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SOCI 1004 : Social Problems

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SOCI 1004 : Social Problems

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Course Code: SOCI 1004
University: The University Of Adelaide

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Country: Australia

• State the social problem you wish to solve.• Analyze the policy development cycle and the influence of stakeholders throughout the process.• Discuss how the policy development cycle and the influence of stakeholders will be used to effect social change for your identified problem.• As a human services professional, examine your role in policy advocacy and coalition building for improving human services.• Describe all of the resources available to support your policy and how you would organize them.• Identify the steps you will take, including the use of social media, to build a coalition around the policy, highlighting your role in the process.• Determine a list of the different constituents you would engage to advance your policy goal.• Define the specific policy action to be pursued.• Develop the criteria for measuring the effectiveness of the policy for society if adopted.
This paper proposes the policy in context of the violence faced by women in United States, and for these purpose different policy areas relevant for this social problem is discussed in this file. It must be noted that, instead of active contribution of different authorities and NGOs in the women’s protection, the numbers are still increasing with every passing day. It is necessary to make necessary changes in the current policy for the purpose of providing adequate protection to the women and girls against the violence. This policy must be extended to different areas such as workplaces, schools, churches, etc.
Structure of this paper includes the brief introduction of the social problem, evaluation of the policy development cycle and also the stakeholder’s impact on the process, use of the policy development cycle and stakeholder’s impact in social change, role in the policy advocacy, resources which are required to support the policy, identification of the steps for policy implementation, list related to the different constituents required for advancing the policy goal, particular policy action, criteria which measure the effectiveness of the policy.
Background of social Problem:
Violence against the women is considered as the any act related to the gender based violence that resulted or might be resulted in the physical, sexual, or mental damage or suffering to any women. This definition also includes the scope of the threat of such acts, coercion, and arbitrary deprivation of liberty, and no matter whether all these things occurred in the public or private life of the women. Violence also includes the intimate partner violence and sexual violence:

Intimate partner violence is the violence which includes the behavior of the intimate partner or ex-partner that resulted in the physical, sexual or psychological damage, and this also includes the physical violence, sexual coercion, mental abuse, and controlling behaviors.
Sexual violence is defined as the sexual act or attempt made by the person to commit any sexual act, or any act which is directed against the sexuality of the person by using the coercion or by any relationship with the victim (WHO, 2017).

As stated by the National Crime Victimization Survey, almost 232960 women’s in U.S. were raped and sexually assault in the year 2006, and all these cases were not even reported to the police. This survey further stated that almost 4.8 million women’s were raped by their intimate partners each year (NOW, 2018).
Policy Development Cycle & Stakeholder’s Influence:
Policy development cycle includes the three stages that are leadership, direction, and support, human resource capacity, and infrastructure support. Components related to these stages are defined below (Manitoba, 2011):

Leadership, direction, and support

Human Resource Capacity

Infrastructure Support

Driving and sustaining policy

Investment in people

Right tool to perform the right job

Entailment of process management

Strengths of the human resource

Infrastructure availability and cost issues.

Necessary resources required by staff

Risk related to the human resources.


Risk related to the ineffective leadership



Stakeholders Influence: Stakeholder is considered as the person who gain or lose something from the result of the policy or project. They are also known as interest groups and they directly influence the policy making process and also the result of the policy. There are two types of stakeholders that are individual stakeholders and the stakeholder’s institutions.
Individual stakeholders are those people who are involved in the process of policy making, and the stakeholder institutions are those institutions which represent the dominant to the policymaking. Individual stakeholders are those who are either part of the government or from the outside of the government (Bijlsma, Bots, Wolters&Hoekstra, 2011).
Individual stakeholders who belong from the public sector might include the politicians, government, bureaucrats and technocrats from differentareas such as health, education, finance, local government, and it also includes the public sector staffs that are responsible for implementing the programs. Stakeholders which represent the non-governmental institutes include the person who represent the civil society organizations and support groups such as women health advocacy groups, etc. All these groups directly or indirectly influence the policy making in number of ways such as policy maker mainly consider the effect of the policy results on all the stakeholders, and after that make changes accordingly (The policy circle, n.d.).
Those institutions which involved in the policy making process are directly connected with the individual policy stakeholders. While making the policies, it is important to understand the:

Roles and responsibility of the different institutions.
The manner in which approval related to the policy is taken from these parties.
Which institutions are considered to submit the draft related to the policy?

Effect of policy development cycle and stakeholders influence on social change:
It is necessary that policy development cycle must be used in such manner as it ensures good changes in the society. This can be done by introducing new concepts in the policy development cycle such as opinion of public, victim’s demand of justice, etc. Views related to the use and role of the public opinion while making the policy can be different. This can be understood through example; Winston Churchill does not support this view and held negative approach towards this view, but on the other hand Abraham Lincoln’s held positive attitude towards this view (Hobley, 2012). The biggest reason of the failure is the failure of the authority to consult with those people who will be affected by this policy.
In case of policy in context of violation against the women, it is necessary for the policy makers to discuss with the public which mainly includes those who are directly affected with the policy. In this case, policy makers must consult with the women’s in society or with the victims. They can also discuss the policy proposal with the institutions which represent the general public for the purpose of understanding the actual requirements of the public (USFA, 2017).
It is possible to reflect changes in the society with the help of the stakeholders, because these institutions are able to communicate with the general public and represented of societies in direct manner (Austin, Stevenson &Skillern, 2006). As stakeholder’s institution play most important role in the changes occurred in the society, as these institutions are those who are directly connected with the general public. Stakeholders are considered as the represented of the general public, as they are the one who deals with these on daily basis. Women care authorities deal with the women’s violation issues on daily basis, and because of this they can better understand the issues and methods required to resolve these issues. These institutions direct interact with the societies and also with their representatives, and it is necessary to understand their impact (Costa&Pesci, 2016).
Role of human service professional:
Advocacy includes the wide range of activities and these activities include the policy makers. Various traditional activities are included in the advocacy such as lawsuit, politicization, and public education. Advocacy also includes capacity structure, relationship building, forming networks, and also the development of leadership (Non-profit Oregon, n.d.). 
Human service professionals are those professionals who are responsible for promoting the improved service delivery system by considering various factors such as quality of the services provided, accessibility, accountability, and coordination. It must be noted that, advocacy is considered as the important component in context of the human service professionals, and it is also considered as the key requirement of the ethical codes and endorsed standards related to the human service and affiliated profession (Kimberlin, 2010).
Human service professionals play important role in policy advocacy and alliance structure for improving the delivery of the human services. They are mainly responsible to create an environment in which both women’s and girls are comfortable in sharing their grief’s and they can accept that they are victim of the violence. It is considered as the first step in context of providing care and treatment to the victims. Human service professionals can also be considered as the advocates in context of both government and victims, and sometimes they play important role in getting the justice by working with the different law enforcement authorities such as they can work with the child protection workers and violence prevention advocates as intervention in the domestic and sexual violence against the women can also reduce the exposures of children in context of the domestic violence and sexual violence (VITAL, n.d.).
Human service professionals can also link with the third party organizations because these organizations possess similar role as the human service professionals. Human resource professionals are those persons who get high degree of specialized training and they are enabling to make the unique contribution in resolving the issues related to the human (Ashmos&Mcdaniel, 1980). Therefore, it can be said that human service professionals play important role in the policy advocacyprovide additional support to the women
Resources required:
USA government stated that any type of violence in the U.S. is illegal. Laws related to the violence against the women and also the families which are affected by the violence. The most important law related to the violence against the women is the Violence Against Women Act and the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act (FVPSA) (Women’s Health.gov, 2018). Following are the most important resources which can be used in policy making (Violence against the women):

The most important Federal law against the women is the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013. This Act stated that domestic violence and abuse are already against the law and this law provides the services and support to the victims of the domestic violence and sexual assault.
The Family Violence Prevention and Services Act (FVPSA) provide help to the victims of the domestic violence and also to their children by providing shelters and resources.
It must be noted that, each and every community make some laws related to the violence against the women, and these laws are slightly different. The main essence of these laws is the protection against the violence.

It must be noted that, states also provides different resources which can also be used while framing the policies. This can be understood through example, New York ensure following resources in context of the women’s protection:

New York State Coalition Against Sexual Assault (link is external) Albany, NY
NYC Alliance Against Sexual Assault (link is external) New York, NY
New York State Coalition Against Domestic Violence (link is external) Albany, NY (Women’s Health, n.d.).

Steps related to the policy development:
Following are the important steps which must be followed by the policy maker while making the policy in context of the violation against the women:
Identification of issue: In this policy maker develop the particular issue, and it is considered as the foundation for developing the clear goals. In the present case, there are number of issues which fall under the category of the violence against the women such as domestic violence, sexual assault, mental harm, etc.
Assess readiness related to the policy development: in this stage policy maker consider whether community required the particular policy and whether they are ready to support the process. In this, Policy maker evaluates the environment and community in which such policy is implemented. In the present case, increasing crime in context of the violence against the women clearly reflect the requirement of this policy (Public Health Ontario, 2012).
Agenda setting: In this, government set the agenda for which such policy is developed, and government started to provide serious consideration. In the present case, government mainly focuses on the domestic violence and sexual assault against the women. In this policy maker focus on the development of the goals, objectives, and options related to the identified issues.
Policy formulation: It includes different steps, and all these steps are stated below:

Firstly identify the decision makers and influencers.
Build support in context of policy.
Identify different resources.
Develop different solutions and also considered other alternatives.
Prepare raft related to the policy.

Policy implementation: In this step, policy maker use different methods for the purpose of implementing the policies. Various platforms are used by the policy maker for the purpose of promoting or introducing the policy such as advertising, social media, etc.
Policy adoption: In this, draft of the policy is sent to the various authorities for the approval, and in case any changes are recommended then such changes is incorporated in the policy (Scott, 2012).
List of Constituents:
Following are the constituents which can be considered by the policy maker for the purpose off advancing their policy goal:
Political institutions- there are number of institutions which are set up by the government for the purpose of ensuring women protection in their country such as U.S. department of health and human services.
Stakeholder’s institutions: there are number of stakeholder’s institutions in the country which are considered as the representee of the general public such as civil society organizations and support groups such as women health advocacy groups, etc.
Particular policy action:
Policy action is considered as that action which is designed for the purpose of attaining the particular purpose by using the power of politics and by conducted activity through political channels. For the purpose of the present policy, specific policy action is the protection of women against the domestic violence and intimate partner violence.
Measuring the effectiveness of policy:
It is necessary to develop the criteria for the purpose of measure the effectiveness of the policy, and for this purpose following criteria is developed:

Monitoring criteria is developed.
Indicators are developed for assessing the planning process in context of implementation of the policy.
Data is collected and recorded for evaluation process (QP, n.d.).

After considering the above facts, it is clear that policy ensures the protection of women against violence such as domestic violence, intimate partner violence, sexual offence, mental harm, physical harm, etc. Above stated policy is developed after following the defined criteria and it includes number of steps. This policy is developed after considering the environment in which it is implemented and also whether community required the particular policy and whether they are ready to support the process.
Ashmos, D. & McDaniel, R. (1980).The role of human service professionals in executive decision making in third party organizations.Human resource management journal, 19(1), 16-23.
Austin, J. Stevenson, H. &Skillern, J. (2006). “Social and commercial entrepreneurship: same, different, or both?”,Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice , 30(1), 1-22.
Bijlsma , R. Bots , P. Wolters , H. &Hoekstra, A. (2011). An Empirical Analysis of Stakeholders’ Influence on Policy Development: the Role of Uncertainty Handling. Ecology and Society Journal, 16(1).
Costa, E. &Pesci, C. (2016). “Social impact measurement: why do stakeholders matter?”,Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, 7(1), 99-124.
Hobley, M. (2012). Public opinion can play a positive role in policy making. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/public-leaders-network/2012/sep/03/public-opinion-influence-policy.
Kimberlin, S. (2010). Advocacy by Nonprofits: Roles and Practices of Core Advocacy Organizations and Direct Service Agencies. Journal of Policy Practice, 9, 164–182.
Manitoba, (2011).Policy Guide.Retrieved from https://www.oag.mb.ca/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/PolicyDevelopmentGuide.pdf.
Non-Profit Oregon. Public Policy Advocacy: What, Why & How. Retrieved fromhttps://nonprofitoregon.org/advocacy/nonprofit_advocacy.
NOW, (2018). Violence Against Women in the United States: Statistics. Retrieved fromhttps://now.org/resource/violence-against-women-in-the-united-states-statistic/#endref5.
Public Health Ontario, (2012). At a glance: the eight steps to developing a healthy public policy. Retrieved on 4th July 2018from https://www.publichealthontario.ca/en/eRepository/Eight_steps_to_policy_development_2012.pdf.
QP.Policy and plan effectiveness monitoring.Retrieved from https://www.qualityplanning.org.nz/index.php/monitor/policy-and-plan-effectiveness.
Scott, P. (2012). Making Public Policy.Retrieved fromhttps://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/POLSC2315.1.pdf.
The policy Circle.People and places.Retrieved from https://www.policyproject.com/policycircle/content.cfm?a0=3.
USFA, (2017).The public policy cycle.Retrieved from https://www.usfa.fema.gov/training/coffee_break/053117.html.
VITAL, (n.d.).Social Service Workers Can Help End Violence against Women. Retrieved from https://www.intrahealth.org/vital/social-service-workers-can-help-end-violence-against-women.
WHO, (2017).Violence against women.Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/violence-against-women.
Women’s Health.gov, (n.d.). Laws on violence against women. Retrieved from https://www.womenshealth.gov/relationships-and-safety/get-help/laws-violence-against-women.
Women’s Health.gov, (n.d.). Resources by state on violence against women. Retrieved from https://www.womenshealth.gov/relationships-and-safety/get-help/state-resources

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