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NIT2201 IT Profession And Ethics

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NIT2201 IT Profession And Ethics

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Course Code: NIT2201
University: Victoria University

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Country: Australia


Proceed according to the following instructions.
Identify a recent within the last six  months ethical dilemma or ethically questionable situation relating to ICT that you are familiar with. This situation can be either in the media for example one you have sourced from a newspaper, or online through social media or through your workplace.
a. If using a workplace example, to maintain confidentiality, do not use real names.
b. If you use a media article you must include the link to the media article in the references list of your assignment.
Identify the key ethical issues contained in your chosen case and use the three distinct perspectives of applied ethics including professional, philosophical, sociological/descriptive ethics to analyse the ethical issues involved in the case. 

The main aim of the document is to discuss about the ethical dilemma faced by the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in recent days. This document will discuss about data breaching for examining the ethical issue involved in it. Social media has become one of the most important parts of human beings. Lot of time has spent over surfing the social media. One of the widely used social networking sites is Facebook, as this provides platform for both business and personal purpose. It provides features such as discover, remarks, share, advertisement and communication for a large amount .In this document, selected situation for ethical dilemma is Facebook data breaching. This ethical dilemma affected the views and opinions of supporters on behalf of representative and politicians in year 2018. According to the report, it has been observed that for meeting this purpose data collection started earlier at 2014 and for this Cambridge Analytica helped them (McNamee & Parakilas, 2018). The main question arises here , is that how can a company like Facebook allow a third party to leak and alter data of its users, this is against ethics. A large amount of people got affected from this incident all over the world (Bakshy, Messing & Adamic, 2015). Critical analysis will be done based on three different perspectives for addressing the issues related to ethics, this are professional, sociological and philosophical ethics.
Professional Ethics Perspectives
Professional ethics perspective is often referred to as deontological perspective. According to Tavani (2011), professional ethics perspective is a type of perspective that determines standards for personal behavior and business, strategy and ideology. There are some specific components in professional ethics perspective, this are transparency, integrity and accountability (Durkheim, 2013). Organization of ICT seeks help for their work execution and function from professional ethics perspective. In addition to providing guidelines, ethics function ensures that there is a need for awareness among the organization regarding the current situation.
In 2018, an ethical issue arose from the well-known social media Facebook. The most recent and well-known situation of ethical dilemma is from the most renowned company Facebook. In March 2018,Facebook data breaching incident became the biggest ethical issue of the year. According to the reports , there were around 250,000 The report  claims that ,this application provided information gathered from the users to Cambridge Analytica. This condition violates the professional ethics code followed by the Facebook. The reputation of this organization is also under threat; moreover, the CEO of Facebook guaranteed the users that there would be proper investigation after getting the reports of data breaching. The professional components of Facebook such as reliability, honesty, loyalty and integrity got affected largely due to data breach incident.
Earlier also Facebook faced many controversies, but this time the issue became intense as it effected the data security. Facebook officials implemented necessary guidelines for ethics, so that the behavioral and professional objective can be understood easily (Williams & Gulati, 2013). The question arises on the security provided by Facebook towards their users. This resulted in trust issues among the users of Facebook.
After the controversy, it was suggested that the code of professional ethics would have confined, if Facebook maintained the transparency with the users. From a renowned company like Facebook it is expected that they will consider a process that is ethically appropriate and will not harm the privacy of the user and their clients. The CEO of the company encountered the problem and ensured that this kind of incident will not get repeated in future (Badshah, 2018).
Philosophical Ethics Perspectives
This segment of paper will analyze and discuss the philosophical ethics in respect to the incident of data breaching in Facebook. Tavani (2011 ) stated that ,the aim of  philosophical ethics is to analyze the ethical behavior of an association by recommending, defending and systemizing . It is necessary for every association to follow some rules and laws in order to continue in the world of business. In this growing technology world , business changes daily and thus it becomes necessary to gain trust and priority from end user. Company expenses a lot of revenue on managing data , as managing information over net is a crucial job for the ICT  management. This perspective provides ICT companies for proper management with a set of ethics code. The main challenge faced by the organization is managing and increasing the security (Christians et al., 2015). Companies like Facebook, faced incidents that questioned on the data security. As Facebook is a platform, where people share their daily activities, this turns as a genuine concern and they may feel unsafe and will eventually end up by avoiding the use of this platform (Gardelli, Alerby &Persson, 2014). With the use of social media like Facebook and other sites , their arises a requirement of data security and privacy as technology had developed a lot this days.
After the incident of data breaching in Facebook , some preventive measures adopted such as a modified settings , so that the user can know who is viewing the post . This provides the users with assurance that their data are safe. In addition to this, a new module got featured, this will check the permission of an individual to function the post in the news feed. Facebook needs a panel of expertise for handling such cases of ethical dilemma in future. Therefore, need of modification in the ICT policies of the organization (Kosinski, 2015).
Sociological/Descriptive Ethics Perspectives
According to Tavani(2011)  descriptive or sociological dilemma in ethics occurs as a response of an individual or a group of people. This involves research based on theories and observation from applied ethics. The main objective of descriptive ethics is to explain the consequences of ethical dilemma in the society. This will illustrate the dilemma in ethics in compare with ethical assessment making process. Descriptive ethics examines the situation of ethical issue created by an individual or society based on politics and actions of law (Baum & Smith, 2013). This part of the paper is concerned with the situation created due to data breaching of Facebook .Considering the dilemma of data breaching in Facebook, descriptive ethics will focus to examine the situation faced by the users is ethical or not. Further, this will try to explain the ethical reasoning of an individual while discussing about their views regarding the data breaching.
Users throughout the world, found this an unethical behaviour. The behaviour of a user and staffs that will affect the society or an individual comes under cyber ethics. Government had proposed several acts related to cyber ethics, and every site in the cyber needs to abide by the rules and regulation. Facebook has also adopted some specific cyber ethics policies. However, Facebook has failed in maintaining the privacy of their users and allowed third party to access their information. After this situation, UK government decided to impose penalty if anyone violates the Data protection Act of 1998 (Curtis & Curtis, 2018). People shared their views on this issue, that influencing someone else’s political view is not at all an ethical act. This issue became a debate topic among the social media users. As the political views were influenced by this, the government organization regarding to politics came under pressure (Confessore, 2018).
It is necessary for an association like Facebook to consider several moral issues that are related to ICT such as maintaining stability between ethical and technological problem, property issues, confidentiality security and human rights within the organisation. Facebook must grant rules in order to protect this platform for Facebook user. As Facebook is among the trusted social media platforms, the responsibility of Facebook increases in terms of social, professional and ethical to a huge extent.
From the paper, it can be concluded that, this year faced a major issue regarding to data breaching in Facebook. The paper had efficiently discussed all the professional, sociological and philosophical perspective of ethics in respect to the incident of data breaching and provides the consequences faced by the users of this social networking site.
Badshah, N. (2018). Facebook to contact 87 million users affected by data breach. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/apr/08/facebook-to-contact-the-87-million-users-affected-by-data-breach
Bakshy, E., Messing, S., & Adamic, L. A. (2015). Exposure to ideologically diverse news and opinion on Facebook. Science, 348(6239), 1130-1132.
Baum, D. A., & Smith, S. D. (2013). Tree thinking: an introduction to phylogenetic biology. Greenwood Village, CO: Roberts.
Christians, C. G., Richardson, K. B., Fackler, M., Kreshel, P., & Woods, R. H. (2015). Media Ethics: Cases and Moral Reasoning, CourseSmart eTextbook. Routledge.
Confessore, N. (2018). Cambridge Analytica and Facebook: The Scandal and the Fallout So Far. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/04/us/politics/cambridge-analytica-scandal-fallout.html
Curtis, S., & Curtis, S. (2018). Facebook facing fine in UK over infamous data breach. Retrieved from https://www.welivesecurity.com/2018/07/12/facebook-fined-data-privacy-scandal/
Durkheim, E. (2013). Professional ethics and civic morals. Routledge.
Gardelli, V., Alerby, E., & Persson, A. (2014). Why philosophical ethics in school: implications for education in technology and in general. Ethics and Education, 9(1), 16-28.
Kosinski, M., Matz, S. C., Gosling, S. D., Popov, V., & Stillwell, D. (2015). Facebook as a research tool for the social sciences: Opportunities, challenges, ethical considerations, and practical guidelines. American Psychologist, 70(6), 543.
McNamee, R., & Parakilas, S. (2018). The Facebook breach makes it clear: data must be regulated. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/mar/19/facebook-data-cambridge-analytica-privacy-breach
Tavani, H. T. (2011). Ethics and technology: Controversies, questions, and strategies for ethical computing. John Wiley & Sons.
Williams, C. B., & Gulati, G. J. J. (2013). Social networks in political campaigns: Facebook and the congressional elections of 2006 and 2008. New Media & Society, 15(1), 52-71.

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