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TNE30003 Communications Principles

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TNE30003 Communications Principles

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Course Code: TNE30003
University: Swinburne University Of Technology

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Country: Australia

1. Tired from touring the art galleries, Mark sat down beside a girl who was bent over a sketchbook. He stole a peek at her and saw an artful drawing. He was immediately reminded of his past, “That girl’s work is really something! I could have been like her, or even a worldrenowned artist, if not for the fact that my parents were too poor to send me overseas to pursue my interest in fine arts! Well, I am glad that I still have good artistic sense to be a successful photographer.” Unable to hold back his compliment for the girl’s mesmerising piece, Mark said, “That’s a masterpiece! You’re very talented.” However, the girl did not look up. Mark paused before repeating. Feeling offended by the continued hostility, he added, “Hey listen, I was just complimenting your drawing. I am not a creepy person.” Disturbed by the continued silence, he moved away, thinking, “People these days—they think that every person out there is up to no good…so much attitude; that’s ridiculous.” At that moment, he felt a tap, and he turned around. The girl raised a note before him, which read, “Sorry if I offended you. I am deaf.” Mark was speechless.
Identify and illustrate the TWO attribution biases that happened in the scene above.
2. Watch this scripted video titled, “Enrichment”.

In this video, Cheryl and May, together with another colleague, are engaged in a conversation on the importance of pushing their children to perform their best right from the beginning of their education journey. This short conversation (see 0:53—1:37) was enriched by the presence of nonverbal communication. Identify and describe FOUR types of nonverbal cues that were involved. Apply your understanding of verbal and non-verbal communication to evaluate the effectiveness of each type of non-verbal cue in shaping their conversation.
3. Watch this clip from Big Bang Theory.

In this video, two friends Sheldon and Leonard are engaging in a conversation. However, Sheldon is not listening. Leonard devises a way for the conversation to carry on meaningfully. Based on the different types of listening covered in this module, identify the type of listening that Sheldon failed to display. Provide evidence from the clip to support your answer. Employing the concept of effective listening, provide Sheldon with TWO pieces of advice to improve his listening skills. In your explanations, you should also highlight the importance of these pieces of advice to effective listening.

1. The two attribution biases that happened can be identified by these lines thought by Mark, “People these days – they think that every person out there is up to no good… so much attitude; that’s ridiculous”
First attribution: From the given text, it has been observed that when the girl did not respond to Mark’s compliment for the second time, he immediately assumed that everybody in the world thinks that every person out there is no good. He became judgmental and started to judge the girl based on various assumptions. Mark thought that every person out there is no good. He felt that the girl might think him to be creepy and therefore was hostile towards him and did not acknowledge his compliment. Never for a moment did Mark think that the girl was hearing – impaired.
Second attribution: Additionally, Mark also falsely assumed that the girl was arrogant and had a lot of attitude which was not the case because the girl was hearing – impaired. The girl was polite and courteous as reflected by her apology in the end.
2. In the video, entitled ‘Enrichment’ Cheryl and May along with another colleague are engaged in a conversation on the importance of pushing their children to perform their best right from the beginning of their education journey. The four types of non-verbal cues in the video can be discussed here. At first, May is happy and is smiling and looking at her colleagues and then she lowers her eyelids and looks down. As they continue to talk about the priorities in life, and how one should only focus on studies and not on sports, and talk about the importance of pushing their children from a tender age so that they get into a good school, May starts feeling uncomfortable (Viddsee.com, 2018). May shrugs her shoulders, is visibly upset, looks down, and wonders if she did the right thing in telling her daughter that she will not be going to Auntie Kelley’s house the next Saturday and instead would be going for tuitions and piano lessons. This is portrayed through her battling her eyelids, which evoke a feeling of confusion, and uncertainty (Baldea & Balteanu, 2014). May keeps looking down, preventing eye contact with her colleagues which shows that she does not like and agree to what her colleagues are saying, even though she appears to conform and agree to their views (Abney et al., 2017).  Although May is putting up a brave front, smiling, and appearing to agree with what her colleagues are saying, in reality May is visibly upset (Viddsee.com, 2018). The conversation with her colleagues sets May thinking and moves the narrative forward, and influences May’s decision in the end when she goes out to play with her daughter who was studying.
3. In the video clip of ‘The Big Bang Theory’, the type of listening that Sheldon failed to display is Empathic listening, listening to feel what the speaker thinks. There are two types of listening. They are Empathic listening and Critical listening.
Empathic listening requires one to see the viewpoint of another individual and listen to the needs of the person. When Leonard comes back home and tells Sheldon that he “did a bad thing” Sheldon’s response is “Does it affect me?” When Leonard says, “No” then Sheldon says “Then suffer in silence.”
Employing the concept of effective listening, the two pieces of advice that Sheldon could be given in order to improve his listening skills, is not to interrupt Leonard when he is speaking and maintaining an eye contact with Leonard when he is talking. Sheldon should try to be sympathetic, give his friend a patient hearing and then help his friend in solving his dilemma.
The two pieces of advice to effective listening include maintaining an eye contact with the speaker and not interrupting a person when he or she is talking.  Maintaining an eye contact with the speaker is extremely important so that the person who is speaking knows that the listener is genuinely listening to him and genuinely cares about him and is therefore maintaining an eye contact with him and giving him a patient hearing (Abney et al., 2017).
One should also not interrupt someone who is talking (Baldea & Balteanu, 2014).     Apart from being considered as rude, constant interruptions can make the speaker feel irritated and annoyed (Floyd, 2011). Constant interruptions can also lead to the speaker feeling that his words and opinions and problems does not matter to the listener, that the speaker does not matter to the listener and therefore the listener is constantly interrupting him. Constant interruptions from the listener when he is talking, also makes the speaker feel that the listener is not attentive to him, his problems and what he has to say and is dismissing him and what the speaker is saying, dismissing his problems in this case (Barbour, 2017).
According to International Listening Organization, listening can be defined as “the process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and/or non-verbal messages (Barbour, 2017). There are two types of listening which are Critical and Empathic listening. Critical listening can be defined as listening to evaluate and analyzed, on the other hand, Empathic listening can be defined as listening to understand feeling and emotion.
Empathic listening, also called therapeutic listening, reflective listening is important because conversation has both content and relationship dimensions (Barbour, 2017). Empathic listening requires us to look at a situation from another person’s point of view take the perspective of the other person, to look at a situation from his/her point of view and try to understand what the person needs. Empathic listening is employed by counselors and therapists to understand a person and help him to solve his problems. Empathic listening does not involve judging a person but instead gently persuading the speaker to vent out his feelings and emotions. In order to avoid misunderstandings, the methods Clarification and Reflection are employed (Floyd, 2011).
When a person goes to another person with a problem, or goes to them with an emotional crisis, there are five ways by which a person can respond to the problem which are inclusive of Evaluation, Interpretation, Support, Probing and Understanding. Empathic listening style is a combination of probing, supporting and understanding responses (Barbour, 2017). It is focused on the speaker and the person confirms responses and enhances the speaker’s self-esteem and confidence.
The process by which one evaluates the merits of claims is known as Critical listening. The main motive is to scrutinize and evaluate what is being said by a person. This entails analyzing a person’s opinions and views and making a judgment (Floyd, 2011). It is very important to have an open mind and not have preconceived notions when a person is critically listening to another person. It is important to separate the facts from fiction. Critical listening starts with skepticism. It is a process of listening to claims and then evaluating the evidence and reasoning supporting those claims, and drawing conclusions based on probabilities. Critical listening falls between true belief and cynicism. When a person is critically listening to another person, then the person is willing to see the truth of the claim. However, the listener does not blindly accept or mock at the other person’s beliefs. The characteristics of Critical Listening include listening to the claim with a willingness to see the truth of the claim (Floyd, 2011). A listener who is listening critically does not accept everything blindly and he does not sneer at the beliefs of others. Critical listening is evidence driven and not belief driven. Skepticism, an essential part of Critical Listening rests on probabilities of truth. Each claim rests on the probability that it is true. In Critical listening, claims are supported by a rational argument. This is the Probability Model of Critical listening. The criteria for evaluating Reasoning and Evidence rest on Credibility, Relevance and Sufficiency. Thus, Effective Listening consists of both Critical Listening and Empathic listening.
Abney, D. H., Dale, R., Kello, C. T., & Louwerse, M. M. (2017). Burstiness across multimodal human interaction reveals differences between verbal and non-verbal communication. In CogSci.
Ahmed, M., Yaqoob, H., & Yaqoob, M. (2015). Evaluation of Listening Skill of ELT Textbook at Secondary School Level. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 6(3), 225-229.
Baldea, M., & Balteanu, A. (2014). The importance of information sources in effective listening process in organizations. Fiability & Durability, 1, 333-339.
Barbour, J. B. (2017). Listening and Organizing. The International Encyclopedia of Organizational Communication, 1-5.
BestShowBits( 2018) The Big Bang Theory – Chess Clock Conversation Available at:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sr1uS8KZbto&t=42s [Retrieved on: 20th Aug 2018]
Burgoon, J. K., Guerrero, L. K., & Floyd, K. (2016). Nonverbal communication. Routledge.
Chen, C. C., & Tseng, D. S. (2017). “I give up and stop listening”: Fostering metacognitive listening strategy awareness in the English classrooms in Taiwan. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 4(11).
Floyd, K. (2011). Communication matters. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Kazu, H., & Demiralp, D. (2017). Comparison of Critical Listening Proficiency of Teacher Candidates in Terms of Several Variables. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 68, 81-95.
Matsuo, S., & Scot, M. (2015). Extensive Listening inside and outside the classroom. Kwansei Gakuin University Humanities Review, 20, 109-115.
Rahim, M. H. A. (2018). Are You Getting the Most from Your Listening? Looking at Listening as a Strategy for Effective Communication. Jurnal Komunikasi, Malaysian Journal of Communication, 3.
Rostina, R. (2017). An analysis on Emphatic Listening Styles in EFL Classroom (Doctoral dissertation, UNIVERSITAS NEGERI MAKASSAR).
Viddsee.com  (2018) Enrichment – Her Request For A Saturday Off Was Met With Her Mom’s Disapproval // Viddsee.com Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sKiz_cVYn70 [Retrieved on: 20th Aug 2018]

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