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Multinationals: Global Headquarters

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Multinationals: Global Headquarters

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1. What is the name of the multinational, the number of employees in and out of Australia and global headquarters?2.What are the regulatory framework/s affecting the multinational company?3. What are the treaties, conventions or agreements that have impacted on the products or services that multinational company provides in Australia?
1. This is an Anglo- Australian multinational company that deals with minerals, metals and petroleum products and is headquartered in Melbourne, Australia. In 2015, it was valued and measured as one of the biggest measured by market value terms. In revenue collection it is the fourth largest company in Australia mainly behind financial and banking sector companies. It operates in the industrial and mineral sector. It was created in 2001 when the merger between BHP an Australian Limited Company and Billiton plc was effected. It is also one of the largest companies in Australia by market capitalization. 
The two companies that merged were initially founded in the 1880s and therefore do have a rich history in mineral and petroleum excavation (Blackstone and Morrison, 2001). Billiton plc was founded and incorporated in 1860 while BHP was founded in 1885. The company share is listed in the London Stock Exchange and is also among the most traded in the FTSE 100. BHP Billiton has a corporate headquarters located at the CBD Melbourne at 171 Collins Street in Australia. The companies had seen considerable growth in the 90s. After merging,  they combined their resources and expanded their mines from the usual mines in Europe and Australia and went global. They acquired mines and ores in South America, Asia and South Africa.
The company has gone on to make many more subsidiaries. In the year ending August 2016, the company recorded it worst loss in the company’s history posting a $6.4 billion dollars. It has therefore decided to concentrate more in petroleum business with many investments in the sector. In Australia the company has hired more than 20000 employees (Exploring, 2003). This is because the Australian market and business is larger than any other part of the word. The employee range from the managerial levels to down bottom laborers with a wide range of experience and skills. Globally, the company has an estimated 65000 employees. 
Characterizing the socio-ecological impacts of multinational Given the increasing poverty and global inequality and rising social rejection that have been generated, large corporations seeking to build a story with which it can question its centrality in the global economy (Feldstein, Hines and Hubbard, 2007). I am convinced that companies more part of the problem are part of the solution. Generally speaking, companies rather than governments and civil society, are better prepared to be catalysts for innovation and transformation towards a sustainable world 2. In Australia, the concern for the environmental issue is not recent. From the legal point of view, at the beginning of the last century, norms were dictated that, in one form or another, were aimed at regulating specific aspects of human activity, insofar as it has an environmental impact. Already in 1916 was passed the Law on the Neutralization of Residues from Industrial Establishments
The main purpose of this legal initiative was to eliminate the administrative procedure that consisted in the authorization of the President of the Republic, for the installation of liquid industrial waste treatment systems. In practice, this meant that an industrialist had to have recourse before various administrative authorities in order to put into operation his productive processes, duplicating procedures and procedures with the consequent costs both for the State in its role of caution of the common interest and for the interested parties themselves In carrying out productive work.
The mining industry has to be regulated in order to enhance proper
Types of Regulatory Instruments
Environmental regulations in Australia are contained in the following types of normative instruments Law: It is a declaration of the sovereign will that, manifested in the form prescribed by the Constitution, commands, prohibits or permits.
Decree: It is the written order issued by the President of the Republic or a Minister by order of the President of the Republic, on matters within its competence (Law 19.880).
Resolution: They are the acts of a similar nature dictated by the administrative authorities with power of decision.
Environmental Standards
Australia, in 1995, issued the Regulations for the Issuance of Environmental Quality and Emission Standards in accordance with the provisions of Articles 32 and 40 of Law 19.300, on General Bases for the Environment of 1994. The Regulations establish the procedure for The establishment of environmental quality standards, considering at least the following stages: technical and economic analysis, development of scientific studies, consultation of competent bodies, public and private, analysis of observations made and adequate publicity. This standard also establishes the deadlines and formalities for compliance required and the criteria for reviewing the current standards.
Under the above context, the available environmental standards are organized as follows:
Primary Environmental Quality Standard: They are those that establish the standards or values ??of concentrations and maximum periods and m
Definitions of Establishment
General Environmental Legislation: Establishes the general framework of environmental legislation, in Australia, is Law No. 19,300 on General Bases of the Environment, which establishes the country’s environmental institutions; Environmental management tools, (Environmental Impact Assessment System, Citizen Participation and the Procedure for the Dictation of Environmental Standards, etc.), as well as the framework within which new environmental legal provisions must be dictated and reviewed.
Specific Environmental Legislation:  there is a specific set of environmental legislation of a which establish specific requirements or requirements, generally aimed at preserving or preserving quality aspects of the environmental element and / or Establish emission requirements.
Other Environmental Regulations: There are requirements that although they are part of the Regulatory Framework applicable to a project, have no legal status. These types of requirements constitute voluntary commitments or obligations assumed by Ministries and their service companies, which are derived mainly from environmental policies, good practices or technical standards, which have been established through manuals, procedures or instructions originating in the respective Ministry or In other State institutions or international organizations. Also included in this group are technical or environmental specifications belonging to national or international financing bodies contained in the contractual commitments linked to the projects.
Sources of Environmental Legal Information:
Information sources on environmental legislation can be found on the websites of the institutions listed below, which are regularly updated.
As a product of the previous stages (situation analysis and thematic profiles), a set of needs and capacities common to the three Rio Conventions were identified, at the systemic level, ie within the framework of general policy frameworks, norms and responsibilities in Which operate the legal and natural persons, determining the need to strengthen national environmental policies and legislation, decentralize the management and execution of environmental projects, and improve levels of intra-institutional, inter-institutional and intersectoral coordination, among others. At the individual level, capacity needs were focused on training human resources, improving the level of education and environmental awareness of the population and mining problems in Australia.
I am convinced that companies more part of the problem are part of the solution. Generally speaking, companies rather than governments and civil society, are better prepared to be catalysts for innovation and transformation towards a sustainable world 
3. We consider that the consequences of the operations of transnational corporations can be summarized in five fundamental dimensions (economic, political, social, environmental and cultural), which in turn are derived from another Series of impacts (labor, fiscal, gender, etc Tully, 2012). This Working Paper addresses the issue of direct taxation at the international level, with a particular development of all those issues, which, within the tax and fiscal knowledge, affect the new situation in which the full integration in the European Economic Community. The need to orient the strategies in which the new European companies move, such as the special impact that direct taxation has on the neutral decisions of investment and financing, has moved the authors to carry out this work, In which it is intended to establish, in a theoretical way, what should be the fiscal principles on which a structure of corporate taxation should rest in the various countries that make up the Community.
The reality of the country’s mining infrastructure is that it has had more stumbling blocks than the President of the Republic, Juan Manuel Santos, estimated at the beginning of his term, when he assured that the mining-energy locomotive would remain ‘at full steam’, A situation that has not been fully addressed for different reasons, such as illegal mining, infrastructure attacks and the lack of more roadways, more modern ports and an expansion of the pipeline network.
The Peaceful Alliance
And in this struggle to achieve international standards in the field of crude oil, the country is achieving some of the goals it had set itself, such as the sustained production of more than 1 million barrels a day of oil, thanks to foreign investment.
Alternative Energy
The outlook for Colombia is encouraging in terms of clean and sustainable energy and an example of this is that most of the electricity
Characterizing socio-ecological impacts of multinationals
Faced with the increase in poverty and inequalities worldwide and the growing social rejection they have been generating, large corporations are aiming to build a story that cannot be questioned about their centrality in the global economy: “I am convinced that the most That part of the problem is part of the solution. In general terms, companies, rather than governments and civil society, are better prepared to be catalysts for innovation and transformation towards a sustainable world, ” Thus, in order to increase their social legitimacy and position themselves as an essential actor to “get out of the crisis”, they present theories with objectivity and neutrality that aim to demonstrate the positive impacts of their activities on aspects such as technology transfer, The provision of public and private goods, increased employment, women’s access to the labor market and the promotion of investment as a driving force for development . Faced with this, different centers of study, non-governmental organizations and social movements – as well as certain sectors of academia that still resist accepting the logic of excellence and the obligatory transfer of knowledge from the university to the company – have come Performing a work of documentation and systematization on the consequences of the global expansion of transnational corporations within the framework of the current socioeconomic model First, transnational corporations have not contributed to an improvement in the quantity and quality of employment, nor in the provision of the services they offer, have practically no investments in maintenance, have hardly favored technological transfer processes and,
Permanent Court of the People
When it comes to advancing both the denunciation of abuses committed by transnational corporations and the processes of mobilization and resistance that allow the construction of alternatives to the domination of large corporations, one of the most interesting experiences is that in recent years , Has been articulated around the Permanent Peoples’ Tribunal (TPP). And the different sessions of this court of opinion that have been dedicated to judge the impacts of the presence of the multinational companies in Australia have contributed to foment the investigation and systematization of the negative effects produced by these companies. Through the dynamics of struggle and resistance that are expressed in the realization
Resisting against the power of large corporations The theoretical framework just described, which includes the main impacts caused by multinational companies, allows us to visualize the line of continuity that can be traced between the power of large corporations in the economic, political, social, environmental and Cultural and the impacts that they generate in these same dimensions. In other words, the negative effects of the presence of transnational corporations around the world are not merely negative consequences of bad practices, but the necessary conditions to sustain and increase their power at all levels. In this context, the struggles and social mobilizations faced by large corporations, users, consumers, trade unionists, feminists, ecologists, indigenous peoples, activists and, in particular, those most affected by Business impacts play a central role in the claims that point to the responsibility of multinational companies in a socioeconomic model that globalizes poverty and inequality. In this way, campaigns, resistances and mobilizations against the largest transnational’s operating in sectors such as, mining, agriculture, finance, electricity and water have multiplied throughout the world, In many of these campaigns a strong social mobilization component is present, since on the basis of them they have connected and articulated popular struggles that find in the transnational companies one of their main antagonists when defining new models of economy and development.
Blackstone, W. and Morrison, W. (2001). Commentaries on the laws of England. London: Cavendish Pub.Branch, A. (2013). Elements of port operation and management. New York: Chapman and Hall.
Exploring. (2003). 1st ed. Canberra: The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia.
Feldstein, M., Hines, J. and Hubbard, R. (2007). The Effects of Taxation on Multinational Corporations. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Karas, G. (2005). On earth. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.
Marti?nez Lucio, M. (2014). International human resource management. London [u.a.]: Sage.
Mujih, E. (2016). Regulating multinationals in developing countries. London: Routledge.
Park, L. and Banyai, I. (2007). Tap dancing on the roof. New York: Clarion Books.
Rugman, A. and Eden, L. (n.d.). Multinationals and transfer pricing.
Strauss, R. and Woods, R. (2007). One well. Toronto: Kids Can Press.
Tully, S. (2012). International corporate legal responsibility. Alphen aan den Rijn: Wolters Kluwer Law et Business.

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