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SERV4001 Tourism Planning And Policy

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SERV4001 Tourism Planning And Policy

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Course Code: SERV4001
University: University Of New South Wales

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Country: Australia


Case PaperPlease watch these two documentaries:
Part 1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=1W_zM7koJy8 and Part 2 (click on the link embedded on Part 1).
And check this online article out: https://www.businessinsider.com/abandoned-olympic-venues-around-the-world-photos-rio-2016-8
Urban eyesores such as poverty inevitably surface as the cameras of the world turn to major events, such as the World Cup and Olympics in Brazil. These events attract tourists by the thousands and even millions. Indeed, tourism becomes an agent of change, but sometimes at a cost such as gentrification, and as the video mentioned, controversial pacification.
The context becomes complex. As you saw in the video, which was created before the World Cup and Olympics, there was certainly a significant loathe and contempt by some residents for these tourist-drawing events. Eventually, the events especially the Rio Olympics pushed through despite protests. This placed a lot of Brazilians in an interesting position, especially after winning gold in football, which is highly regarded with eminent importance socially and culturally.
In reference to the video and using the concepts you’ve learned from the socio-cultural change impacts section of TOUR 423, create a well-articulated critique about social power structures among the four key players in the development of tourism in the communities mentioned. In a more positive light, explain how tourism can become an agent, not just of change, but of genuine positive change.

Social-power structures play a very vital role in the development of tourism especially in cities that have half of its population who cannot afford tickets or that these cities experience the negative socio-cultural impacts of tourism. These cities are left with no other option than to go with tourism development. This is of significant importance to know whether tourism can impact the socio-cultural changes in a community such as the living standard of people, infrastructural developments, lifestyle changes and others (Yu & Lee, 2014). The main purpose of this assignment is also to critically analyze whether social power structures are one of the key players of tourism development in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. Moreover, the paper also identifies whether tourism can become an agent of genuine positive change in the socio-cultural factors.
A critical analysis of social power structures among the four key players in the development of tourism in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 
Tourism causes both positive and negative socio-cultural impacts. Some of the positive changes are infrastructural improvements, frequent social events and opportunities to a mix-up with people of different cultures. These factors are necessary steps towards improving the living standard and the lifestyle of a community. There are some negative impacts as well as heavy traffic, poor sanitation, unrest in local people from undisciplined tourists and increased criminal activities (Nunkoo, 2015).  
This section is specifically aimed at identifying whether tourism development in Rio de Janeiro is a result of social power structures. Almost half of the population in Brazil as shown in the video cannot afford the tickets. It shows the gap between the real objectives of tourism in Brazil and its adaptability level. Most cities in the world do not have the infrastructure needed to stage a long two-week influx of athletes, fans, coaches, and media members. Despite spending a lot over improving the facilities, the stakeholders of tourism have not been able to resolve issues, which are believed to be as consequences of the tourism development. According to academic researchers, making such a huge investment in a two-week event does not appear a productive investment (Business Insider, 2018). It appears true because there are many other issues, which remain unnoticed. In fact, tourism can be a resource to many social crimes such as sex tourism, commercial sexual exploitation, and others (Lu et al., 2017).   
In Rio di Janeiro, tourism is believed to be the resource for social crimes such as drug trafficking, human trafficking, sex tourism, commercial sexual exploitation, and others. In recent times, Brazil has emerged as one of the main tourist attractions for sex tourism. The country has developed a target image where sexual adventures are cheap and easy. Many tourists from various parts of the world especially from Europe have grown in interest towards Brazil for seeking sexual explorations (Maruyama & Woosnam, 2015).
According to a research report published by the Brazilian government in 2005, there are pieces of evidence of sexual rings of minors in almost one of the five largest cities in Brazil. A close to one-third of entire child prostitution offenses took place in Northeastern Brazil, the place that has many international attractions (Amar, 2009).
Sexual tourism is believed to be as supported by taxi drivers, hotel staff, brothel owners, networks of pimps, tour operators, and entertainment establishments. Package sex tours are a part of the package offered to tourists. There are agents at the international level who provide information about particular resorts, which are commonplace for such practices (Nunkoo & Gursoy, 2016).
Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is even critical a problem compared to modern slavery (ECPAT). CSEC is a severe violation of children rights. Children are treated as an object for sex and business. They behave in a way that they can be sold, used and discarded. It is like a form of violence and coercion against children (Terrero, 2014). According to a report published by Brazilian authorities in 2011, the figure of victimized children of prostitution was more than 250,000. The driving fact behind such a large figure is the same as that for labor exploitation and that is ‘poverty’. In many cases, these children are from dysfunctional families where one of the parental figures are missing or may be otherwise (Terrero, 2014).
Drug trafficking is also related to exploitation and sexual abuse. In fact, the drug is a kind of weapon for the exploiter to keep victims trapped. Prostitution gives children an access to drugs. Often children are paid no money, but drugs for prostitution. Operators trap children in their evil plans by offering drugs to them. Children who are unable to pay the money, they go for prostitution to repay their debts (Rodrigues, 2015).
Children are used for human trafficking for sexual purposes. They are trafficked either to other countries or within their own country to add up to the physical resource to the sex industry. In a case when children are trafficked outside their country, they are vulnerable to exploitation. Such children become entirely dependent on their respective exploiter and consequently, are forced to be a part of the sex industry (de Pérez, 2016). Brazil is believed as the country of origin for forced labor and sex trafficking. Rio de Janeiro is one of the Brazilian states for being highly affected by international trafficking. Brazilian women are often the part of sex trafficking to Western Europe. The sexual tourists are mainly from the United States and Europe (de Pérez, 2016).
According to Foucault’s view of a social power structure, individuals are forced to be a part of a system in a way that they are left with no other option than to obey rules on their own. Foucault further says that this kind of activities are common in modern society and is followed by a large population (Baumgarten & Ullrich, 2016). In the light of what Foucault says, a social power structure does not let others express their will and desires. Instead, they tend to do what they are compelled to do so. In a likewise manner, tourism development in and across the globe especially in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil is affected badly by social power structures. The types of inhuman practices such as drug trafficking, human trafficking, sexual tourism and Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) are results of a system, which compel people to do what they are asked to. This can also be said that tourism has been a resource to these practices (Kim et al., 2015). These all are illegal practices that still exist and are growing as well.
The issues, which are being highlighted in this section of the report suggest that tourism is not actually an effective agent of change. Tourism in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil appears as a place to many social issues. These issues require a real attention of the tourism ministry in the state, the local government in Rio de Janeiro, and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to discuss on various related things (Dredge & Jamal, 2015). A collaborative work is required to control such issues and facilitate a positive change in the community of concern.
How tourism can become an agent, not just of change, but of genuine positive change 
The two goals of the Bank Groups’ such as to eliminate extreme poverty and promote shared prosperity can become a possibility if stakeholders of tourism are committed towards the goals. The list of stakeholders include such as relevant national governments, businesses of all types, sub-national state agencies, NGOs, multilateral development banks, think tanks and academics. Hence, there is an urgency to make future plans, gain access to or apply for funding and promoting progress at entirely different levels. Some of the areas needing an urgent call from stakeholders of tourism and requiring further analysis as well are (Dredge & Jamal, 2015):

Exploring the theory of change to know about a few things like when the growth in tourism happens actually, who all are living in the extreme poverty condition, closely monitoring what growth in tourism means to the poor particularly in terms of employment.
Assessing the different types of tourism to identify their impact value
Identifying and promoting the use of technology for the collection of data, the impact measurement and communication.
Implementing and evaluating training for a better communication and also identifying what all has so far been done and things still needed to be done.
Identifying actors to be involved in the development process and the needs to adhere to suitable frameworks
Developing and sharing ideas and proposals to produce better impacts on the data
Developing ideas on how to include SMEs in the change process

If all these strategies are effectively followed, tourism can be expected to bring a genuine positive change to the community it belongs to.
In summary, this can be said that social power structures are among the key players of tourism development. It attracts a vast population to get involved in types of inhuman practices. Those who are victimized from human trafficking, sexual tourism, drug trafficking and others are forced to fall in circumstances that are not under their control but of a group of a social power structure. In Rio de Janeiro, a close to half of its entire population are living in extreme poverty condition. They cannot even afford the tickets. These circumstances need to be addressed at the global level to help tourism become an agent of positive changes. The list of stakeholders as mentioned in this report need to adhere to procedures and plans for bringing changes to tourism as mentioned in this report.  
Amar, P. (2009). Operation Princess in Rio de Janeiro: policing ‘sex trafficking’, strengthening worker citizenship, and the urban geopolitics of security in Brazil. Security Dialogue, 40(4-5), 513-541.
Baumgarten, B., & Ullrich, P. (2016). Discourse, power, and governmentality. Social movement research with and beyond Foucault. In Social Theory and Social Movements (pp. 13-38). Springer VS, Wiesbaden.
Business Insider (2018). What abandoned Olympic venues from around the world look like today. [online] Business Insider. Available at: https://www.businessinsider.in/What-abandoned-Olympic-venues-from-around-the-world-look-like-today/articleshow/53500624.cms [Accessed 11 Oct. 2018].
de Pérez, J. L. (2016). A criminological reading of the concept of vulnerability: A case study of Brazilian trafficking victims. Social & Legal Studies, 25(1), 23-42.
Dredge, D., & Jamal, T. (2015). Progress in tourism planning and policy: A post-structural perspective on knowledge production. Tourism Management, 51, 285-297.
Kim, W., Jun, H. M., Walker, M., & Drane, D. (2015). Evaluating the perceived social impacts of hosting large-scale sport tourism events: Scale development and validation. Tourism Management, 48, 21-32.
Lu, J. G., Quoidbach, J., Gino, F., Chakroff, A., Maddux, W. W., & Galinsky, A. D. (2017). The dark side of going abroad: How broad foreign experiences increase immoral behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 112(1), 1.
Maruyama, N., & Woosnam, K. M. (2015). Residents’ ethnic attitudes and support for ethnic neighborhood tourism: The case of a Brazilian town in Japan. Tourism Management, 50, 225-237.
Nunkoo, R. (2015). Tourism development and trust in local government. Tourism Management, 46, 623-634.
Nunkoo, R., & Gursoy, D. (2016). Rethinking the role of power and trust in tourism planning. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 25(4), 512-522.
Rodrigues, T. (2015). Drug trafficking and security in contemporary Brazil. World politics of security, 235-250.
Terrero, L. S. (2014). Social impacts of tourism in Brazil. Global Sustainable Tourism Review, 12.
Yu, J., & Lee, T. J. (2014). Impact of tourists’ intercultural interactions. Journal of Travel Research, 53(2), 225-238.

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