operation performance in the service organizations. The main recognition of the issues has been seen to be based on the emphasis of the question how the operations management related activities has impacted the service level of firms. The future studies can focus on the different aspects like the geographic location, type of industry and tenure of the OM practice within the service organizations. The consideration of the geographic location operations will influence the larger clients in obtaining the operational practices for the smaller service organizations.
In case of the application of the operations concepts for the future organization the main implementation of the operational ideas is depicted with prediction of the customer’s demand such that the production can be continued adequately. The application of the forecasting tools is conducive for the management in terms of deciding the level of production, what to produce and when to produce a particular item. The future organizations are also depicted to be benefitted by ensuring effective monitoring and controlling of the supply chain activities. Some of the various types of the supply chain activities are also seen to be benefitted with the consideration of the configuration of the demand requirements for the raw material and the same is continued with the production of the final products of the firm.
The improvement in the operations needs to be further understood with the recent trends which is evident in the fields of automatization, performance management, employee analytics and outsourcing. The automatization processes in the business can be improved with the application of the concepts of the operations management. In terms of the online reservation process, automated chatbots, inline transactions function and check ins, there has been lot of issues which are related to the dependency on the technology. This is seen to be done by dedicating the machines to a particular business and the companies are seen to be freeing with the time of the employee and monitoring of the performance and the on-site sales. This will be able to free up the time of the employees and thereby focus on the customers and the products.
The application of the operational concepts will further allow the future organizations to produce detailed analytics which will provide the baseline for the implementation of the changes in the areas of production and development to the customer service. The implementation of the new control will allow the companies to track the performance of the websites and also focus on the employee productivity along with communication. The different types of the mobile collaboration app will allow the organization to identify the employees actively engaged in the collaboration and requiring assistance. In addition to this, operations management is beneficial in developing the surveys and automating the delivery process. It is further depicted to be useful in taking feedback from the employees. In several instances the prescheduling of the of the survey campaigns are helpful in receiving the employee feedback in crucial times (Beekeeper 2018). 
It needs to be further observed that the different nature of the assistance from the operations management to the future organizations are inferred with the outsourcing strategy among the top companies. In several instances contracting with the third-party agencies or individuals may be helpful to the companies in saving money and at the same time ensure all the tasks are able to receive appropriate attention. During any occasion, of the outsourcing is seen to be cheaper in compared to the hiring cost of the cost of the additional staff, the organizations should not have qualms for accepting the outside assistance which will be to save the company from financial disaster at the time investment is proved to be invaluable. The process of the operations management is also depicted to be beneficial for the internal communications. In general, the satisfied employees are seen to invest more in the organisation where the owners are seen to encourage the employee satisfaction. Operations management in several perspective is helpful in enhancement of the peer to peer communications which are conducive in enhancing the morale and project outcomes irrespective of the industry. In addition to this, the collaboration aspect is also helpful in addressing the concerns of the competition among the organizations and internal workplace.
The literature review conducted from three academic journals are illustrated as follows:

“The Entrepreneur and Entrepreneurship: Operational Definitions of their Role in Society”- Robert B. Carton

The research paper proposes the operational definitions related to the entrepreneurship and synthesize the past definitions into the operationalizable constructs. The findings of the research have shown that the entrepreneurship is the pursuit of the discontinuous opportunity for involving the creativity among the participants. According to the research results the entrepreneur is seen as the team or the individual which is able to identify the opportunity and accumulate the necessary resources which is ultimately responsible for the organization performance (Citeseerx.ist.psu.edu. 2018). Henceforth, entrepreneurship is seen as the means via new organizations are formed with wealth creation and resultant job.

“Operations Management Opportunities in Technology Commercialization and Entrepreneurship”- Viswanathan Krishnan

The study enumerates that the field of Operations management and production is increasingly considered as rigorous, although narrow field and present challenges have concerned the mangers in job creation and growth of the company which is vital to the economy. The research has further argued that the narrower positioning of the POM in the past is depicted to be responsible for the limited growth and the global economies. The production and OM is depicted with the concept of doing more with less. This well aligned with the paradigms of the research and relevant in meeting of the emerging challenges and thereby bringing growth mong the companies in the future. The main discussion in the research has been able to focus on how POM is essential in meeting the needs of the organization so that they are able to become sustainable and scalable in nature. The main objective of the POM is further depicted to stimulate the discussion and thought for encourage the entrepreneurial activity at an early stage (Rady.ucsd.edu. 2018).

“The New Field of Sustainable Entrepreneurship: Studying Entrepreneurial Action Linking” “What Is to Be Sustained” With “What Is to Be Developed”- Dean A. Shepherd

The research paper identified the concepts of the sustainable development and entrepreneurship literatures which has focused on the development and entrepreneurship literature which is offered with the following of the sustainable entrepreneurship. This is further depicted to focused on the preservation of the nature and support to the community which is in pursuit of the perceived opportunities for the future products, gain of service and processes. The illustration of the diversity in the research is seen with the advancement of the research agenda which is derived from psychology, institutional and economics perspectives. The research has further suggested that the research questions developed as per the sustainable entrepreneurship research. The important findings have revealed that entrepreneurship is focused with the pursuit of the perceived opportunities which brings the future products, services and processes into existence.
AirTac International Group established in 1988 with its headquarter situated in Taiwan is recognised as the supplier and manufacturer of pneumatic equipment across the world market. The company is specialised in producing of control components, actuators, accessories and air preparation products for manufacturing metallurgy, environment protection, industrial fields and packaging (Na-en.airtac.com. 2018).
Industry 4.0 is identified as the name for the trend of data exchange and automation among the manufacturing technologies. This concept includes cloud computing, cyber physical systems and Internet of things. The advent of industry 4.0 has also created Smart factory which allows modular structure to be developed for factories for better operation, thereby allowing for monitoring of physical processes. Therefore, in industry associated to manufacturing of Pneumatic components such as Airtac Industrial (M) Sdn Bhd, smart factory will be able to enhance the design used in robotics and add to the automation process (Lasi et al. 2014).
As a Chief Operations Office, I will ensure that Industry 4.0 is able to make the best utilisation of identification of four main design principles. This relates to the principle of interoperability, information transparency, technical assistance and decentralised decisions. The concretisation in the manufacturing process will focus on improving the present machines, sensors and the devices which are used to communicate with each other via Internet. Secondly, I will create a virtual digital plant models thereby adding the sensor data (Lee, Kao and Yang 2014). Service innovation and smart analytics for industry 4.0 and big data environment. Procedia Cirp, 16, pp.3-8.. This will require the aggregation of the raw sensor data to be integrated with the information. Thirdly, I will ensure that the technical assistance is supported by aggregating the information in a comprehensive manner for solving the urgent problems quickly and make informed decisions. I will also ensure that the cyber physical systems are enhanced by ensuring they are adequately backed by human co-workers. The decentralised decision-making will be taken for the ability to handle interfaces and exceptions with more clarity where the tasks delegated to a higher authority (Brettel et al. 2014).
According to Thompson et al. (2014), Plastics have been known to transform everyday life with the increasing annual production of up to 300 million tonnes worldwide in 2010. Despite of the increasing popularity, in terms of environment and human health and the use of plastics are posing serious threat to the sustainability of mankind. Therefore, in my opinion it is important to manufacture plastics which can be recycled and implemented into the organisational process with operations scheduling. One method can be adopted with shifting of high valuable low-volume production in order to resolute the problem of short-term production scheduling for multipurpose product in the industrial plant operations. However, in several cases it is not possible to dispose of the waste due to stricter environmental regulations without prior treatment. The scheduling and incorporating of waste management for plastics needs to be adopted with the safe recycling process. Therefore, thermal depolymerization is identified as the main process of choice for efficiently managing the recycling process of plastics in the perspective of operations scheduling (Vadera and Gudi 2014).
In the process of thermal depolymerization the depolymerisation process will be firstly done with hydrous pyrolysis for reducing the complex organic materials. These materials are usually seen in form of plastic, biomass and various products of other sorts. Therefore, this process reduces the complex organic materials like plastic into light crude oil. The process of thermal depolymerisation is seen to be similar with the geological process for procuring fossil fuels today. The first industrial process for obtaining of diesel fuels and several types of other products of petroleum were seen to be containing significant amount of calcium hydroxide added along with the mixture (Shui et al. 2015). In the early 1970s, the hydrous pyrolysis method where exemplified by the United States patent and the production of oil from sludge and sewers they were done in presence of carbon monoxide. In order to improve the process and eliminate the harmful impacts of carbon monoxide, the process of thermal depolymerization was depicted to be most viable and suited to the present environmental needs (Schieder et al. 2015).
It further mimics the natural geological process which is associated to the production of fossil fuels. In this process, a long chain of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen decomposes the short-chain petroleum hydrocarbons to a maximum limit of 18 carbons.
This process is followed with Hydrothermal Liquefaction. This is seen to be distinct from the process which involves dry materials to be depolymerisation into components such as pyrolysis. The conversion of biomass from plastics are heated with water which is termed as the process of “Thermochemical Conversion (TCC)” (Schuetzle et al. 2015). There have been several other commercial scale processes including the “SlurryCarb” process which operates with EnerTech, using a similar technology for decarboxylate the solid biowaste. The operations scheduling process for implementation of such a system should be based on short-term bad scheduling with the approach of minimising the downstream of the waste treatment cost.
Beekeeper. (2018). 5 Important Trends in Operations Management in 2018. [online] Available at: https://blog.beekeeper.io/5-important-trends-operations-management-2018/ [Accessed 22 Jul. 2018].
Brettel, M., Friederichsen, N., Keller, M. and Rosenberg, M., 2014. How virtualization, decentralization and network building change the manufacturing landscape: An Industry 4.0 Perspective. International Journal of Mechanical, Industrial Science and Engineering, 8(1), pp.37-44.
Citeseerx.ist.psu.edu. (2018). [online] Available at: https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi= [Accessed 22 Jul. 2018].
Effectuation.org. (2018). [online] Available at: https://www.effectuation.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Shepherd_et_al-2011-Entrepreneurship_Theory_and_Practice-1.pdf [Accessed 22 Jul. 2018].
Lasi, H., Fettke, P., Kemper, H.G., Feld, T. and Hoffmann, M., 2014. Industry 4.0. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 6(4), pp.239-242.
Na-en.airtac.com. (2018). AirTAC. [online] Available at: https://na-en.airtac.com/about.aspx?c_kind=1&c_kind2=8 [Accessed 23 Jul. 2018].
Rady.ucsd.edu. (2018). [online] Available at: https://rady.ucsd.edu/docs/faculty/krishnan3.pdf [Accessed 22 Jul. 2018].
Schieder, M., Lunkenbein, T., Bojer, C., Dulle, M., vom Stein, J., Auffermann, G., Löbling, T., Schöbel, J., Schmalz, H. and Breu, J., 2015. Selective Template Removal by Thermal Depolymerization to Obtain Mesostructured Molybdenum Oxycarbide. Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, 641(10), pp.1829-1834.
Schuetzle, D., Schuetzle, R., Hoekman, S.K. and Zielinska, B., 2015. The effect of oxygen on formation of syngas contaminants during the thermochemical conversion of biomass. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering, 6(4), pp.405-417.
Shui, H., Hui, Z., Jiang, Q., Zhou, H., Pan, C., Wang, Z., Lei, Z., Ren, S. and Kang, S., 2015. Co-thermal dissolution of Shenmu–Fugu subbituminous coal and sawdust. Fuel Processing Technology, 131, pp.87-92.
Thompson, R., Moore, C., vom Saal, F. and Swan, S. (2009). Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364(1526), pp.2153-2166.
Vadera, D. and Gudi, R. (2014). Scheduling Incorporating Waste Management using Decomposition Approaches. IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 46(32), pp.535-540.

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