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Public Health : Pigment Containing Development

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Public Health : Pigment Containing Development

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Melanoma is also known as malignant melanoma. It is one type of cancer which is developed from the pigment containing cells called melanocytes (Cichorek et al., 2013). Melanocytes are present in the bottom layer of the epidermis of the skin and are responsible for the production of melanin (Böttcher‐Haberzeth et al., 2015). Melanin is a type of pigment principally responsible for the colour of the skin. Mainly the skin is affected by melanoma (Paradisi et al., 2014). It is evident from the reports that commonly melanoma occurs in the back of the men and in the legs of the woman (Chiarugi et al., 2015). Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer. The main reason behind Melanoma is exposure to Ultra Violet light (Liu et al., 2013). The UV light develops an unrepaired DNA damage to the skin cell. Melanoma is mainly prevalent among the non-indigenous people with an age more than 85years. In this assignment a detailed description will be done on an innovative project plan to promote education related to cancer awareness and prevention among the non-indigenous people of age more than 85 years.
Recent studies shows that around 13, 283 new cases of melanoma have been reported in the year 2016 among which 7847 were males and 5436 were female (Hibler et al., 2016). Melanoma skin cancer normally increases with increase in the age.
Figure: Age specific incidence rates of melanoma skin cancer
(source: Drug strategy, 2016)
Melanoma is often referred to “Australia national cancer” because Australia has one of highest rates of melanoma in the world (Sitas et al., 2013). The third most common cancer among Australia men is melanoma after bowel and prostate. It is also the third most cancer among the woman of Australia after breast and bowel cancer. Therefore, it can be said that melanoma is the fourth most common type of cancer after prostate, bowel, and breast cancer.  In the year 2016 it is found that around 13000 Australian are expected to diagnose with melanoma (Noor et al., 2016). Every day over 30 Australians are diagnosed with melanoma and more than 1200 Australians dies from melanoma every year (Mar et al., 2013). However no one tries to understand the seriousness of melanoma unless and until melanoma have a direct impact on the life of the particular individual. This type of cancer is more prevalent among the non- indigenous people of Australia of age above 85 years. Therefore, an education on cancer awareness and prevention should be promoted to make the aged non-indigenous people of Australia aware about melanoma cancer. To make the aged non-indigenous people of Australia aware about cancer an innovative health promotion project plan should be made in to practice. The planning is divided into three parts. Part 1, part 2 and part 3.
The first part includes identification of the specific reason behind the frequentness of the disease among the targeted groups. A consultation should be made with the people present inside and out the group who have the knowledge health issues of the most of the aged person of the community and knows the individuals who are affected by melanoma cancer. Information from a variety of sources should be collected and analyzed and judge what should be the primary focus of the program and give an idea what must be the nature, scope and style of the program might be. It should always keep mind that the proposed program contributes to the overall strategic direction of the Local Health Services. The benefit of this type of an innovative health promotion project plan is that it will make the agency able to gather the adequate information about outcomes of the treatments present, understand the effectiveness of the care given the patient, to understand what the improvements are required to make the treatment procedure more efficient, and how can the quality of the care community health programs can be improved. A cancer support group of the caregiver should be prepared to support the cancer patient. This group includes health promotion staffs, hospital staffs, public health staff, community health staff, volunteer networks, Non- government agencies, and local doctors. Also the demographic data must be collected so that it can be decided that which is affected most. To get this demographic data information like age, place of residence, gender, educational level, occupation status, ethnic background, income, and aboriginality should be collected. On this basis of these information it has to be decided that in which portion of the group there is a requirement of special attention. The people present in the that portion of the group should be made aware of the harmful effect of the ultra violet light and how it contribute in the causing the melanoma. It has to be made understand that to be open for more time span in the sun may be one of the most effective of the melanoma. An educational session on the specific topics related to treatment and prevention of the chances of melanoma should be given to the people.  The people should be made more aware that they does not work for a lot of time under the sun, do not allow their children to play under the sun and make it into practice that the children should play without hat.
The second part involves designing of the style, language and level of promotion of awareness. It is required to find out in this part of the planning that what are the resources required to effectively conduct the program. This part also deals with the decision of the roles of the people involved in this program. The organization committee should decide in this part that whether the designed program is realistic and will it be effective within the organization in which it will work. The main goal of this part of the strategy is to develop personal skill of the aged people so that they can easily recognize any symptom of melanoma, the community action should also be made strong by providing all the people of the community with the knowledge and information to treat the patient suffering from melanoma, so that prompt action can be taken when some encounters melanoma. The main criteria of the this part of the program to provide the  aged melanoma patient supportive environment so that they become enough strong to fight the disease and in the cases of extreme melanoma this supportive environment will help the patient to spend their rest of life with little enjoyment and satisfaction. A healthy public policy should be prepared in this part of the program. This can achieved by organizing a training program on how to treat the melanoma patient, what are symptoms of melanoma, how they can be identified, what are the preventive measures, when it is the correct time to hire a consultant and what might be the immediate activity as anyone is found to have melanoma. This portion of the program comprises five main motives these are Specific Measurable Achievable Relevant and Time specific (SMART system).
The third section of the planning deal with the organization of the strategies that is what may be the sequence of the task and what will be the public health promotion management perspectives. To perform this a time frame should be constructed and a communication strategy must be developed. To establish the sequence of the program the responsibilities, allocating resources, and roles should be clarified clearly. This will also ensure the effective monitor over the progress of the program. To make an effective time frame time should not waste much in the recruitment and travel rather education awareness should be increased in the people present locally so that they can be helpful in the treatment when required. The consultant recruited should be very efficient so that they can elaborately explain the cause, effect, and the prevention procedure to the aged people who are totally unaware of melanoma. Seminar, workshop, conferences should be arranged to provide the aged people with excellent knowledge about the disease. Information should be displayed in the popular places like shopping centers, community notice board, sports events, school visit, and in local fairs. Information and awareness should also be displayed in the local media, newspaper, radio, television and in the mass media because media is the best way to communicate with the people. The program should also make it easily accessible for the aged patient to reach and discuss their problem freely with the doctors, health service staffs and executives. The main message or theme of this program for the middle aged and old aged person is “NO HAT NO WORK” and it should be monitored that every employment giving company is following and supporting this message.   While organizing all this it should be kept in mind that which are the portion of the people who are going to be affected due to this project program this portion of people are not only the patient but also includes the doctors, supporting staffs, all the executives and all the people including the children present in the targeted community. So it should be takin into care that no activity of the program may not hamper the daily activity of the all the other people associated with this program. Where time is getting used up the most and how it can be reduced. The task which are not getting fully completed have to be found out and should be systematically completed on the first priority. In this respect if it is required then the over whelming tasks can be broken in to small manageable components and distributed among the concerned person. Always supervision to the staff performance should be done because it will help to find out and rectify the drawback of the program.
The evaluation of this program should on the basis of the development of the Political, economic and social factors of the community that are related to the tolat health issues of the community. These environment factors are very important for both the development and directions of this program and in terms of the campaign messages receptivity of the community. The central aspect of this program depends upon the success of the whole community to gain the capacity to stimulate the change in social values of the people of the community. This capacity of the community will be achieved when there will be a presence of a number of trained staffs, who have an uncontroversial focus on cancer and can run the prevention program very efficiently, and there will be an established infrastructure to support and resource an expanded or new campaign. This can be achieved by the involvement of some non-governmental organization along with the government organization to promote this type of program. The program should also include the implementation and introduction of awareness policies in the workplace, in local government area, in the school and thus enable the children to understand melanoma, to develop appropriate skill among the young, middle aged person and old peoples and to make them understand the benefit of working in collaboration to fight against such a fatal disease like melanoma.
Böttcher‐Haberzeth, S., Biedermann, T., Klar, A. S., Widmer, D. S., Neuhaus, K., Schiestl, C., … & Reichmann, E. (2015). Characterization of pigmented dermo‐epidermal skin substitutes in a long‐term in vivo assay. Experimental dermatology, 24(1), 16-21.
Chiarugi, A., Quaglino, P., Crocetti, E., Nardini, P., De Giorgi, V., Borgognoni, L., … & Pimpinelli, N. (2015). Melanoma density and relationship with the distribution of melanocytic naevi in an Italian population: a GIPMe study—the Italian multidisciplinary group on melanoma. Melanoma research, 25(1), 80-87.
Cichorek, M., Wachulska, M., Stasiewicz, A., & Tyminska, A. (2013). Skin melanocytes: biology and development. Postepy Dermatol Alergol, 30(1), 30-41.
Drug strategy, N. (2016). National Drug Strategy Household Survey detailed report: 2013 (AIHW). Aihw.gov.au. Retrieved 7 September 2016, from https://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=60129549469&tab=3
Hibler, B. P., Dusza, S. W., & Wang, S. Q. (2016). Photoprotection and Skin Cancer Prevention. In Principles and Practice of Photoprotection (pp. 23-38). Springer International Publishing.
Liu, F., Bessonova, L., Taylor, T. H., Ziogas, A., Meyskens, F. L., & Anton‐Culver, H. (2013). A unique gender difference in early onset melanoma implies that in addition to ultraviolet light exposure other causative factors are important. Pigment cell & melanoma research, 26(1), 128-135.
Mar, V., Roberts, H., Wolfe, R., English, D. R., & Kelly, J. W. (2013). Nodular melanoma: a distinct clinical entity and the largest contributor to melanoma deaths in Victoria, Australia. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 68(4), 568-575.
Noor, M. R. M., Hseon, T. E., & Jeffrey, L. J. H. (Eds.). (2016). Gynaecologic Cancer: A Handbook for Students and Practitioners. CRC Press.
Paradisi, A., Tabolli, S., Didona, B., Sobrino, L., Russo, N., & Abeni, D. (2014). Markedly reduced incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer in a nonconcurrent cohort of 10,040 patients with vitiligo. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 71(6), 1110-1116.
Sitas, F., Gibberd, A., Kahn, C., Weber, M. F., Chiew, M., Supramaniam, R., … & Smith, M. A. (2013). Cancer incidence and mortality in people aged less than 75 years: Changes in Australia over the period 1987–2007. Cancer epidemiology, 37(6), 780-787.

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