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Public Health System And Policy: Urban Areas

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Discuss about the  Public Health System and Policy for Urban Areas.

The public health issues are increasingly growing all over the world, and the governments are struggling with these health problems to keep their people healthy and safe. The main reason for the growing health issues is the violent and undisciplined lifestyle, which increasingly growing in the urban areas. Like any other developed countries, Australia is also facing difficulties in solving the public health issues. Among the issues, Australia is severely facing the problem of obesity as obesity is alarmingly increasing in Australian people (Baghbanian, Hughes, & Khavarpour, 2011).  Moreover, it is more alarming that the adults are passing on their bad habits to their kids thus; almost 1 in 4 means 27.4% children who are aged 5 to 17 years are obese or overweight. The Obesity is the major health issue for both men and women in Australia. In medical jargon overweight is the body condition when an individual’s body weight is 10 to 20% higher in comparison to the ordinary people and body mass index (BMI) is 25 to 30. In obesity, the scale is above 20% of average body weight, and BMI is above 30.  Morbid obesity refers to the condition when an individual’s body weight is 50 to 100 % over than the average body weight. The obesity is a primary cause of the cardiovascular diseases, and as per statistics cardiovascular diseases or heart diseases is the core reason of the increasing mortality rate of Australia and considered as the biggest killer in this country (McLachlan, 2010). The obesity invites many other dreadful diseases like hypertension, high blood sugar, diabetes and cancer; thus, the concern of the Australian government in order prevent obesity is increasing, and the government has taken several strategies to control the obesity rate in this country. In this report, the light will be dropped on the issue and the current public health policy and practices including sate, national and international health system structure to prevent this major health issue.
Main Context
Describe Public Health and its History
As per the Australia system, the public health system must be determined to depict the issues. It becomes a part of the appropriate health contribution and for the treatment of the general public’s which can be continued by regular diagnostic testing, and the routine health care must be maintained to carry out the appropriate treatment systems. But in the context of the patient and the clinical health care, the two components are notified which are involved with the determining the broader and the complex context (Bhuyan et al., 2015). Various other settings are assisted by the legislative, funding and the regulatory arrangements which help in the involvement of multiple providers. As per the World Health Organization, a health system is described as all the activities whose primary purpose is to promote, restore and the maintain health with determining the health maintenance. The quality of the services provided to the people describes the good health system which is carried out in the context of the needs of the people and thereby the satisfaction can be seen as the enhancement of the context represented (Blanck & Collins, 2015). The configuration of the services regarding the health care varies from country to country. Thereby the common elements are constructed for the enhancement of the mechanism that is built for the appropriate maintenance of the public safety and thereby by the educated workforce regarding the medical safety, and the development must be allocated for the enhancement with maintaining the facilities depicted by WHO.
Australian health care system depicts the improvement with creating a multifaceted web for the public and the private providers and thereby all the settings illustrated supports the mechanism continued by the service providers (Brennan, Kemner, Donaldson, & Brownson, 2015). The considerations are undertaken with depicting the values with involving the medical practitioners, nurses, allied and the other health professionals that are illustrated in this case. This helps in delivering the preventive services with depicting the view of the primary health and the emergency health services and thereby the treatments can be undertaken in an appropriate manner. The government of Australia also takes proper rehabilitation and the palliative care and thus the public health services seem to be enhanced with care (Connelly, Duaso, & Butler, 2007). The individuals with the respective responsibilities are provided so that the appropriate conduct can be undertaken with considering the elements of the Australia’s Health system. Henceforth the structure clearly depicts the history regarding the public health of Australia with representing the public health services provided by the government of Australia.
Identifying Key Issues in Public Health Policy and Practice
As per the structure of the Australia Government regarding the public health, various challenges are depicted regarding the funding and the delivery of the health care. The major problems are illustrated in this context represent the following that are described below:-

The variation of the changes of the pattern regarding the demography and the disease patterns which are depicted with the consideration of the population ages, and the burden of the chronic illness that grows widely in Australia (Dean, 2016).
The increment in the costs and the expenses that are depicted with the advancement of medical science and its technology. It thereby ensures the comprehensive, transparent and the efficient process for appropriate accessing f health strategies.
Problems related to the health workforce supply and distribution depicted regarding the health services as depicted according to the current health policies (French & Sherwood, 2011).
The concerns related to the quality and the safety practices seems to be persistent which furthermore becomes an issue in for of public health
Uncertainty is created regarding the public health, and the balance is depicted with the construction of the funding problems.
Recognition of the invest problems relating to the health of the children and thereby the issues is represented.
The role regarding the urban planning is depicted in creating healthy and sustainable communities as depicted in this case (Frieden, Dietz, & Collins, 2010).
Understanding the health and the equity in regarding the indigenous Australians are depicted which must assist the health care services.
The issues regarding the bureaucratic policies are depicted with indicating the approach relating to the designing of the health system.

Furthermore, apart from all the challenges mentioned above which are confronted by the Australian Government regarding the healthcare, the other major challenges are also depicted which indicates the funding and the delivery of the health care in Australia. The issue regarding the national leadership is also illustrated in this context of the health care system in Australia and thereby the delivery of inappropriate health care is undertaken with facing the challenges. Indigenous communities are established as a part of targeting population that is depicted in this context (Miller, 2010). It also helps in illustrating the inappropriate focus regarding the health care system in Australia which helps in determining the inadequate response to the challenges generated as per the Federal Government of Australia. With these challenges, mostly the indigenous community thrives off the facilities and thereby the imbalance in the health care system is depicted as per the government of Australia.
The State, International and National Health Systems Structure
Australia has one of the most accessible, comprehensive and affordable healthcare systems in the globe. The “Commonwealth of health and ageing” encourages good health and also ensures all people have access to family and health services including:

Community and aged care services
Children and family services
Public health initiatives
Pharmaceutical and Medicare benefits
Healthcare and hospital funding
Disability programs
Emergency services for the people in the crisis
Health services for Torres Strait and Aboriginal Islanders

The Commonwealth has developed a policy of financing and leadership in the health matters and also focuses on the research, national information management, and public health areas. The territories and state are responsible largely for the delivery of the public sector health services and regulation of the health workers in private and public sectors (Baghbanian, Hughes & Khavarpour, 2011). The territories and states deliver psychiatric hospital and public acute including dental health, environmental health programs, school health, child and maternal health. All government levels plus nongovernment and consumer sector have some role in providing or administering care, funding for older people. The aged care is regulated and financed by the Commonwealth government and is provided by the mainly nongovernment sector. The territories, states, and Commonwealth jointly administer and fund community care. The government of Australia has also taken many steps and implemented policies to prevent obesity. The local government plays a significant role in the services provision, for example through responsibilities for hygiene and sanitation, water quality and food safety monitoring (Willis, Reynolds & Keleher, 2012). The health care system of Australia is regarded as world care system regarding both its efficiency and effectiveness. The system is the mixture of private and public sector health services providers and range of regulatory and funding mechanisms:

The primary role of the Australian government is to develop national policies, funding, and regulation
Local, territory and state governments who are responsible primary for the management and delivery of the public health services and maintaining relationships with the private professionals and health professionals (Holtz, 2008).
Private practitioners which include specialists, consultant physicians, and specialists
For nonprofit and profit organizations and the voluntary agencies

The government of Australia funding includes national subsidy schemes: pharmaceuticals benefits scheme, private health insurance rebate, and Medicare. Through taxes, people make their contributions, and Medicare levy is based on their income and private financing such as the private health insurance (Baghbanian, Hughes & Khavarpour, 2011). 
Describing and Comparing Issues
In Australia, the obesity is alarmingly growing, and approximately 50% or more than 50% people in Australia are suffering from obesity. According to the recent report, almost 2 in 3 adults in Australia are obese or overweight, which is 63.4% of total adult Australian people. Moreover, the rate of obesity is Australian people is growing disturbingly because if the current report is compared with the report of 1995, then it is observed that in last ten years, the obesity rate has been increased by 10%. Moreover, the most disturbing fact about obesity is almost 1 in 4 children are obese, which is 25% of the total children in Australia. Here it is also observed that the urbanization is growing day by day. The rural people intend to adopt the urban life, and for this reason, it is found that the people living in remote areas or outer region are obese or overweight in comparison to the urban people who are residing in the major cities of Australia (Orlowski et al., 2013). The current statistics shows that the residents in the isolated people are 15% more obese than the urban people. The obesity is the cause of other dreadful diseases like hypertension, high blood sugar, diabetes, and cancer. The bad food habit of the Australian people is the main reason for increasing obesity. Besides this, the reducing exercise and hard work are also a cause of obesity. The overweight reduces the capability of chronic disorders. For the obesity there is 22% of Australian are suffering from cardiovascular diseases whereas around 280 Australian people develop diabetes each day, each in every 5 minutes. It is observed that 70.8% of adults men being overweight in comparison to the 56.3% women. The kids are also suffering from obesities, as the adults passing their bad habits to their children. Moreover, around one kid out of 4 kids suffering from obesity thus 27.4% of children in the age group of 5 to 17 are suffering from obesity (Sargent, 2011). The severe dietary is the key reason for the obesity of the reducing vegetable and fruits in the diet chart increased the fat in the body of the Australian people and growing obesity. 45 years and above people are mostly overweight in Australia. 
Analysis of the Health Policies 
The government of Australia has implemented many rules, regulations, and policies to control obesity. Under, eat well policy the government of Australia has focused on the following issues and has taken actions (Healey, 2009).
Strategic Management

Steering the implementation of NATSINSAP and EWA
Developing policy for nutrition
Managing partnerships
Establishing criteria for the resource allocation

Vulnerable Groups

Promoting organizational service changes
Addressing the structural barriers to healthy and safe food
Influencing social policy

Fruit and Vegetables 

Undertaking fruit and vegetables promotions
Addressing structural factors that influence fruit and vegetable consumption
Enhancing research

Child and Maternal Health

Improving nutrition for lactating and pregnant women
Improving infant nutrition and promoting breastfeeding

Research and Development     

Investing in health nutrition research
Encouraging investment in private sector
Promoting innovation

Evaluation and Monitoring

National nutrition and food control system
Evaluating EWA

The government has implemented many policies such as Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code, Food Regulation 2002, National Primary Health Care Strategic Framework, Nutrition, health and related claims standard, Australian National Breastfeeding Strategy, Food Regulation 2010 under food act 2003, National Preventative Health Strategy, Healthy weight, Marketing in Australia of Infant Formulas, Food and Nutrition Policy and Health Star Rating system (Lin, Smith and Fawkes, 2007). Tackling many public health threats and epidemics in the past has required the backbone of the hard policies around which the options can work in amplifying their effectiveness. The control of tobacco is a classic case, where adverting bans, smoke-free environments, and taxation served as the drivers for the changes in social marketing, education, and programs provided added value (Moodie, Daube & Carnell, 2009).   The legislation and policies for the prevention of obesity could not be aimed directly at physical and eating activity behaviors. However, the rule-based approach likely to be powerful to change the social attitudes and norms.  The government took the preventive actions are as follows:

Funding “National Partnership Agreement on Prevention Health.”
Establishing “Australian National Prevention Health Agency.”
Launching social marketing campaign encouraging people to adopt healthier lifestyle
Reviewing clinical rules on obesity and new guidance for the consumers.

The intervention should include ‘hard paternalism’ regulation options such as regulation and legislation to make the environments for people less obesogenic (Whitney & Rolfes, 2011). 
The overall report depicts the significant health issues which have reached the health agenda of the Australian Government and thereby the proper explanation which is represented regarding the policy response illustrated in this context. The policy issues are also described with referencing to the federal government, and thus the both levels of the government policy and the roles are depicted with portraying the policy roles included by representing such problems related to the obesity is illustrated in this context (Murray & Battista, 2009). The urbanization and health with the indigenous health are illustrated with the aging of the population. Henceforth the description and the comparison of the issues regarding the community health with taking determinants of health perspectives are illustrated in this context. The analyses of the selected policies are represented in according to the health plans depicted in this context of obesity.
Baghbanian, A., Hughes, I., & Khavarpour, F. (2011). Resource allocation and economic evaluation in Australia’s healthcare system. Australian Health Review, 35(3), 278.
Healey, J. (2009). The obesity epidemic. Thirroul, N.S.W.: Spinney Press.
Holtz, C. (2008). Global health care. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Lin, V., Smith, J., & Fawkes, S. (2007). Public health practice in Australia. Crows Nest, NSW, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
Moodie, A., Daube, M., & Carnell, K. (2009). Australia – the healthiest country by 2020. Canberra: Australian Government, Preventative Health Taskforce.
Whitney, E. & Rolfes, S. (2011). Understanding nutrition. Australia: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Willis, E., Reynolds, L., & Keleher, H. (2012). Understanding the Australian health care system. Chatswood, N.S.W.: Churchill Livingstone.
Baghbanian, A., Hughes, I., & Khavarpour, F. (2011). Resource allocation and economic evaluation in Australia’s healthcare system. Australian Health Review, 35(3), 278.
Bhuyan, S., Chandak, A., Smith, P., Carlton, E., Duncan, K., & Gentry, D. (2015). Integration of public health and primary care: A systematic review of the current literature in primary care physician mediated childhood obesity interventions. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice, 9(6), 539-552.
Blanck, H. & Collins, J. (2015). The Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Project: Linking Public Health Initiatives and Primary Care Interventions Community-Wide To Prevent and Reduce Childhood Obesity. Childhood Obesity, 11(1), 1-3.
Brennan, L., Kemner, A., Donaldson, K., & Brownson, R. (2015). Evaluating the Implementation and Impact of Policy, Practice, and Environmental Changes to Prevent Childhood Obesity in 49 Diverse Communities. Journal Of Public Health Management And Practice, 21, S121-S134.
Connelly, J., Duaso, M., & Butler, G. (2007). A systematic review of controlled trials of interventions to prevent childhood obesity and overweight: A realistic synthesis of the evidence. Public Health,121(7), 510-517.
Dean, E. (2016). Childhood obesity. Primary Health Care, 26(8), 10-10.
French, S. & Sherwood, N. (2011). Linking Primary Care, Communities, and Families To Prevent Obesity among Preschool Children. Childhood Obesity, 7(3), 237-239.
Frieden, T., Dietz, W., & Collins, J. (2010). Reducing Childhood Obesity Through Policy Change: Acting Now To Prevent Obesity. Health Affairs, 29(3), 357-363.
McLachlan, G. (2010). Reforms on the horizon for Australia’s health system. The Lancet, 375(9716), 712-713.
Miller, M. (2010). Women and Health: Community Development, its Role in Health: The Future of Public Health Research in Australia. Community Health Studies, 10(4), 417-418.
Murray, R. & Battista, M. (2009). Managing the Risk of Childhood Overweight and Obesity in Primary Care Practice. Current Problems In Pediatric And Adolescent Health Care, 39(6), 146-165.
Orlowski, M., Adkins, S., Ellison, S., Choh, A., Terwoord, N., & Schuster, R. (2013). Assessment and Management of Adult Obesity in a Primary Care Practice. World Medical & Health Policy, 5(1), 19-36.
Sargent, G. (2011). Successful treatment of childhood overweight and obesity in primary health care and appropriate outcome measures: Development of a logic model. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice, 5, 22.

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