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Public Health Ethics Equity

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Public Health Ethics Equity

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Question:
Discuss about the Public Health Ethics Equity.
 
 
Answer:
1. Analysis for policy is the evaluation of all the technical and political implications of all the choices and options to solve problems and difficulties of the public at large. Whereas, analysis of policy is an effort, to explain and describe an existing policy, stating its objective and potential developments. Thus, for example, when a Bill is proposed in the Australian Parliament for making it an Act, it goes through the process of “Analysis for a policy” as every aspect of the proposed policy is evaluated. However, when the Bill becomes an Act stating a policy in it, the process of “analysis of the policy” is conducted to understand or explain the said policy already formed (Dunn, 2015).

Similarities
Both “analysis for policy” and “analysis of policy” are process which requires intensive research and knowledge and both are well defined. However, both the analysis cannot be considered accurate before implied.
Differences
The primary difference between “analysis for policy” and “analysis of policy” is the duration in which they are conducted. The first one is conducted prior to policy formation and the later is conducted after the policy is drafted.
Another important difference between the two analysis is that “analysis for policy” is often conducted by governmental bodies who make such policy however “analysis of policy” can be conducted by anyone even the public at large.
2. Globalization is an international movement which involves all the organizations and business houses globally to develop an economic, trade, financial integration. Thus, the process of globalization arises when national perspectives are broaden to develop an interconnected world which has easy and free transfer of goods and services between nations. However, globalization has major decisions on decision making processes which result in many health policies. With globalization, there is rise of global market, redistribution of power within and across the nations which affects the lifestyle of many individuals who now have to travel and move for work which eventually affects their health. Thus, with individuals moving rapidly for work and trade, their health is affected causing increase in communicable diseases. Thus, the national governments are under a duty and obligation to make policies which prevent the spread of communicable diseases which spread across countries when individuals of affected areas travel for work and trade in other non affected nations. For example, the Australian and New Zealand government had restricted individuals from Africa or individuals who had travelled to Africa in the past 6 months from entering their country when Africa was suffering from a a severe virus called the ebola virus (McMichael, 2013).
3. Colebatch’s (2002) vertical dimension discusses policy as a rule, which focuses on the transmission downwards of decisions which are authorized. Thus, the decision makers opt for a pat of actions which increases the value and worth they hold and transfer the same to their subordinated for implementation. However, the subordinates can further delegate however, the same has to be authorized by decision makers. In vertical dimension of policy focus is on ministers, board of directors, chief executives.
Colebatch’s (2002) horizontal dimensions discuss the structuring of a policy. It relates to the relationship of policy contributors in different organizational groups which are mostly outside the hierarchy line. In Colebatch’s (2002) horizontal dimensions of policy focus is on the functional and specialized agencies which help in policy making (Susilo, 2012).
 
4. For any country to run functionally, certain policies and law need to be establish which demand strict compliance, thus, the legislation of every country is entrusted with a duty to make policies and laws for their country. Thus, the role of government is very important in policy making as the governmental authorities identify an issue, then evaluate possible policy which can curb the issue and eventually come up with a policy that is fair in nature for every citizen (Anderson, 2014).
 
5. Public Policy can be analyzed and explain in a systematic manner using a policy cycle which consists of five stages. These five stages are Agenda, Formulate, Implement, Budget and Evaluate. This the policy cycle involves setting an agenda for a policy, then structuring a policy following the agenda, then implanting the drafted policy, setting a budget for the same and finally evaluate whether it solves the issue or the agenda for which it was drafted (Anand, 2014).  
6. The meaning of equity is fairness or justice. Thus, following ethical principles and values which created social fairness and justice refer to equity. Thus equity in every kind of policy making is necessary. Equity in health policy refer to absences of any inequality in health care services between different groups which can be measured in wealth and power deriving advantage to some and disadvantage to other who ate under privileged. Thus, there are many approaches which create issues of equity in health care policies like most of the times policy are drafted keeping in mind additionally advantages to the rich and powerful social groups, many a times policy are not drafted keeping gender equality in minds (Justen et al 2014).
7. Consultation is stage 3 of the policy cycle. Consultation is the key to develop a successful policy. Consultation refers to discussing the policy with a expert to use his knowledge and research on a policy which can help in drafting a good policy. The benefits of consultation in policy making are that approval of a policy is smooth process when the policy is consulted well. Consultation helps in better engagement with policy which increased the respect of policy. However consultation with an expert who does not specialize in the policy field can lead to many faults in the policy (Anand, 2014).
8. According to Kingdon’s, the first stage of policy making is agenda setting. The policy agenda is a list of problems which the government officials feel need to be curbed. Thus, agenda setting refers to identifying problems, setting a proposal for the problems and determining political aspects that will affect the agenda like budget.
Agenda setting is a systemic manner of policy making and can be very beneficial as the policy makers are aware of the list of issue the policy needs to solve. Additionally, a wrongly drafted agenda can be the first step of a poorly drafted policy (Pelletier et al., 2012).
 
Reference List
Anand, S. (2014). Public health, ethics, and equity. OUP Catalogue.
Anderson, J. E. (2014). Public policymaking. Cengage Learning.
Dunn, W. N. (2015). Public policy analysis. Routledge.
Justen, A., Fearnley, N., Givoni, M., & Macmillen, J. (2014). A process for designing policy packaging: Ideals and realities. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 60, 9-18.
McMichael, A. J. (2013). Globalization, climate change, and human health.New England Journal of Medicine, 368(14), 1335-1343.
Pelletier, D. L., Frongillo, E. A., Gervais, S., Hoey, L., Menon, P., Ngo, T., … & Ahmed, T. (2012). Nutrition agenda setting, policy formulation and implementation: lessons from the Mainstreaming Nutrition Initiative. Health Policy and Planning, 27(1), 19-31.
Susilo, U. B. (2012). Fiscal Decentralisation In Indonesia: Local Governments Participation In Its Policy Making Process.How Far Decentralization Goes, 347.

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