Tutor Quora

Problematic Alcohol Use In Australia

Academic Anxiety?

Get an original paper within hours and nail the task

156 experts online

Free Samples

Problematic Alcohol Use In Australia

.cms-body-content table{width:100%!important;} #subhidecontent{ position: relative;
overflow-x: auto;
width: 100%;}

Problematic Alcohol Use In Australia

0 Download13 Pages / 3,236 Words

Explore the literature on problematic alcohol use in Australia to discuss the risks and protective factors for alcohol use in a specific Australian population group.

The trend of alcohol consumption in Australia is rising specifically among the young adults. Problematic alcohol use is a major cause of mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety, autism, mood disorder and psychotic disorders. In most cases, these mental disorders develop due to the consumption of excess alcohol for a long time. However, some mental disorders occur in the short-term. Even though there are several programs designed to address the problematic alcohol consumption, some youths do not have access to these programs. This scholarly paper aims to explore the problem of alcohol use in the population aged between 14 and 17 years. The study will also evaluate the risk factors and protective factors for alcohol consumption. The paper will elucidate the Alcohol and Drug Information Services (ADIS) which is an evidence-based program for addressing problematic alcohol use in Australia. In the last part, it will examine the role of nursing in combating problematic alcohol use.
Problematic alcohol consumption in Australia
Alcohol abuse is a significant problem in among adolescents in Australia. The population aged between 14 and 17 years is greatly affected by alcohol use. One study conducted in 2011 found that 74 percent of Australians aged 14 years old have used alcohol in the past. The study further found that 90.9 percent of those aged 17 years have consumed alcohol at one particular time in their life. Individuals aged 14 and 17 years were found to have consumed about four drinks on a single day in the last seven days. The most consumed alcoholic drinks are spirits, pre-mixed spirits, ordinary beer and alcoholic sodas (Kelly, et al., 2016). Males comprise the highest number of drinkers in this population. Even in the entire population in Australia, men drink more alcohol compared to women (Wilsnack, Wilsnack, Kristjanson, Vogeltanz-Holm, & Gmel, 2009). Most adolescents who make this population are students. Hence, a large percentage consumes alcohol in school with friends while others access alcohol in their homes. There are however some adolescents who purchase alcohol from bottle shops, liquor stores and supermarkets.
The selected population has high chances of consuming hazardous levels of alcohol. A recent study indicates that despite public education on the adverse impacts of alcohol consumption, the trend of drinking remained constant between 2001 and 2007. In fact, it was reported that about 10 percent of the population consume high amounts of alcohol, which can result in long-term harm. For instance, in Western Australia, 39 percent of the individuals who are aged 14 years and above drink a lot of alcohol that has a chance of causing harm in the short-term. 11 percent of this population drinks alcohol levels that have a chance of causing harm in the long-term. Wholesalers of alcohol continue to record high returns since per capita alcohol drinking is rising in Australia (Pereira, Wood, Foster, & Haggar, 2013). This analysis indicates that the population aged between 14 and 17 years has higher chances of suffering from mental disorders than the rest of the population.
Empirical studies show that consumption of alcohol is a key risk factor for disease burden in Australia. Based on a study conducted in 2013, 26 percent of the population aged 14 years in Australia had experienced an alcohol-related harm. Mental disorders are the most common harms that adolescents experienced as a result of excessive drinking (Ward, Kippen, Buykx, Munro, McBride, & Wiggers, 2016). Besides, excessive consumption of alcohol is associated with suicidal behaviour. Suicidal behaviour occurs due to impaired judgment and disinhibition. Some individuals who consume alcohol might use suicide as a way of reducing stress (Pompili, et al., 2010). Drinking alcohol has significant adverse impacts on students. Students who consume high amounts of alcohol have 1.2 higher chances of experiencing psychological distress compared to students who drink low levels of alcohol. Additionally, students who take excessive alcohol are more likely to miss classes, exhibit low concentration in class and fail to handle assignments (Tembo, Burns, & Kalembo, 2017). The population under study in this paper comprises of students who might suffer these mental disorders.
Risk factors
Various risk factors influence the consumption of alcohol among adolescents. Adolescent development experiences, as well as social settings, expose youths to alcohol consumption. Some of the environments that expose young people to alcohol abuse are sporting and recreational settings. As youth socialise, they have higher chances of being introduced to alcohol abuse (Toumbourou, Evans-Whipp, Smith, Hemphill, Herrenkohl, & Catalano, 2014).
Lack of legislation
Another risk factor for the consumption of excess alcohol is the lack of legislation on the minimum age for alcohol drinking. Australia has embraced the system of most western nations that restrict the sale of alcohol based on age, club licenses and the consumption of alcohol in licensed places. Alcohol is not sold to those aged under 18 years (Howard, Gordon, & Jones, 2014). Since the adolescents are not restricted from drinking alcohol, they can obtain alcohol from different sources.
Parental supply
The prevalence of alcohol abuse among the youths indicates that they obtain alcohol from peers and parents (Kaynak, Winters, Cacciola, Kirby, & Arria, 2014). In 2009, 388 parents from Australia were involved in a survey aimed to determine whether parents supply alcohol to their children. The survey found that 37 percent of the parents had supplied their children with alcohol in the past 3 months (Ward & Snow, 2011). The study concluded that most adolescents obtain alcohol from their parents. Studies show that parents are increasingly lowering the supply of alcohol to minors. In 2004, 21.3 percent of parents asserted that they supplied alcohol to their children. This number dropped to 11.7 percent in 2013 (Kelly, et al., 2016). Parents who supply alcohol to their children claim that they are protecting the children from harm. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies found that there is no evidence of protection when parents supply alcohol to their children. Instead, the parents are continuously cultivating the habit of drinking in the adolescents (Kaynak, Winters, Cacciola, Kirby, & Arria, 2014). The abuse of alcohol is high when the adolescents are unsupervised. Parental supervision can lower the incidences of excessive consumption of alcohol among the young adults.
Exposure to alcohol in school
Another risk factor for the consumption of alcohol is the exposure drinking habits in schools. Learning institutions play a vital role controlling the consumption of alcohol among students through practices and regulations. Alcohol abuse in the presence of learners indicates approval for drinking and might encourage students to adopt drinking habits (Ward, Buykx, Munro, Hausdorf, & Wiggers, 2014). Recent reports indicate that the habit of drinking alcohol in the presence of children in Australia is on the rise. Most adults drink alcohol during school events.
Peer pressure
Peer pressure is another risk factor for the problematic alcohol use in Australia. Adolescents tend to influence and initiate each other into alcoholism. There is an important part of peer-relations in the emergence of adolescent drinking behaviour (Han, Grogan-Kaylor, Delva, & Castillo, 2012). Youths who are introduced into drinking by their peers might be worse addicts compared to those who are introduced by their parents.
Protective factors
Regardless of the rampant alcohol abuse in the population aged 14 to 17 years, there are some protective factors. The protective factors can be classified as community, family, individual and school protective factors.
Community protective factors
Some aspects of the community act as protective factors against drinking alcohol. The primary community protective factor is getting a reward for prosocial engagement (Hemphill, Heerde, Herrenkohl, Patton, Toumbourou, & Catalano, 2011). It is notable that some individuals in the community reward good behaviour in the youths. In other instances, the youths might be rewarded for doing something noble for the community. The activities that are rewarded in the community are getting involved in community groups and involvement in community building. Engagement in community sports is another community protective element.
Family protective factors
The family setting acts as an important protective factor. As discussed in previous paragraphs, the parents play a fundamental role in shaping the alcohol behaviour of a child. The main family protective factor is being close to the parents. A study conducted in Australia revealed that some youths were attached to their fathers while others were attached to their mothers (Hemphill, Heerde, Herrenkohl, Patton, Toumbourou, & Catalano, 2011). The level of attachment determines whether the adolescents are in the position to share their thoughts and feelings openly. It is notable that youths who share with their parents have fewer chances of being initiated into alcohol abuse. Youths who spend a lot of time with their family doing positive things have higher chances of disclosing their whereabouts to the parents. Also, they have higher chances of adhering to parental discipline. 
School protective factors
The school can model the behaviour of the students either positively or negatively. School games and avenues for socialisation are some of the protective factors in school. Commitment to school activities helps students to avoid dangerous behaviours such as alcohol abuse. Rewards for outstanding behaviour motivate the students to uphold ethics as well as avoid engaging in activities that may result in harm.
Individual protective factors
Personal values and behaviours are important protective factors against the consumption of alcohol. Various individual protective factors impend the youths from engaging in alcohol abuse. The religiosity of an individual is an important personal protective factor (Hemphill, Heerde, Herrenkohl, Patton, Toumbourou, & Catalano, 2011). The inclination to religious gatherings, activities and services defines the religiosity of an individual. Another personal protective factor is the belief in the moral order. The moral order includes factors such as being honest, just and trustworthy. Self-efficacy and academic performance act as protective factors against alcohol abuse when expressed at high levels. Lastly, social variables including peer pressure and antisocial behaviour are positively associated with low alcohol drinking if they occur in low values.
Program that addresses alcohol use
The program that addresses alcohol use in Australia is Alcohol and Drug Information Services (ADIS). ADIS is designed to deal with the problematic alcohol use at the state and territory levels.
Details of the program
ADIS is a telephone-based counselling service that is offered by trained counsellors who have a background in the alcohol field. The program is provided by the Drug and Alcohol Services across Australia. The program is offered 24 hours a day, which means it can be accessed at any time of the day. Various telephone numbers have been made available for the public to call in case they require specialised help. Even though ADIS is open to the public, it is a confidential program (Tzelepis, et al., 2015). Vast information is available for people who use the ADIS program. The professionals can inquire what is happening to the caller specifically about alcohol use. Besides, they offer emotional support to individuals who are addicted to alcohol. Emotion-regulation techniques mainly the capacity to control adverse emotions is a vital target in managing alcohol dependence (AD) (Berking, Margraf, Ebert, Wupperman, Hofmann, & Junghannsb, 2012).
The counsellors further advise the clients about treatment options. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is among the most effective interventions for alcohol abuse. The professionals have extensive knowledge of the available treatments for problematic alcohol use. The final intervention for alcohol addicts is referring clients to local services. Clients are referred to the suitable local service based on their condition or level of alcohol addiction. General practitioners also get help from the counsellors. The counselling is often customized to the client’s needs. Help is offered about both short-term and long-term impacts of alcohol abuse. A significant part of the program offers information about the side effects of alcohol and symptoms of intoxication (Tzelepis, et al., 2015).
Target audience
ADIS targets a wide client base in the community. The main target for the program is individuals and families. Australians who are experiencing problematic alcohol use can enrol in the program because it is free. The design of ADIS makes it cost-effective and practical for families and individual clients.
Goals of the program
ADIS has multiple goals that are meant to enhance the quality of life (QOL) of people experiencing problematic alcohol use. The overall intention of the program is to help people reduce or stop alcohol use. Additionally, it has an objective of offering ready information about alcohol abuse. Australians struggling with alcohol abuse, pharmacies and prescribers get readily available information. It aims to educate alcohol addicts on the mental health issues associated with alcohol abuse. When youths are informed of the possible mental illnesses linked to substance abuse, there are high chances of withdrawal. The program cultivates healthy stress-management initiatives among the general population. People who experience mental health illnesses linked to alcohol abuse tend to develop stress. 
Role of nursing in combating problematic alcohol use
Nurses’ offer enhanced service for problematic alcohol use in primary care. The enhanced services act as the first type of intervention for people seeking to address alcohol abuse. The nursing role in primary care should start with the screening of the population aged between 14 and 17 years. Different alcohol screening tools have been developed for use in primary care. The most effective tools that nurses should use are the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST) and Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) (Meneses-Gaya, et al., 2010). AUDIT is effective for all genders and races (Frank, DeBenedetti, Volk, Williams, Kivlahan, & Bradley, 2008). Conversely, FAST is sensitive and sensitive (GROVES, et al., 2010). All the participants who test positive for these tests should be offered intervention to lower the risk of developing alcohol-based illnesses. The process of screening entails asking the participants questions that will reveal whether they are experiencing alcohol dependency. Empirical evidence asserts that after the screening, intervention should be offered as fast as possible to reduce the impact (Kaner, et al., 2013). In most cases, intervention should be initiated on the same day after the screening.
Nurses in primary care can offer treatment in different ways. The best methods that have been proposed in this report are detailed lifestyle counselling, enhanced patient information and person-tailored counselling. Patient information can be provided through leaflets after the screening process. Apart from the leaflets, the individuals should be offered more information about their drinking levels. The information should be accompanied with techniques on how to minimise alcohol levels. The next type of intervention should be lifestyle counselling. However, the lifestyle counselling should be conducted after an appointment (Hamilton & Baker, 2013). An appointment is fundamental because the provider should first understand the lifestyle of individual, drinking habit and willingness to adhere to treatment plans.
Although there three interventions are important for problematic alcohol use, feedback and detailed information are the most suitable interventions to minimise excessive alcohol consumption. The types of interventions discussed in the above paragraphs are effective, yet they require minimal training. The structure of the enhanced service in primary care is a key factor for success. Community-based intervention is the most effective approach. The primary care will be offered at Local Government Area (LGA) levels. Youths aged between 14 and 17 years will be recruited into the program if they exhibit the willingness to reduce, stop or manage alcohol abuse.
As evident in this paper, alcohol use is a significant problem in Australia. The study is specifically focused on the population aged between 14 and 17 years. The selected population engages in alcohol abuse due to various risk factors. Parental supply, exposure to alcohol in school, peer pressure and lack of firm legislation are among of the main risk factors for alcohol use among the chosen population.  Protective factors are rewards for exemplary behaviour, parental supervision, sporting activities and involvement in community activities. The program that has been developed to address the problem of alcohol use in Australia is ADIS, and it aims to help people reduce, manage and stop alcohol abuse. Nurses have a role in screening and introducing interventions to address problematic alcohol use
Berking, M., Margraf, M., Ebert, D., Wupperman, P., Hofmann, S. G., & Junghannsb, K. (2012). Deficits in Emotion-Regulation Skills Predict Alcohol Use During and After Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Alcohol Dependence. J Consult Clin Psychol , 79 (3), 307-318.
Frank, D., DeBenedetti, A. F., Volk, R. J., Williams, E. C., Kivlahan, D. R., & Bradley, K. A. (2008). Effectiveness of the AUDIT-C as a Screening Test for Alcohol Misuse in Three Race/Ethnic Groups. J Gen Intern Med , 23 (6), 781-787.
GROVES, P., PICK, S., DAVIS, P., CLOUDESLEY, R., COOKE, R., FORSYTHE, M., et al. (2010). Routine alcohol screening and brief interventions in general hospital in-patient wards: Acceptability and barriers. Drugs: education, prevention and policy , 17 (1), 55-71.
Hamilton, I., & Baker, S. (2013). Nurses’ role in tackling problematic alcohol use. Practice Nursing , 24 (7), 351-355.
Han, Y., Grogan-Kaylor, A., Delva, J., & Castillo, M. (2012). The Role of Peers and Parents in Predicting Alcohol Consumption among Chilean Youth. Int J Child Adolesc health , 5 (1), 53-64.
Hemphill, S. A., Heerde, J. A., Herrenkohl, T. I., Patton, G. C., Toumbourou, J. W., & Catalano, R. F. (2011). Risk and protective factors for adolescent substance use in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia: A longitudinal study. J Adolesc Health , 49 (3), 312-320.
Howard, S. J., Gordon, R., & Jones, S. C. (2014). Australian alcohol policy 2001–2013 and implications for public health. BMC Public Health , 14, 848.
Kaner, E., Bland, M., P, C., S, C., Dale, V., Gilvarry, E., et al. (2013). Effectiveness of screening and brief alcohol intervention in primary care (SIPS trial): pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ , 346, e8501.
Kaynak, Ö., Winters, K. C., Cacciola, J., Kirby, K. C., & Arria, A. M. (2014). Providing Alcohol for Underage Youth: What Messages Should We Be Sending Parents? J Stud Alcohol Drugs , 75 (4), 590-605.
Kelly, A. B., Chan, G. C., Weier, M., Quinn, C., Gullo, M. J., Connor, J. P., et al. (2016). Parental supply of alcohol to Australian minors: an analysis of six nationally representative surveys spanning 15 years. BMC Public Health , 16, 325.
Meneses-Gaya, C., Crippa, J. A., Zuardi, A. W., Loureiro, S. R., Hallak, J. E., Trzesniak, C., et al. (2010). The fast alcohol screening test (FAST) is as good as the AUDIT to screen alcohol use disorders. Subst Use Misuse , 45 (10), 1542-1557.
Pereira, G., Wood, L., Foster, S., & Haggar, F. (2013). Access to Alcohol Outlets, Alcohol Consumption and Mental Health. PLoS One , 8 (1), e53461.
Pompili, M., Serafini, G., Innamorati, M., Dominici, G., Ferracuti, S., Kotzalidis, G. D., et al. (2010). Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse. Int J Environ Res Public Health , 7 (4), 1392-1431.
Tembo, C., Burns, S., & Kalembo, F. (2017). The association between levels of alcohol consumption and mental health problems and academic performance among young university students. PLoS one , 12 (6), e0178142.
Toumbourou, J. W., Evans-Whipp, T. J., Smith, R., Hemphill, S. A., Herrenkohl, T. I., & Catalano, R. F. (2014). Adolescent Predictors and Environmental Correlates of Young Adult Alcohol Use Problems. Addiction , 109 (3), 417-424.
Tzelepis, F., Paul, C. L., Wiggers, J., Kypri, K., Bonevski, B., McElduff, P., et al. (2015). Targeting multiple health risk behaviours among vocational education students using electronic feedback and online and telephone support: protocol for a cluster randomised trial. BMC Public Health , 15, 550.
Ward, B. M., & Snow, P. C. (2011). Factors affecting parental supply of alcohol to underage adolescents. Drug Alcohol Rev , 30 (4), 338-343.
Ward, B. M., Buykx, P., Munro, G., Hausdorf, K., & Wiggers, J. (2014). Review of policies and guidelines concerning adults’ alcohol consumption and promotion in Australian government schools. Health Promot J Austr , 25 (2), 125-128.
Ward, B. M., Kippen, R., Buykx, P., Munro, G., McBride, N., & Wiggers, J. (2016). Principals’ reports of adults’ alcohol use in Australian secondary schools. BMC Public Health , 16, 195.
Wilsnack, R. W., Wilsnack, S. C., Kristjanson, A. F., Vogeltanz-Holm, N. D., & Gmel, G. (2009). GENDER AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION: PATTERNS FROM THE MULTINATIONAL GENACIS PROJECT. Addiction , 104 (9), 1487-1500.

Free Membership to World’s Largest Sample Bank

To View this & another 50000+ free samples. Please put
your valid email id.


Yes, alert me for offers and important updates


Download Sample Now

Earn back the money you have spent on the downloaded sample by uploading a unique assignment/study material/research material you have. After we assess the authenticity of the uploaded content, you will get 100% money back in your wallet within 7 days.

UploadUnique Document

DocumentUnder Evaluation

Get Moneyinto Your Wallet

Total 13 pages


*The content must not be available online or in our existing Database to qualify as

Cite This Work
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:


My Assignment Help. (2018). Problematic Alcohol Use In Australia. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/problematic-alcohol-use-in-australia.

“Problematic Alcohol Use In Australia.” My Assignment Help, 2018, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/problematic-alcohol-use-in-australia.

My Assignment Help (2018) Problematic Alcohol Use In Australia [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/problematic-alcohol-use-in-australia[Accessed 18 December 2021].

My Assignment Help. ‘Problematic Alcohol Use In Australia’ (My Assignment Help, 2018) accessed 18 December 2021.

My Assignment Help. Problematic Alcohol Use In Australia [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2018 [cited 18 December 2021]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/problematic-alcohol-use-in-australia.

.close{position: absolute;right: 5px;z-index: 999;opacity: 1;color: #ff8b00;}


Thank you for your interest
The respective sample has been mail to your register email id


$20 Credited
successfully in your wallet.
* $5 to be used on order value more than $50. Valid for
only 1

Account created successfully!
We have sent login details on your registered email.



For years, MyAssignmenthelp.com has been operating as one of the cheap assignment help providers in the USA. We are one of the best college paper writing services that keep service price minimal. We do not let the affordability of our service to hamper the standard of our work. We have separate teams of experts to provide report writing help . At MyAssigenmnthelp.com, we believe in earning credibility, so students can pay for assignments only after getting satisfied solutions. Tough assignments bother you? Trust us with your project. You will not regret paying us to write assignments for you.

Latest Healthcare Samples

div#loaddata .card img {max-width: 100%;

5N1794 Safety And Health At Work
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: 5N1794
University: University College Cork

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Ireland

Assignment 1
Answer to question 1
I have conducted a survey at my workplace maned Lady’s Hospice and Care Services to observe the working environment. The aim of the survey is to find if it is a safe, healthy, secured and fulfilling place to work. A visual survey was conducted to locate and record the safety signs in the workplace. The objective of the survey is to observe and list different types of signs, location, their prom…
Australia Maple Ridge Management Introduction to film studies University of New South Wales Masters in Business Administration 

400837 Health And Socio Political Issues In Aged Care
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: 400837
University: Western Sydney University

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Palliative care services are designed to improve the life of patient with progressive disease. People receiving palliative care have illness that has no prospect of cure.  As per the World Health Organisation, palliative care is a care given to patient suffering from life threatening illness to improve their quality of life by preventing and providing relief from sufferings by early recognition , assessment and trea…
Australia Minchinbury Management University of New South Wales 

PUBH6304 Global Health
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: PUBH6304
University: The University Of Newcastle

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is the spectrum of medical conditions caused due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) following which the patient suffers from a series medical complications due to suppression of the immune system of the body. With the progression of the disease, the patient is likely to suffer from a wide range of infections like tuberculosis and other opportu…
United States Newark Management University of New York Masters in Business Administration 

CON 321 Health Related Research
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: CON321
University: University Of Southern Maine

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States

Leadership in the hospital is the ability to influence the staff toward providing quality health care. Leadership involves influencing human behavior to create a positive working environment (Langlois, 2012). Good leadership enables healthy relationships among staffs in the hospital enhancing quality delivery of health care services. Leadership is responsible to building teams that have trust, respect, support and effecti…

BL9412 Public Health
Download :
0 | Pages :

Course Code: BL9412
University: University Of The West Of England

MyAssignmentHelp.com is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United Kingdom

According to the researchers, it can be said that the management of the health care organizations has become a difficult task nowadays and the reason behind this is the occurrence of various issues in this sector (Hall et al., 2014). Therefore, the administrative employees of the organization should incorporate various revolutionized strategies for enriching the worth of care provided by the hospital to its clients and re…
Australia Ryde Management Information system strategy University of New South Wales (UNSW) Masters in Business Administration 


Need an essay written specifically to meet your requirements?

Choose skilled experts on your subject and get an original paper within your deadline

156 experts online

Your time is important. Let us write you an essay from scratch

Tips and Tricks from our Blog

11174 Introduction To Management

Free Samples 11174 Introduction To Management .cms-body-content table{width:100%!important;} #subhidecontent{ position: relative; overflow-x: auto; width: 100%;} 11174 Introduction

Read More »