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SBM1101 Project Management Fundamental

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Course Code: SBM1101
University: Asia Pacific International College

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Country: Australia

Discuss about the Project Management Fundamental.

The second largest city of Victoria, Geelong is the second fastest growing city in Australia. However, the Geelong-Melbourne rail service was overcrowded and suffers frequent delays. The public transport systems and services in G21 region was needed to be upgraded so that the problem of overcrowding can be addressed. The project is a large scale project and it is needed to investigate the high speed rail service project (Mees, 2010). The upgraded public transport services in G21 will improve the connectivity within the region that will in turn provide a better linkage with the main rail services to Melbourne. The project was proposed mainly because the current rail service is overcrowded and suffers the frequent delays. With the dramatic increase of the passengers, the regional rail link needed amendments in order to address the problems of overcrowding (Authority & Stage, 2012). A report has been prepared that discusses the project background, scope and the business case of the proposed Rail project Victoria (Brookes, 2013). The report gives an idea of the project charter and organizational structure of the project and the balanced scorecard of the project. It is needed to prepare a balanced scorecard for the project as it helps in better management of the ongoing project. Balanced scorecard monitors the progress of the project and ensures that the project is executed according to the plan.
Project Background
In order to address the overcrowding issues associated with the public transport system in G21, new rail project is proposed. This project is essential since during the peak hours, the trains are up to 140 per cent capacity which increases the need for developing the new express tracks for Geelong trains (Bayley, 2012). The aim of the project is to increase the capacity of Geelong-Melbourne Rail passenger service as failure in separating the suburban and the regional trains of the area will make Melbourne quite less accessible for the G21 region and residents (G21 Geelong Region Alliance, 2018). In order to increase the frequency of Geelong-Warrnambool rail passenger service the new project is proposed. The project is sponsored by the State and Federal government. The project further aims at increasing the services from 1 per day to five services per day. The project aims at relocation of the Geelong rail yard as well which will help in increasing the number of peak commuter services in south of Geelong. The current service of Geelong-Melbourne rail is overcrowded and therefore often suffers delays.
Project Scope
The project is expected to increase the capacity of Geelong to Melbourne rail passenger services. Apart from that, the project further aims in increasing the frequency of Geelong to Warrnambool rail passenger services. The improvement in the services will support the delivery of improved capacity, frequency and connectivity of the rail services (Pheng, 2018). Increase in the frequency of rail service is essential in order to address the overcrowding problems associated with Geelong-Melbourne rail service. The deliverables of the project are as follows-

Increase in the capacity of Geelong and Melbourne rail passenger service
Increase in the frequency of Geelong-Warrnambool rail passenger service
Improvements of the service to support delivery of the improved capacity, frequency and connectivity of the rail service.
Duplication of the rail tracks from Waurn Ponds to Geelong
Relocation of Geelong rail yard
Increase in the capacity on the Warrnambool line

The acceptance criteria of the project are as follows-

The public transport network in G21 is extended or upgraded to improve the frequency.
The new rail services are able to tackle the traffic of peak hours along with the completion of new express tracks to tackle the delays and overcrowding problems.
The project is delivered in good quality.

It is assumed that funding will be approved by the State and Federal Government to complete the project. Along with it, it is further assumed that the resources required will be readily available in time of project implementation.
One of the main constraints of implementation of the project is time. Since the public transport system is to be modified, it is essential to complete the project as soon as possible so that the normal services are not hampered (Crawford, 2014). Along with the time constraint, there is a schedule constraint of the project as well. The project is currently being executed.
Draft Business Case
The business case has a number of sections which is discussed as follows (Hardin & McCool, 2015)-
Project description
The project aimed at improving the public transport services in G21 region as the railway services from Geelong to Melbourne was overcrowded. With the increase in the number of passengers, the problem of frequent overcrowding was observed in the region. The Regional rail services from Geelong-Melbourne have a growing demand that makes this project an absolute necessary. In order to improve the rail services and to deal with the overcrowding problem, it was essential to built new express tracks. The new express track that was to be developed can be used and operated by Metro train (Regan, 2014). The smaller amendments to the existing rail tracks helped in increasing the services south to the Geelong line, which was needed. Furthermore, a failure in separating the suburban and the regional trains will hamper the accessibility of Melbourne (Fewings, 2013). The project therefore aimed in building new express track for Geelong trains for reducing problem of overcrowding. The existing line will be used and operated by metro rail. The separate metro and V Lines will therefore help in reducing the problem of overcrowding.
Project Goals
The main goal of the project is to have a separate line for Metro services. The existing line can be used for Metro rail service while the project will develop new lines for the express trains (Hwang & Ng, 2013). Overcrowding of the trains has been a significant problem over the years in G21 region. The Public transport services of this region needs immediate upgrade for increasing the frequency and the connectivity within the region. The goal of the project is to provide a better linkage to the main rail service of the region as well (Brookes, 2013).
Project Stakeholders
The project was proposed by Government of Victoria, one of the main stakeholders of the project. Regional Rail Link Authority was in charge of the management of the project and is an important stakeholder of the project. The Regional Rail Link Authority was working on the project on behalf of Victorian Government (Joslin & Müller, 2015). The following table gives an idea of the associated stakeholders and their power, role and interest in the project.





Government of Australia




Government of Victoria




Regional Rail Link Authority




Project Manager




Passengers (Geelobg, Bendigo and Ballarat Lines)




Contractor and Sub Contractors




V/Line (Operator)




 These are the major stakeholders associated with the project. The interest, Influence and the power of each stakeholder are represented in the table.
Associated Risks/Issues
The issues and the risks associated with the project are needed to be evaluated in order to develop a risk management plan that will help in addressing all the risks that the project might face while it is being implemented (Kerzner & Kerzner, 2017). Since it is a large scale construction project, identification of the risks in the initiation stage of the project is essential. The major risks associated with the project are as follows (Richardson, 2014)-

The project was proposed in the year 2009; however, it could only be started in the year 2011 giving rise to a major schedule risk.
The project could not be completed within the budget proposed by the project. The budget underwent revision for a number of times. After the completion of the project it was found out that the estimated price was $880 million that it was stated at the beginning of the project.
A number of operational challenges were faced after the completion of the project. Although the new tracks and the stations were ready, there were not enough trains available to operate in the proposed timeline.
Certain risks and issues were faced due to the velocity of the trains. Due to the increasing velocity of the trains, certain wear issues in the wheels were identified, which were risky. The wear issues were faced mainly due to the tight curves of the track in Dynon flyover.
The inaccurate prediction of expected growth in the number of passengers gave rise to a number of issues. The transport forecasting models that were used to estimate the passengers’ growth failed to work.

However, the operation risks and the issues associated with this project were mitigated by V/Line. The V Line operator for  
Risk of new track on local People
The new track that is proposed in the project although has a number of benefits, there are certain risks associated with the project as well (Burke, 2013). The construction of new track took almost 4 years and in those years of construction works, people faced a number of problems. Due to the construction works, the lines of Sydenham, Ballarat and Bendigo remained closed for almost 2 weeks.  However, this duration of work was intelligently planned during the Victorian School Holidays so that the effects on the local people are reduced. The delayed opening of new route added to the already existing problems.
Benefit of new track from Melbourne to Geelong
As discussed earlier, the project aims in improving the existing rail services by developing a new track from Melbourne to Geelong. A project has been proposed that is scheduled for five years. This benefit of the project will eliminate the problem of slow and overcrowded service offered. The current condition results not only in overcrowding train but also results in more and more passengers standing in the aisles over the long journeys.
Another benefit of the project is the increase in number of trains and the services as the demand for the increase in the number of trains has been growing so fast over the years. The new rail tracks and rail link will therefore prove to be a huge benefit for the people who travel by trains.
Geelong will mostly be benefited by the regional rail link project that is proposed. The V/Line that is proposed to be developed will have dedicated tracks all the way from Geelong to Southern Course. This will improve the access to the Southern Cross and will also help in reducing the problem of overcrowding.
The project aims in developing new tracks and platform along with new timetable for Geelong line passengers (G21.com.au. 2018).  The new tracks that have been proposed for the project will provide an uninterrupted path in an out of Southern Cross.
The project is in its implementation stage and the passengers will get to see the benefits real soon. The opening of dedicated tracks will help the trains in arriving in proper schedule and in a regular interval thus reducing the problem of overcrowding. There are a number of other benefits of the project as well.  
Business Impact
The project not only had a positive impact on the daily passengers of the business but also had a positive business impact. The economic benefits of the project were estimated to be around $6.2 billion. The project could gather a larger number of business benefits with improved transportation and fewer delays.  
Draft Project Charter
A project charter is a statement of objectives that provides the details of project goals, responsibilities, that identifies the main stakeholders of the project (Muller, 2017). It is an effective document that project manager make use of in order to control and manage the activities of the project. The project charter of rail project of Victoria is proposed below-
Project Overview and Justification
The Regional Rail link project aimed in eliminating the problems of overcrowding faced by the regular Geelong line passengers. These passengers had to face frustrating delays and the project thus aimed in developing two new tracks to tackle the problem. The project is justified as a separate line for metro rail and express train would reduce the problem of delays and overcrowding.
Scope and Objectives
The project was expected to provide a separate Geelong Melbourne line along with the increase in the platform capacity on the Geelong-Melbourne rail network. Along with this, it was expected that the Geelong Melbourne rail network will accommodate nine-carriage trains in order to address the overcrowding problem. It is expected that with the successful implementation of the project, the overcrowding problem of the trains during peak hours can be addressed. The objective of the project is to provide improved railway services to passengers.
Major Deliverables
The Major Deliverables of the project is represented below-

Shifting of the Existing tracks between Sunshine and Tottenham for the new Project
Repairing works on platforms such as Syndenham, Ballarat and Bendigo
Opening of new platforms at Sunshine.
Opening of new platforms at Footscray
Completion of development of new tracks
Testing the train rides in new lines via Tarneit
Completion of opening of Tarneit and Wyndham vale stations.

These are the major project deliverables of the Regional Rail Link project. Apart from that, there are few minor project deliverables associated with the project (Mir & Pinnington, 2014). Along with this, there were certain infrastructure requirements of the project which were delivered by this project as well.
The entire project has observed four major milestones. The deliverables of the project and project milestones are represented in the following table-


Task Name


Geelong Regional Rail project


   Project Starts


   Requirements gathering and Planning


      The estimation of the required new track


      Planning and estimation of the resource required


      Estimating the increasing demands of the passengers


      Development of project charter


      Charter approval


   M1: Completion of Requirements gathering Phase




      Initial design layout


      sharing the design with the stakeholders


      Approval of Project Design


   M2: Completion of Design Phase


   Construction Works


      The beginning of the Construction work between Sunshine and Tottenham


      Re opening of Sydenham, Ballarat and Bendigo Lines


      start and implementation of construction of the new tracks


      Early Fitout of Platforms in Southern Cross


      Construction of Platforms at Southern Cross


      Construction of New Platforms at Foorscray




      Construction and Opening of new platforms at Sunshine


      Commissioning of new and dedicated V/line tracks between South Kensington and Sunshine


      Opening of new Platforms at Footscray


   M3: Completion of Construction Works




      Operation of first test train via Tarneit


      Subsequent testing and delay in opening due to testing




      Completion of the project marking the opening of Tarneit and Wyndham Vale stations


      Payment Completion


      Resource Release


  M4:  Project Completion

Requirement gathering is an important phase of the project since this phase provided all the necessary details of the requirements of the project. Followed by the first milestone, the next milestone is the completion of accurate project design. After approval of the design, the construction works starts. Completion of the project construction is another important milestone of the project. After completion of the construction works and testing the new tracks, the final milestone is achieved with the completion of the project.
Funding Source and Budget
The major project sponsor or the funding source of the project was Government of Australia. Along with the Government of Australia, government of Victoria is a minor funding source of the project. The initial estimate or the budget of the project was $3.65 billion. However, the budget of the project underwent revision for a number of times. In April 2011, the cost of the project was calculated to be $5 billion which was way more than the initial budget estimate.
Project Organization
The Project of Regional Rail Link was one of the most expensive rail projects with a budget of more than $3.65 billion. Government of Victoria along with V/Line was in charge of the operation of the organization of the project. For planned project implementation, a project plan was prepared in the beginning of the project and was followed throughout the project implementation phase. It was one of the largest infrastructure projects of that time.
Charter Approval
The charter will be approved by Government of Victoria on concern of Government of Australia. The charter approval will mark the beginning of the construction works for the project and will be drafted by the project manager.  
Design and Application of Balanced Score Card
A balanced scorecard of the Victoria Rail Project is prepared in order to effectively manage the progress of the project (Walker, 2015). The balance score card of the project is represented below (Hoque, 2014)-

Critical Success factors




Completion of Project Within Schedule

Completion of each milestone within the allocated time

Partially Achieved. Although the project could not be completed within the previously set schedule, the entire construction works could be completed within July 2015.

A project Plan was prepared in order to complete the project within a set schedule (Leach, 2014).

Ensuring appropriate project monitoring

Resource availability throughout the project is ensured

Use of improved and advanced technology

The project aimed in using an improved machineries and techniques.


The operator of the project V/line ensured the use of improved machineries and techniques.

Project Budget

The target was set to complete the project within the scheduled budget of $3.65 billion.

Partially Achieved as the cost of the project was found to be near about $5 billion

The project budget included the cost estimates and the resource requirements of the project.

Business Benefit

The economic benefit of the project was estimated to be $6.2 billion.


A cost benefit analysis of the project was calculated in the initiation phase

Benefit of local people

The project aimed in reducing the problem of overcrowding

Partially Achieved- due to inaccuracy in estimation the problem of overcrowding could not be eliminated.

An increase in the number of people was estimated according to the daily number of passengers.

The report gives an overview of the background scope and schedule of the project. The report discusses the background, scope and business case of the project (Team, 2014). It has been observed that the Rail project of Victoria was implemented in a planned approach that helped in successful completion of the project. Although the project started as early as in 2009, it could be completed in the 2015. Certain problems were faced due to inappropriate estimation of the passengers’ demand and as a result the entire problem of overcrowding could not be eliminated. The project was complex and therefore it needed appropriate project monitoring which was followed in the project.
The recommendations for successful management of the project are as follows-

It is needed to adhere to the project management plan for delivering the project within a set schedule.
Accurate estimation of resources is required for ensuring easier resource availability during the implementation of the project.
A clear understanding of the requirements and the objectives of the project is necessary for its successful implementation.  

Authority, R. R. L., & Stage, D. (2012). Regional Rail Link.
Bayley, M. (2012). Regional development via high-speed rail: A study of the Stockholm-Mälaren region and possibilities for Melbourne-regional Victoria.
Brookes, N. (2013). Construction project management.
Burke, R. (2013). Project management: planning and control techniques. New Jersey, USA.
Crawford, J. K. (2014). Project management maturity model. Auerbach Publications.
Fewings, P. (2013). Construction project management: an integrated approach. Routledge.
G21.com.au. 2018. Geelong line the first to reap the benefits of Regional Rail Link | G21 Geelong Region Alliance. [online] Available at: https://www.g21.com.au/news/geelong-line-first-reap-benefits-regional-rail-link [Accessed 6 Aug. 2018].
Hardin, B., & McCool, D. (2015). BIM and construction management: proven tools, methods, and workflows. John Wiley & Sons.
Hoque, Z. (2014). 20 years of studies on the balanced scorecard: trends, accomplishments, gaps and opportunities for future research. The British accounting review, 46(1), 33-59.
Hwang, B. G., & Ng, W. J. (2013). Project management knowledge and skills for green construction: Overcoming challenges. International Journal of Project Management, 31(2), 272-284.
Joslin, R., & Müller, R. (2015). Relationships between a project management methodology and project success in different project governance contexts. International Journal of Project Management, 33(6), 1377-1392.
Kerzner, H., & Kerzner, H. R. (2017). Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.
Leach, L. P. (2014). Critical chain project management. Artech House.
Mees, P. (2010). Planning for major rail projects: the Melbourne Metro and Regional Rail Link.
Mir, F. A., & Pinnington, A. H. (2014). Exploring the value of project management: linking project management performance and project success. International journal of project management, 32(2), 202-217.
Muller, R. (2017). Project governance. Routledge.
Pheng, L. S. (2018). Project Scope Management. In Project Management for the Built Environment (pp. 63-77). Springer, Singapore.
Regan, M. (2014). Project finance: Transactional evidence from Australia. Public Infrastructure Bulletin, 1(9), 9.
Regional Rail Connections | G21 Geelong Region Alliance. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.g21.com.au/regional-rail-connections
Richardson, G. L. (2014). Project management theory and practice. Auerbach Publications.
Team, F. M. E. (2014). Project Scope Management.
Walker, A. (2015). Project management in construction. John Wiley & Sons.

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