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PMGT 702 : Leadership

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PMGT 702 : Leadership

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Course Code: PMGT702
University: Centennial College

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Country: Canada

Question: 

1. Identify the critical leadership issues necessary to move towards a resolution of overpopulation as a wicked problem.
2. Critically apply the critical leadership issues identified in 1 above to the wicked problem.
3. Justify your conclusion that the critical leadership issues are in fact pertinent to the Overpopulation as ‘Wicked’ problem.
4. Develop a leadership approach/framework to move towards a resolution of the Overpopulation as ‘Wicked’ problem.
5. Justify how your leadership approach/framework will contribute to a resolution of the Overpopulation as ‘Wicked’ problem.

Answer: 

Introduction:
Overpopulation is one of the growing problems all over the world as the challenges faced by this reason is relevant and staged. The social equity is the concerning aspect that every individual wants in the earth, but the process of identity-making is becoming a challenge for the people. The existence of high in number and constrain about the social objectives are violated in that case. Human behaviour also changed through the process and an inequitable proportion of living good and bad sustain in the earth. The perspective of global overpopulation is broad and controlling the population is a high-risk process as the factors like social, economic, political, reproductive process, health, mortality, migration rates all these are important in that case and their justification in every aspect is needed (Perry & McEwing, 2013). The population size and area in different places are quite different, this same strategy cannot be applied at every level. Rather global toxification, alternation of critical biogeochemical cycles, vast epidemics, civilization-destroying nuclear war all these processes curtail overpopulation. However, this is not a systematic way to get rid of this wicked problem.  
Analysis of Wicked Problem 
Overpopulation is considered as the wicked problem as the biophysical problems along with the deteriorating global systems also align with that. The development of ethical and social disruption is formulated through the process of overpopulation and thus considered as the wicked problem. The perceptual growth of population is right as the over-consuming of rich and devastation of poor cannot maintain the right way of social balance (Fernando, 2016). The process needs to be stopped by the use of the effectiveness of leadership. The future survival and mass starvation have happened all around the world, the environment is also polluted high in number and human life cycle is creating pressure over the environment. Disease and death also increasing rapidly and rural areas are affected in high numbers. Overpopulation destroys the natural environment, exhausting resources and putting societies under the risk. The response from the global process extent in wildlife and environmental analysis. As mentioned by Darling & Young, (2018), the consumption of food, water, electricity, non-essential products all these is curtailed through time after time. The resources are not unlimited and in some days those will sum up.
                                     
This wicked problem creates global warming, environmental pollution, habitat loss, consumption of finite natural resources, intensive farming practices, arable lands and fossil fuels. The situation is so worse at that moment that less than 1% of world’s freshwater rest for living beings. Through the Global Outlook for Water Resources, the report has come that declare half of the world population will face water vulnerability (Peters, 2017). The available fresh water percentage will be less and developing nations are also facing the threat in that case. ‘Global Water Crisis’ will happen in 2030 and the planet will face severe condition at that time and they do not have any other option to regain the natural water. The alternative process is there but that will not be the ultimate momentum to cherish on. In Northern Africa, the Middle East, India, China, Pakistan and the US, 10 times faster fresh water consuming process continues (Makinde, 2012). The World Conservation Union (IUCN) makes track over the system and that declares degradation of the ecosystem and further loss of environment and culture.
                                         
Lower life expectancy is needed to be controlled. The less developing regions produce more in an aspect of childbirth. According to Harvard study, 2-2 billion projected increase of people will be expected in Africa. The leader needs to drive the process in a formulate ways so that some effective results can be drawn (Kirby, 2014). The transformation of human wellbeing and align the process with social, policy, market and consumer will also strengthen the process of biodiversity and control overpopulation process. Leaders need to take some steps against the demographic aspect of society, sometimes against the law and legislation and sometimes against the economic and political barrier, the process of new rule establishment is important for the development of globe.
Discussion and justification of critical leadership issues applicable to the Overpopulation
The leadership approach in case of overpopulation is essential and proposed campaign in changing the global aspect a huge task for the leader. The global community of long-term environmental-centric process persist in that process, leaders have just made the path to accumulate the growth and sustainability of the earth (Dhillon et al., 2016). The issues that leaders have to face in case of controlling the huge population in different nations are the sociological difference of people, cluster areas of people gathering, uses of suburbs and process of unity making, low level of education and the difference between sustainability and production. China is the most populated country in the world and most of the people is in the eastern half of China (MulvAny, 2012). India is placed in number two and high population density exists in that nation. The US is in the third position and Indonesia is fourth in rank.
                                         
The process of cluster form of living and their associated maintenance is the key process, but the process of economic and demographic culture will be the concerning aspect of mitigating the wicked problem. In the case of Brazil, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Bangladesh all the nations are ranked thereafter, so the process of legitimate use of theories and concepts are different. Universal admittance of innocuous and actual contraceptive option for both the sexes is important in that case (Navas, 2013). The process of education, especially for girls, are actual movements in that case. Education is the most important thing in that case and that provide awareness in human and they understand the importance of environmental sustainability. The process of eradicating gender biases is the key aspect in that case. Women education is the key area that needs to be highlighted in front of government and their development aspects of having a good life are also important.
The leader needs to be ethically correct so that sexuality in education will not be considered. Law, economic opportunity and health and culture of people is a concerning aspect of leader and the leader has to take a track so that the control process will be formulated in a legitimate way (Rasila & Mudau, 2012). The process of putting environmental cost and highlight the issue to the environment authority of the nation and let them engage with the process to mitigate the curse. Ageing problem adjustment and replace this with the boosting childbearing is the concern approach in that case. Government initiatives and programmes are important in that case to stabilize the population in a controlled manner. As mentioned by Jewell (2012), the human rights development is also important to stop these nine billion people. The logical representation of the global and regional change in climate is the concern option and that highlighted to the mass people so that they can see the reality, poverty, pain through their own eyes and aware them for the development of the nation as well as for global aspect.  
Leadership approach/framework 
Some effective leadership processes are important for the formulation of overpopulation. Transformational leadership is the best way to change the approach globally. The leadership process influence people to educate, change their mindset, stimulate them towards the awareness of the logical framework of transformation. The idealised influence is the key procedure in that case. Leaders inspire through their motivation and intellectual motivation provide through them (McCoy et al., 2013). The ideal approach to changing the nature of the world and evolve some processes that manage overpopulation. The impact of climate change is important in that case and that will be estimated through the reduce population. The leader has to divert people towards the education so that effective decision can be made through them. Women education is important along with the positive work culture for men so that civilised ray of hope will come to those underrated societal people.
The process of the pre-industrial era, when environment change perspective is crucial as the barren land are combined for the crop, river discharge is not possible, the area of sub-tropical regions are under threat. The process of change management by the leader is effective. The ecosystem and service problems are there in the system, but the leader needs to handle the situation in an effective way so that people will motivate in a particular way and get the success. The mainstream of the world’s people cannot locate jobs that wage an attired salary nowadays (Cafaro & Crist, 2012). The cumulative overflow of labours in farming and industry is particularly worrying. Basic opposing advice is classically related to the definitive added people increases ultimatum for goods and amenities, which makes additional jobs. Though, if that impression were lawful then slum process will eradicate and people have found their own place to settle down and they have identified the good opportunities that they find for the sustainable condition of the environment.
The framework highlights three effective processes that transformational leader follows for the sustainable condition of the environment. Emphasise education, prioritise the ease of access model and promote normal rather smaller family size.
                                       
                                            Figure 4: Leadership approach to aware people to mitigate overpopulation
                                                                              (Source: Created by Author)
The first aspect is education and the process is essential enough for the people especially for women. The process needs to start from the base level, this is the only way to eradicate the problem from the root. There are some rural areas in different nations where basic education is not applicable and that is the reason, they are under the shade of light, awareness and equity in social life. As mentioned by Cooke et al., (2012), the process can be changed if the proper approach of dealing education in a right form will be accessed in a proper way. The transformational leadership process will highlight the issue and make sure government also initiate some effective steps against this process.
On the other hand, the decline in fertility in the human will be effective for the control of overpopulation. If childbirth is an issue of overpopulation, then rapid fertility decline will be effective to control the problem. The medical field is improving and most of the challenges are faced in an easy way for this reason. The technological development in the medical world is the main aspect to nullify the process and analyse the birth system of children. There will be no issue of having child protectiveness of sex life, rather control situation will persist in the world.

Europe

Population in 2018 (millions)

745.4

Projected population in 2030 (millions)

750. 3

Projected population in 2050 (millions)

731.1

Birth per 1000 population (2018)

10

Death per 1000 population (2018)

11

Rate of natural resources

– 0.1%

Infant mortality rate per 1000 live births (2018)

4

Total fertility rate (2018)

1.6

Gross national income per capote PPP (2017)

$35,508

Percentage of population living in Urban areas (2018)

74%

Percentage of the married woman (15-49) using contraception (2017)

70%

Average life expectancy at birth years, males (2018)

75

Average life expectancy at birth years, females (2018)

82

Life expectancy at age 65 years, males

17

Life expectancy at age 65 years, females

20

Percentage of population ages 65 and older (2018)

18%

 
The last segment that transformational leader needs to do is the change in family sizes. The one-child legislation for high polluted countries needs to be implemented. The process is not always applicable to the less polluted countries, but in the case of global aspects, China, India, Indonesia, the US, Brazil can implement the process. The process of equity, equality, proportionality, universality all these are processed in a right manner if single child legislation has passed in this process (Loseke, 2017). This is a big strategic movement that needs to be introduced to control these 9 billion people worldwide. The control in families is an issue in rural areas, where the development of people in the aspect of the sociological and demographical process is less. Thus clear and compassionate process of controlling the overpopulation is the best idea that can be used to mitigate overpopulation.

Justification of how leadership approach/framework contributes to resolving the overpopulation
The goal of the leadership is to catalyse the international campaign which leads to establish the framework for the resolving the overpopulation across the world. The leadership framework will provide a joint international position statement on the overpopulation representing the countries that suffer most. Overpopulation in countries does not occur due to just the increased birth-rates; however for the increased availability of the longer lifespan and good medical care. The leaders must follow the transformational leadership with the core characteristics of good judgment, communication skills, interpersonal skills, confidence and competence of knowledge (May & Previte, 2016). Transformational leaders can share their message to the people with internal motivation along with self-management. Transformational leaders have the ability to make the decisions in difficult situations. However, overpopulation is a complex problem and it is related to the spreading the awareness to the families (Loseke, 2017). People are needed to be educated thoroughly so that the people’s actions must affect the entire country.
The leaders can use their political power or the power of optimism to take the right tasks. Solving the issue of overpopulation is no less than taking the calculated risks to make the people understand their desires. Transformational leaders believe in their guts and the leaders take the input around them. The desire of the transformational leaders in the society is to bring the adaptability within the society. The transformational leaders are willing to adapt in difficult situations and they can spend with the backwards classes to make the people understand the issues related to overpopulation. Open-mindedness of the people can help to change the lifelong learning. Living with the backward classes, the leaders can teach the women about family planning (Spears & Lawrence, 2016). The leaders can make the family planning clinic where the individuals can get the idea of family planning. In bigger scale, the political leaders can pass the parliamentary regulation to ban the second babies in the nation. In addition, voluntary sterilisation can also be done to solve the issues.
In the rural sides of the country, the leaders take the necessary steps to deliver more birth control products to the people so that the rural people can use the birth control products. These types of products mainly use in high price; however, the government-aided agencies can sell these products at lower prices. Leaders in the politics can make awareness of the overpopulation to be started during the high school. It is necessary for the schools to integrate the lesson of sex education as it can make the young generation matured regarding psychological improvement, medical effects and emotional conditions. Moreover, the transformational leadership style is appropriate to eradicate the issue of overpopulation as the leaders have to work with the religious institutions where the religion talks about abstaining the use birth control pill, devices and artificial contraceptive (Pisithpunth et al., 2014). The leadership framework of solving the overpopulation needs to start from the removing the politics that reward the large families. The leadership framework needs to propagate the education, promote family planning, government incentive and one-child legislation.
Recommendations and justification of each recommendation 
The first recommended action is to start the education system at the root level process. If women involved with education in a proper manner, then awareness in their mind will be clear and they also understand the importance of mitigation of overpopulation. There are multiple levels in education but 43% of women are not aware this globally. The adjustment criteria are also different in each nation but the procedure of maintaining population can be underpinned through the process. Education not only helps in awareness but also provide them political, economic, legislation, social thoughts and provide them with a base to think on over these broad aspects of the environment.
The next recommended process deals with single child process and this is justified in terms of not only controlling the overpopulation but also deliver a better opportunity to that child to have that individual attention and competition in every section will be curtailed. There must be some initiative or any legal permission need to be authorised from the government so that the childbirth rate will be under control.
In the case of global stability, environmental sustainability will be the crucial aspect that channelizes all the programmes throughout the world for the environmental sustainability. Future place formation in different places and formulate suburbs or the dense rural areas for the living will be some alternatives options that need to be highlighted so that people have some planning to make space over there. The concept of innovative living place will eradicate the per capita number of people. The sections will emphasise environment process if the people over their make some sustainable step to reform the process and have some global outlook to change the global perspectives. The widespread overpopulation is fragmented in the different genre, thus strategies will be based on people and their thoughts and behaviour over the process and their mental development and understanding of the problems face by overpopulation.
Conclusion:
Therefore it can be concluded that crisis for the issue of overpopulation is valid and significant in terms of imbalance situation of the world. Globally, most of the polluted countries are creating the huge problem for their people also, but this simple thing is not underpinning by the government itself. They have some rules and regulations as well, but these are not implemented in the proper way. Most of the rural areas are victimised by that process, rather rural areas of third world countries are suffering badly. The system of base-level education and ‘Education for all’ will be accepted and formulated by every citizen of the nation and the need to backing up the system. The earth is capable of handling this much of the population but the natural resources are the main argumentative point that creates the problem and underpin the disaster for the people as well as for earth. The way of highlighting human birth is a strong aspect of overpopulation, so the advanced medical system will be used for the mitigation of childbirth rate. The proven facts also justified that climate change and global warming process in the world is happened due to the imbalance human resources and uncontrollable handling of the human.
References:
Cafaro, P., & Crist, E. (Eds.). (2012). Life on the brink: environmentalists confront overpopulation. University of Georgia Press.
Cooke, P. S., Borsdorf, D. C., Ekman, G. C., Doty, K. F., Clark, S. G., Dziuk, P. J., & Bartol, F. F. (2012). Uterine gland development begins postnatally and is accompanied by estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in the dog. Theriogenology, 78(8), 1787-1795.
Darling, R. J., & Young, S. (2018). Crisis leadership: a leader’s new normal. In The Routledge Companion to Risk, Crisis and Security in Business (pp. 136-159). Routledge.
Dhillon, J., Favel, D., Delorme, D., Ratt, A., & Epp, T. (2016). Finding pathways for bite prevention and decreasing dog populations: The process of animal control for indigenous communities in Canada. Journal of Indigenous Wellbeing, 2(2), 82-92.
Fernando, M. (2016). Responsible leadership in theory. In Leading Responsibly in the Asian Century (pp. 71-101). Springer, Cham.
Jewell, P. A. (2012). Problems in management of locally abundant wild mammals. Elsevier.
Kirby, A. (2014). leadership, sustainability and urban education. Geography, 99(Part 1).
Loseke, D. (2017). Thinking about social problems: An introduction to constructionist perspectives. Routledge.
Makinde, O. O. (2012). Urbanization, housing and environment: Megacities of Africa. International Journal of Development and Sustainability, 1(3), 976-993.
May, C. & Previte, J., (2016). Understanding the midstream environment within a social change systems continuum. Journal of Social Marketing, 6(3), pp.258-276.
McCoy, J. C., Ditchkoff, S. S., Raglin, J. B., Collier, B. A., & Ruth, C. (2013). Factors influencing survival of white-tailed deer fawns in coastal South Carolina. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, 4(2), 280-289.
MulvAny, A. (2012). FROM RESILIENCE TO RELIANCE. STATE DISRUPTION OF TRADITIONAL FLOOD MITIGATION STRATEGIES. Croatian Journal of Ethnology & Folklore Research/Narodna Umjetnost, 49(1).
Navas, V. R. (2013). The “ecological” stock:”a financial market instrument for global scale climate change mitigation”. In Mechanism Design for Sustainability (pp. 171-190). Springer, Dordrecht.
Perry, K. M., & McEwing, L. (2013). How do social determinants affect human trafficking in Southeast Asia, and what can we do about it? A systematic review. Health Hum Rights, 15(2), 138-59.
Peters, J. L. (2017). Mitigating the Impact of Climate Change on Human Health: The Role of the Medical Community. AMA Journal of Ethics, 19(12), 1153.
Pisithpunth, C., Petridis, P., Lameras, P. & Dunwell, I., (2014), June. THE GROWTH: An Environmental Game Focusing on Overpopulation Issues. In International Conference on Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality (pp. 210-221). Springer, Cham.  
Rasila, N., & Mudau, J. (2012). Effective communication as catalyst of developmental local government and rural development amid threats of overpopulation. Africa’s Public Service Delivery & Performance Review, 1(2), 36-50.
Spears, L.C. & Lawrence, M. eds., (2016). Practising servant-leadership: Succeeding through trust, bravery, and forgiveness. John Wiley & Sons.

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