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Segregation Among And Children Disabilities

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Segregation Among And Children Disabilities

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Children with disabilities and special needs have been reported of presenting certain issues. They are likely to encounter various challenges in terms of mixing with the general population and express themselves in a complete manner that is conducive to their holistic development. The behavioral outcomes in relation to their social communication as well as other cultural representations all are threatened as a consequence to discriminating attitudes. Disability in children has often been attributed to the impact due to isolation, segregation and discriminating behavior that delineates them from being considered as a part of the general or mainstream population (Fawcett 2016).
Benefits of mainstreaming disabled children  
Children with disabilities are in constant need for achieving their developmental milestones by catering to their specific special educational needs that might include range of problems such as physical disabilities, behavioral issues or learning difficulties. However, instead of labeling for special education, arranging mainstream education for them might harbor positive outcomes where children shall have the opportunity of gaining both academically as well as in the social contexts through provision of appropriate accommodation (Boyle 2014).
Need of funding
An urgent call must be raised in terms of making proper allocations and arranging resources through which the rights of very children in all their fairness and justice may be achieved. In order to attain these objectives of an inclusive and socially just educational system, the schools must be well equipped and ready to impart holistic education through recruitment of adequate staff and resources. Teacher’s behavioral assessment must be streamlined for improving educational provision for the intended audience (Ballard 2016).
Databases used
The Google Scholar database was accessed for retrieving pertinent information related to the chosen topic. The database houses a huge and exhaustive collection of peer-reviewed articles on various topics and is updated as well (Falagas et al. 2008).  In addition to this, the EBSCO host database was also utilized for procuring most relevant information.
In any research strategy, keywords play a crucial role in narrowing down the search process to the desirable ones. Time is saved and accuracy may be maintained by virtue of using most suitable keywords that are in line with the chosen topic. Keywords are often clubbed with Boolean operators to shorten the search procedure (Lewis 2015). In this particular study, the keywords such as segregation, mainstreaming, benefits, children with disabilities were incorporated to retrieve suitable information related to chosen topic. 
The articles published within the timeframe ranging from 2007 until 2017 and in English language were only considered.
Exclusion criteria
The articles unrelated to the topic, published before 2007 and in any languages other than English were not considered for inclusion in the study.
As per the given article, Gickling and Theobald (1975) in their work have already paid attention to the issue of mainstreaming children with disability. They have emphasized on pursuing a needs assessment in order to understand better the teacher attitude, perceptions and programs apart from the significance of adequate service delivery and teacher education. Holistic growth and development of child has been argued to be fostered through this avenue with commitment from the educators and active involvement of the stakeholders.  Literature review conducted with respect to this issue will highlight on similar and relevant works that might have vital implications.
Lindsay (2007) in his work has argued in favor of inclusive education or mainstreaming as a prime policy objective meant for educating the children and young people with special educational needs and disabilities. The effectiveness of inclusive education has been grossly investigated based on the child outcomes. Sample for the study has been selected as children with special needs ranging from preschool until their end of compulsory education. Relevant articles published between the years 2001 and 2005 in the journals of special education have been chosen for inclusion. A varied range of studies comprising of qualitative study, non-comparative case study and others were taken into consideration.  Measurements were done in accordance with the social as well as educational outcomes. Respondent’s judgments were also emphasized alongside exploration of process factors such as that of teacher attitudes in addition to use of teaching assistants. The study concluded that promotion of inclusive education or mainstreaming education meant for disabled children is based on the rights of children to be incorporated into the realm of mainstream education and the proposed effectiveness of inclusive education in harboring positive results.
The work by Wang (2009) has carried out a critical analysis in questioning whether every student having special educational needs should be incorporated in mainstream education provision. As per the traditional practices, separate learning environments are reserved for children requiring special educational needs thereby segregating them from the normal children who do not have any such requirements or disabilities. However, criticisms of these traditional approach has been rampant whereby many educators have proposed in favor of including such students in the mainstream schools so that maximization of their learning experiences may be achieved. A revamp of the educational curriculum through change in attitude of the educators have been suggested in this regard to attain holistic outcomes favoring the positive growth of such child. However, the study inferred that proper conceptualization of the children’s disabilities as well as the needs of children must be attended to for framing a suitable educational system. Active involvement of all the stakeholders consisting of educators, parents and school administrators is desirable in this context for driving goal-oriented results towards an inclusive education system through proper planning and sufficient coordination.
ardiman, Guerin and Fitzsimons (2009) in their study has compared the social competence of children with moderate intellectual disability as observed in case of inclusive as opposed to segregated school settings in the Republic of Ireland. In course of the study, a convenience sampling was employed by virtue of two large intellectual disability services. 45 children in totality were recruited across two groups in which Group 1 comprised of 20 children attending inclusive school and Group 2 comprised of 25 children attending segregated school. On the other hand , the parents and teachers who attended the study were asked to complete the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Adaptive Behaviour Scale. For the statistical analysis, 2×2 ANOVAs were computed based on social competence scores utilizing the educational placement types that accented for inclusive Vs segregated school in addition to proxy rater consisting of parent Vs teacher as independent variables. Evidences in support of majority of proxy ratings of social competence suggest that children in inclusive schools did not reveal significant differences with children in segregated schools thereby indicating the value of different educational setting.
Hettiarachchi and Das (2014) in their work has highlighted on the preparedness of both the regular as well as special education teachers working in the domicile of Sri Lanka on matter related to teaching of students with disabilities in an inclusive educational setting. A mixed method approach was employed to carry out the study whereby 75 teachers were surveyed through using a two-part questionnaire.  On the other hand, eight teachers participated in semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was completed by virtue of using the Framework Analysis for the interview dataset while descriptive statistics was employed for analyzing the survey derived quantitative dataset. Findings of the study revealed that special educators expressed greater perceived competence in terms of working with students having special needs in contrast to the general education teachers. Thus, teacher training in both pre-service as well as during in-service sessions has been indicated so that the concept of inclusive education may be well introduced and the purpose sufficiently achieved. Mainstreaming of children with disabilities may be attained through adoption of pragmatic approaches facilitating contextually-relevant and culturally-sensitive inclusion education for bringing forth positive outcomes.
The study conducted by Olsson et al. (2015) has highlighted on the social service utilization patterns among children with mild intellectual disability alongside representing the differences that exist between children integrated into mainstream classes in comparison to children in self-contained classes. As part of the stud methodology, available social services records were utilized for the sake of using the social services among 84 children possessing mild intellectual disability in conjunction with their families, who are residents of two municipalities in Sweden. The results generated from the study has focused that one-third of the families pertaining to the child’s disability received services while one-fourth of them had access to services on the pretext of social services. Thus, it was found that children who have been integrated into mainstream classes are less likely to be eligible for receiving social services due to their disability as opposed to children in self-contained classes. Therefore, recommendations have been made in terms of expansion of outreach activities by the social services particularly in schools in order to ensure that families having child with mild intellectual disability receive appropriate, comprehensive services.
Critical appraisal
Reliability of the information presented in articles is generally adjudged by means of conducting critical appraisal. Critical appraisal of articles is necessary in this context to evaluate the validity and acceptability of information presented in these literature (Elwood 2017). In the following assignment, the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) tool will be utilized to achieve the desired purpose of evaluating the feasibility and reliability of the data used in study.
The first study is a systematic review in which a clearly focused question regarding the effectiveness of inclusive education or mainstreaming has been addressed. Most relevant papers comprising of both qualitative as well as comparative outcome studies were incorporated in the study. The quality of the included studies have been properly scrutinized by catering to research methods and analysis with detailed insight into the procedures involved in selecting the most suitable study (Best and Kahn 2016). Studies of outcomes and studies of process have been categorized under two separate sections and the results as occurred through various studies have been combined for correct interpretation. Overall results have highlighted on the importance of inclusive education from two different aspects. Thus, precision in terms of the results is missing no definite conclusion has been arrived at. Application of the results to local population is questionable as all the important outcomes were not succinctly considered in the study thereby somewhat diminishing the acceptability of the information retrieved.
In the second study, a critical analysis on matter relevant to the inclusion of students with special education needs into mainstream education has been speculated. Literature of diverse nature has been incorporated for providing an insight into the topic with analysis of the issue under separate headings. No information about the procedure of retrieval of papers has been mentioned in the article. The discussion of various articles has been placed based on relevancy with the topic heading. Quality of the articles has not been assessed and most of the articles referred in the article are old and belonged to the 1990’s era. Proceedings of the various articles have been combined into one for indicating a prospective conclusion in which emphasis has been laid to reconsider the needs and concept of inclusive education meant for children with disability. Precision in terms of study results is missing due to lack of prudent analysis of study findings and consideration of all related variables (Xu and Croft 2017).
The third study has offered an insight into the issue of social competence of children having moderate intellectual disability by comparing the outcomes with respect to inclusive versus segregated school settings. The clearly focused issue has been addressed through attention being given to appropriate research methodology. Convenience sampling has been undertake in addition to measures being taken with respect to various questionnaire and scale. Moreover, ethical consideration was also taken care of in the study to conduct study in liaison with proper ethical and legal liabilities. Data analysis was also done diligently thereby adding to rigor and reliability of the data obtained. Efforts were also taken to minimize the occurrence of bias (Silverman 2016). Limitations of the study that confounded it have also been mentioned in due course of the article. Results obtained is very precise as it clearly stated that children in inclusive schools did not show significant difference compared to children in segregated schools on majority of proxy ratings in social competence.
The fourth study resorted to a mixed method study design in which investigation was carried out with respect to preparedness of special and regular education teachers in Sri Lanka for teaching students with disabilities in an inclusive educational setting.  In this qualitative study, appropriate methodology comprising of semi-structured interview and survey questionnaire has been utilized to derive proper conclusion. The aims of the research has also been clearly mentioned in the article thereby adding to the clarity of research undertaken. Hence, the methodology adopted is suitable and perfectly in line with the aims of the study. The relationship between the researcher and the participants has also been clearly defined whereby the specific tasks performed by the researcher has also been mentioned. The ethical issues associated with the research has also been mentioned in the article thereby enhancing the confidence in the data received from the analysis (Flick 2014). Descriptive statistics in conjunction with framework analysis was utilized for the sake of conducting data analysis along with indication about the implications of the research. Perceived competence about teaching students with special needs was higher among special educators in contrast to the general teaching educators.
In the fifth study, a quantitative total population study was conducted by means of using the existing social service records. The study aimed to highlight the types and number of services that are being utilized by the families from the social services either due to child’s disability or due to social problems. For attending the aim, the methodology adopted is quite acceptable. However, the number of sample recruited for the study might have been a little large so that the results obtained may be validated largely and might appear as a true representation of the population (Marshall et al. 2013). Recruitment of the participants was done appropriately with possible measures being taken to mitigate the generation of bias in the study apart from other confounding factors. Data analysis has also been rational with future directives for proper engagement of social services in catering to the needs of children with disabilities.
The discussions made in the above articles have indicated on a common aspect that inclusion of the disabled children in the mainstream education might harbor beneficial effects for them. Participation of these children with special needs into the general educational curriculum is likely to exert positive impact on their social and intellectual development. The holistic growth of the child is heavily dependent on the initiatives and approaches taken by the educational fraternity. The services and attitudes of the educators play pivotal roles in influencing the growth of the children with disability whereby core emphasis is laid on inclusive education. Rights of these children need to be safeguarded and justice should be upheld for them so that they might get the opportunities to lead their lives in sync with others. All the schools must be proactive in their endeavors to invest in optimal resources conducive to the development of the child. Funding is extremely important in order to attain the desired objectives. The school authorities might approach the education department to procure requisite funds for improving the educational environment status in which inclusive education for children with disabilities will be streamlined. Adequate finding will ensure mainstreaming of these children into society.
Ballard, K., 2016. Children and disability: Special or included. Waikato Journal of Education, 10(1).
Best, J.W. and Kahn, J.V., 2016. Research in education. Pearson Education India.
Boyle, C., 2014. Labelling in Special Education: Where do the benefits lie?. Routledge.
Elwood, M., 2017. Critical appraisal of epidemiological studies and clinical trials. Oxford University Press.
Falagas, M.E., Pitsouni, E.I., Malietzis, G.A. and Pappas, G., 2008. Comparison of PubMed, Scopus, web of science, and Google scholar: strengths and weaknesses. The FASEB journal, 22(2), pp.338-342.
Fawcett, B., 2016. Children and disability: Constructions, implications and change. International Social Work, 59(2), pp.224-234.
Flick, U., 2014. An introduction to qualitative research. Sage.
Gickling, E.E. and Theobald, J.T., 1975. Mainstreaming: Affect or effect. The Journal of Special Education, 9(3), pp.317-328.
Hardiman, S., Guerin, S. and Fitzsimons, E., 2009. A comparison of the social competence of children with moderate intellectual disability in inclusive versus segregated school settings. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30(2), pp.397-407.
Hettiarachchi, S. and Das, A., 2014. Perceptions of ‘inclusion’and perceived preparedness among school teachers in Sri Lanka. Teaching and Teacher Education, 43, pp.143-153.
Lewis, S., 2015. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health promotion practice, 16(4), pp.473-475.
Lindsay, G., 2007. Educational psychology and the effectiveness of inclusive education/mainstreaming. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(1), pp.1-24.
Marshall, B., Cardon, P., Poddar, A. and Fontenot, R., 2013. Does sample size matter in qualitative research?: A review of qualitative interviews in IS research. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 54(1), pp.11-22.
Olsson, L.M., Elgmark Andersson, E., Granlund, M. and Huus, K., 2015. Social service utilisation patterns among children with mild intellectual disability–differences between children integrated into mainstream classes and children in self-contained classes. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 30(2), pp.220-236.
Silverman, D. ed., 2016. Qualitative research. Sage.
Wang, H.L., 2009. Should All Students with Special Educational Needs (SEN) Be Included in Mainstream Education Provision?–A Critical Analysis. International Education Studies, 2(4), pp.154-161.
Xu, J. and Croft, W.B., 2017, August. Quary Expansion Using Local and Global Document Analysis. In ACM SIGIR Forum (Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 168-175). ACM.

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