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PPTI5036 Policy And Planning In The Tourism Industry

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PPTI5036 Policy And Planning In The Tourism Industry

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Course Code: PPTI5036
University: Greenwich School Of Management

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Country: United Kingdom

Question:

Learning outcomes assessed:
Analyse the influence of local and national governments and international agencies on the travel and tourism industry.
Define and explain key concepts and issues concerning tourism planning, tourism public policy and tourism management.
Critically evaluate several important tourism planning approaches and models.
Assess government and industry roles and responsibilities in tourism planning and policy-making.
Investigate the roles and responsibilities of the following organisations:  

        United Nation World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO)
        Department of Culture Media and Sports
        Visit Britain  
        Visit Scotland  

Analyse each organisation on their influences on the travel and tourism industry.  
The second task (LO2):         
Define and explain key concepts and issues concerning tourism planning, tourism policy and tourism management.
Areas to be covered:

Briefly define and discuss the meaning of tourism policy and the importance it is to tourism.
Explain and discuss tourism planning and process.
Using the triangle of three major components in tourism management, discuss the three components considered to be the main approaches to tourism management.

Answer:

United Nation World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
The tourism industry has emerged as one of the most important ones in the present times and it is generally seen that it contributes a substantial amount of revenue not only towards the economy of the concerned nation but at the same time towards the world economy as well (Han and Hyun 2015). It is a reflection of this particular fact that the United Nations undertook the foundation of the “United Nation World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)” which is mainly concerned not only with the promotion of sustainable, universally accessible but at the same time responsible tourism throughout the world (World Tourism Organization UNWTO 2018). Furthermore, the official website of the “United Nation World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)” itself states the major role of this particular organization wherein it states that its role is “to collect, to analyze, to publish, to standardize and to improve the statistics of tourism, and to promote the integration of these statistics within the place of the United Nations system” (World Tourism Organization UNWTO 2018). In addition to these, one of the major roles of this particular organization is to utilize the industry of tourism as an economic driver to not only stabilize the dwindling economy of the majority of the nations of the world in the current moment but at the same time to provide them with a viable option that they can utilize in an ethical manner to bring the overall development and growth of their concerned nations (World Tourism Organization UNWTO 2018). Moreover, another significant role of this particular industry is to safeguard the safety of the tourists from the different parts of the world while ensuring that they are able to make the most of the various undertakings that they are making related to this particular industry (World Tourism Organization UNWTO 2018).
Department of Culture Media and Sports 
The “Department of Culture Media and Sports” is a particular department of the national government of the United Kingdom which is imbued with the responsibility of promoting the national culture as well as the sports of the United Kingdom (Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport – GOV.UK 2018). Furthermore, this particular department of the United Kingdom is also imbued with the responsibility of the regulation of the media broadcasting as well as internet throughout the dominion of the United Kingdom. In addition to these, the department is related to the tourism as well as the leisure industry of the United Kingdom and is at the time required to take effective measures for the promotion of the tourism industry in the dominion of the United Kingdom (Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport – GOV.UK 2018).  It is a reflection of this particular fact that this particular department of the United Kingdom played a significant role during the “2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games” (Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport – GOV.UK 2018). One of the major achievements of this particular department of the national government of the United Kingdom can be seen as the role that it has played towards the creation of a digital economy in the dominion of the United Kingdom (Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport – GOV.UK 2018). The department is at the same time is also responsible for the portrayal as well as the effective dissemination of the national culture of the United Kingdom in the other countries of the world. The department is at the same required to formulate as well as implement various diverse kinds of effective strategies that are likely to help in the development of the tourism industry of the nation and thereby further enhance the national economy of the nation. The department, established in the year 1992 has does become an indispensible part of the entire government of the United Kingdom because of the valuable contribution that it has made towards the causes of the promotion of the tourism industry, culture, regulation of media and sports (Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport – GOV.UK 2018).
Visit Britain
Visit Britain is the official name used by the “British Tourist Authority”, the major tourist association of the Great Britain as per the stipulations of the “Development of Tourism Act 1969” (VisitBritain 2018). Initially, it used to represent the tourism interests of almost all the territory regions of the United Kingdom however as per the amendment of the above mentioned Act in April 2003 the association became an independent one on par with VisitScotland and VisitWales (VisitBritain 2018). In addition to this, the association under discussion here is also the founding partner of the “European Network for Accessible Tourism” which was set up in the year 2006 for the promotion of accessible as well as safe tourism (VisitBritain 2018). The major landmark for the association came in the year 2005 when it was voted as the “world’s leading Tourist and Convention Bureau in the World Travel Awards” (VisitBritain 2018). The primary goal of this particular association is to promote sustainable as well as universally accessible tourism all over the territory of the Great Britain. Furthermore, the association is at the same time required to portray a positive image of the Great Britain so that a greater number of tourists from the different parts of the world are encouraged to visit the different regions of the nation of the Great Britain (VisitBritain 2018). In addition to these, it is also seen that the association under discussion also uses the machinery of tourism as an economic driver which can further enhance the economic prospects of the nation of the Great Britain. It is a reflection of these undertakings as well as the efforts made by this particular association that for the year 2017 London was one of the most visited cites of the world and the capital contributed by these visitors from the different parts of the world was more than £10 million (VisitBritain 2018). Therefore, it would be apt to say that the activities as well as undertakings of this particular association has contributed in a significant to make tourism industry of the nation of the Great Britain one of the most booming ones.
Visit Scotland 
The agency Visit Scotland was formally known as the “Scottish Tourist Board” and is mainly concerned with the promotion of the tourism industry in the nation of Scotland (Visitscotland.com 2018). It is significant to note that as per the as per the stipulations of the “Development of Tourism Act 1969” it was once a part of the British Tourist Authority and it was only in the 1980s that the “Scottish Tourist Board” was established as an independent agency (Visitscotland.com 2018). The agency can be seen as an “executive non-departmental public body of the Scottish Government” and has its centers located at Edinburgh, London, Inverness and in other locations of the nation of Scotland (Visitscotland.com 2018). The agency under discussion here generally works alongside the Visit Britain and helps in a significant manner towards the promotion of the tourism industry of the United Kingdom (Visitscotland.com 2018). The goal of this particular agency just like the Visit England is not only to promote sustainable as well as universally accessible tourism throughout the nation of Scotland but at the same time in the other parts of the world (Visitscotland.com 2018). Furthermore, it is generally seen that the machinery of tourism is utilized by this particular agency to boost the national economy of the nation of Scotland in a significant manner. The agency in order to attract tourists from the different parts of the world towards the nation of Scotland undertakes various kinds of activities like realizing press realizes, campaigning, advertising and others wherein they try to portray a positive as well as exotic image of the nation of Scotland which the tourists from the different parts of the world would enjoy visiting (Visitscotland.com 2018). It is a reflection of these undertakings and the activities of the agency under discussion here that the nation has been able to develop a profitable tourism industry.
Task 2
Tourism Policy
The various policies have emerged as one of the most important entities within the framework of the modern day world and it is a reflection of the significant which these policies hold that they have come to form an important part of the modern day tourism industry as well (Fang, Ye and Law 2016). One of the most commonly used tourism policy in the present day tourism industry is the initiative on the part of the tourism agencies of the various diverse nations of the world to use of the machinery of tourism as an economic driver wherein the revenue generated by the tourism industry is being used to stabilize the dwindling economies of the various nations of the world (Zervas, Proserpio and Byers 2017). It is significant to note that the tourism industry is one of the highest revenue generating ones of the world and thus if the machinery of this particular industry is used in an effective manner then it can not only contribute towards the economic growth of the concerned tourism organization or agency but at the time can contribute in a significant manner towards the overall economic growth as well as the development of the concerned nation as well (Moyle et al. 2014). Furthermore, the UNWTO (2018) states that it is imperative for the various tourism agencies as well as organizations of the world to take into effective consideration the legislative framework of the national government of the nation in which they are operational and at the same time the various stipulations of the United Nations as well. In addition to these, the goals or the objectives of these policies should also be in synchronicity with the overall goals and the objectives of the UNWTO. Thus, it would be apt to say these tourism policies if used in an effective manner can contribute in a significant manner towards the economic growth of the concerned nations.
Tourism Planning and Process 
The process of planning can be seen as a dynamic one which is being used to not only determine the goals as well as the objectives of a particular process or action but at the same time to weigh the different options that are available to the concerned entities and at the same time to select the best possible one among them (Garcia 2014). It is significant to note that the concept of tourism planning has gained a significant amount of importance in the context of the present day tourism industry and is widely used to determine the goals as well as the objectives of this particular industry  (Edgell Sr 2016). Thus, following this particular concept the UNWTO has determined the primary goals as well as the objectives of the modern day tourism industry as the promotion of sustainable and universally accessible tourism facilities to all the tourists from the different parts of the world. Furthermore, other important goals of the tourism industry are to provide safe as well as viable options to the tourists so that they are able to effective enjoy their travel vacations (Veal 2017). In addition to these, it is generally seen that the concepts of tourism planning and process at the same time enables the various tourism agencies to integrate the needs and the demands of the tourists from the different parts of the world into the tourism  facilities that they offer to them (Mason 2015). Thus, it would be apt to say that the concepts of tourism planning as well as processes if used in an effective manner can contribute in a significant manner towards the overall growth of the tourism industry itself.
Triangle of “Three Major Components” in Tourism Management
There are various factors which affects the tourism industry and more precisely the management of the tourism industry. The below given figure provides the three major components in the process of tourism management-

Figure 1: Triangle of “Three Major Components” in Tourism Management
Source: (Created by the Author)
The above given figure clearly indicates that the three major components which affects the process of management in the tourism industry are the visitors, place and the host community of the destination that is being visited by the tourists. The visitors form an integral part of the tourism industry since it is on them that the tourism industry is dependent and as a matter of fact that they are the ones who contribute the revenues that is being generated by the concerned industry (Pratt 2015). There are various kinds of external factors like the preferences of the visitors, the kind of environment in which the particular tourism destination is located, the economic condition of the world and others that influences the decisions made by the visitors (Pratt 2015). The place or the destination also contributes in a significant manner towards the tourism industry. It is significant to note that the primary reason which entices a particular tourist to visit a tourist destination is the attractiveness of a destination and to a large extent, its historical, social and other values (Dredge and Jamal 2015). In addition to these, the accessibility of the concerned location also determines to a large extent the number of tourists that would visit that particular destination (Dredge and Jamal 2015). Furthermore, the infrastructural developments of the concerned destination also play a significant role in the process (Dredge and Jamal 2015). Lastly, the local or host community of a tourist destination is also important since during vacations the tourists generally like to interact with the local people of the region where they are visiting and thus the cultural, social and other factors of the host community also plays a significant part in the process (Muangasame and McKercher 2015). It is significant to note that the creation of a tourist destination at a particular location contributes in a significant manner towards the economic as well as the social development of that particular location and this in turn contributes in a significant manner towards the growth of the host community (Muangasame and McKercher 2015). These in short are the three major factors that affect not only the tourism industry but at the same time the process of management in the concerned industry as well.
Task 3
Article Review
The authors Cevat Tosun and Dallen J. Timothy in the article “Shortcomings in planning approaches to tourism development in developing countries: The case of Turkey” are of the viewpoint that the tourism industry is widely recognized all over the world as one of the most economically sustainable industries of the world at the current moment. Furthermore, it is pertinent to note that the majority of the industries of the world at the current moment are still reeling from the adverse effects of the economic recession that the world faced a while ago yet the tourism industry is one of the very few ones that has been able to generate a substantial amount of steady revenue even in these economic recession times (Tosun and Timothy 2001). In addition to these, it is seen that this particular industry is acting as an boon not only for the developed nations but at the same time for the various developing as well as under developed nations of the world on the score that they act as “an important source of foreign currency earning and employment” (Tosun and Timothy 2001). The authors use the example of the developing nation of Turkey to drive home the points that they are making in the article under discussion here. However, the authors at the same time state that the majority of the developing nations of the world are not being able to take effective advantage of the tourism industry to facilitate the economy of their nation because of various factors. Firstly, there is the instance of the ineffective use of the concepts of tourism planning and processes (Tosun and Timothy 2001). It is a reflection of this particular fact that the majority of the developing nations of the world often end up developing the wrong kind of policies not are not only unfeasible but at the same time not in synchronicity with the precepts of the UNWTO (Tosun and Timothy 2001). This in turn significantly deters these nations to effectively take the help of the benefits especially the economic ones provided by the machinery of the tourism industry. Thus, the authors are of the viewpoint that for the effective development of the tourism policy as well as processes the various developing nations of the world are not only required to take into effective consideration the various stipulations of the UNWTO but at the same time take into effective consideration the infrastructure as well as the other conditions of their nation and the policies as well as processes should be in synchronicity with them.
The authors Cevat Tosun and Dallen J. Timothy are of the viewpoint that for the effective development of tourism policies as well as processes and also for the effective utilization of the economic benefits provided by the tourism industry itself the various developing nations of the world are not only required to follow the model of the developed nations of the world but at the same time to undertake the infrastructural and other developments of their nations (Tosun and Timothy 2001). It is true that the effective developments of these entities of the nations are likely to cost the concerned developing nation a significant amount of capital but at the same time it needs to be said that there are several benefits that would be provided by the development of the tourism industry in the concerned nation, namely, the economic advantages, the likely creation of more jobs, the cultural benefits and others (Tosun and Timothy 2001). The authors conclude their discussion on the concerned topic with the final conclusion that for the effective development of the tourism industry and at the same time for the effective utilization of the benefits provided by them the various developing nations of the world needs to establish political stability, the decentralization of the tourism industry in their nation, establishment of tourism boards and other relevant institutions, the development of the targeted tourist destination and others.
References  
Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport – GOV.UK. 2018. Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport – GOV.UK. [online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/department-for-digital-culture-media-sport [Accessed 5 Aug. 2018].
Dredge, D. and Jamal, T., 2015. Progress in tourism planning and policy: A post-structural perspective on knowledge production. Tourism Management, 51, pp.285-297.
Edgell Sr, D.L., 2016. Managing sustainable tourism: A legacy for the future. Routledge.
Fang, B., Ye, Q. and Law, R., 2016. Effect of sharing economy on tourism industry employment. Annals of Tourism Research, 57, pp.264-267.
Garcia, F.A., 2014. A comparative study of the evolution of tourism policy in Spain and Portugal. Tourism Management Perspectives, 11, pp.34-50.
Han, H. and Hyun, S.S., 2015. Customer retention in the medical tourism industry: Impact of quality, satisfaction, trust, and price reasonableness. Tourism Management, 46, pp.20-29.
Mason, P., 2015. Tourism impacts, planning and management. Routledge.
Moyle, B.D., McLennan, C.L.J., Ruhanen, L. and Weiler, B., 2014. Tracking the concept of sustainability in Australian tourism policy and planning documents. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 22(7), pp.1037-1051.
Muangasame, K. and McKercher, B., 2015. The challenge of implementing sustainable tourism policy: a 360-degree assessment of Thailand’s “7 Greens sustainable tourism policy”. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 23(4), pp.497-516.
Pratt, S., 2015. The economic impact of tourism in SIDS. Annals of Tourism Research, 52, pp.148-160.
Pulido-Fernández, J.I., Andrades-Caldito, L. and Sánchez-Rivero, M., 2015. Is sustainable tourism an obstacle to the economic performance of the tourism industry? Evidence from an international empirical study. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 23(1), pp.47-64.
Tosun, C. and Timothy, D.J., 2001. Shortcomings in planning approaches to tourism development in developing countries: the case of Turkey. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 13(7), pp.352-359.
Vanhove, N., 2017. The Economics of Tourism Destinations: Theory and Practice. Routledge.
Veal, A.J., 2017. Research methods for leisure and tourism. Pearson UK.
VisitBritain. 2018. VisitBritain. [online] Available at: https://www.visitbritain.com/in/en#ZRQm7vsGF1o50cCT.97 [Accessed 5 Aug. 2018].
Visitscotland.com. 2018. VisitScotland – Scotland’s National Tourist Organisation. [online] Available at: https://www.visitscotland.com/ [Accessed 5 Aug. 2018].
World Tourism Organization UNWTO | Specialized agency of the United Nations. 2018. World Tourism Organization UNWTO | Specialized agency of the United Nations. [online] Available at: https://www2.unwto.org/ [Accessed 5 Aug. 2018].
Zervas, G., Proserpio, D. and Byers, J.W., 2017. The rise of the sharing economy: Estimating the impact of Airbnb on the hotel industry. Journal of Marketing Research, 54(5), pp.687-705.

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