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Treatment Of SAD In Women

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Treatment Of SAD In Women

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You are to Write an Analytical Report on Health Issues.

Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is defined as a stigma of negative evaluation generated because of avoidance of social gatherings and other associated social stimuli. In other words, SAD can be defined as social phobia generating significant amount of fear while addressing any social situations. The prevalence of social phobia causes distress, impaired ability to function and reciprocate properly in the daily life work. The main physical symptoms of SAD are blushing, excess sweating, trembling, increase heart rate, constant worrying, nausea, stammering and at times rapid speech. In some rare instance, panic attacks also occur under the influence of intense fear and discomfort.  
SAD is gradually expanding its wings of curse over the social rare and that too at a robust pace. Women are more vulnerable to SAD and several developmental, sudden societal, and myths of reproductive factors are believed to be the predominant factors behind the generation of the SAD among the women. However, there are limited research on sex differences in SAD and extremely scared data is available to guide towards the prevention of this disorder and subsequent treatment for the betterment of the public health policy directed towards women and girls. Thus, the lack of information regarding the origins of sex differences in SAD is alarming and requires immediate rectification.
Secondary Research
SAD are common in people who become overwhelmingly anxious and are extremely self-conscious in day-to-day social situations. People who are suffering from SAD suffer from a strong phobia of being constantly gauzed, judged and monitored by others and such perception generates a phobia of embarrassment in the public gatherings. They start worrying days or weeks before a dreaded situation. This fear at times become so severe that it interferes with the normal work process at school, office and other ordinary daily activities.
SAD and the affect of Gender
According to McLean et al. (2011), women have comparatively higher rate of prevalence of anxiety disorders. However, there are less information regarding how the gender affects the age of onset of SAD and how gender manipulates the chronicity, comorbidity, and burden of the overall prognosis of SAD. On the other hand, research conducted by Yang et al. (2012) lead to the elucidation of the fact that, men are also an important victim of SAD. Men fear dating women or have a phobia of rejection both in the job place and with the love interest. In order to fight back against such phobia, they take help of intoxication like alcohol and cigarette smoking. In case of women, the principal weapon taken to curb or to dodge the intimidating fear of SAD is eating and giving rise to eating disorder, followed by weight again (Levinson & Rodebaugh 2012). This weight gain is again associated in the field of igniting SAD by means of bullying (Van Geel, Vedder & Tanilon 2014).
SAD and the influence of Age
According to De Jong et al. (2012) SAD have a crippling effect over the young people. Teenagers who tend to avoid raising their hand or speaking up with friends and teachers in school are the major victims of SAD. Because of SAD, they gradually withdraw themselves from the extracurricular activities, and eventually suffer from isolation and depression. In fact, children who fall in between the age group of the 13 to 17 years are the principal victims of the SADs. However, these tendency of getting affected with the SADs are more prone in teenage girls than in boys. Girls have a general fear of speaking in public as from the time immemorial; girls are forbidden from stepping outside the house and interacting with people (Crichton et al., 2013). However, such practices are rare in urban areas but the still prevalent. The kind of roaming luxury enjoyed by the boys and not imparted on the girls. Moreover, due to the constant victim of physical abuse and gapping, girls have a general phobia of interacting with opposite sex. However, such opposite sex phobia are found to recover with maturity (Van Houtem et al., 2013).
However, according to the paper published by Mayo-Wilson et al. (2014) as the children affected with SADs attain adulthood, they tend to avoid involvement with other people, and as a result cut short a lot of opportunities. Intelligent and bright young adults who potential of becoming a successful lawyers or doctors choose a profession or work that is very solitary. In extreme cases, they might not enter in the flow of the the work force and such tendencies are common in girls than in boys.
SAD and Fear of Humiliation
Women or girls after attaining adolescence are more concerned about their physical appearance. Change of the physical appearance, huge hormonal imbalance during the start of the menstrual cycle. Now puberty creates two major problems firstly, how to manage physical changes which are besetting on the body (self consciousness) and how to act young or womanly. Now these lead to the development of insecurities. In the majority of the cases, early adolescence and developmental insecurity goes hand in hand and in case of young girls, puberty acts an enemy of self esteemed. At this point of time, physical appearance becomes much more important in the grounds of social acceptance and social standing. They become more vulnerable to any negative comments coming with respect to their looks. Such vulnerability makes them prone of getting hurt with even the silliest of comments and leading to the generation of SADs (Mendle et al., 2014).
Men or the young boys also face similar kind of problems as they attain maturity. Lack of proper development of beard or body hair, short height and breaking of voice are principal driving force affecting the self-esteemed. However, since the change in the physical appearance of the boys are not that distinct and glorified than that of the girls, they are less likely to develop SADs (Herpertz-Dahlmann, Bühren & Remschmidt, 2013).
During the puberty, a teenage is in the mid way of being not completely an adult and not being child anymore and these lead to the generation of uncertain times. During this transition phase, they become more prone of getting affected with SADs (Haller et al., 2015).
Lack of Eye contact and SAD
According to the research paper published by Iverach & Rapee (2014), people who are scared of establishing eye contact are at a higher risk of developing SAD. Phobia of eye contact is directly associated with the phobia of meeting or facing new people or interacting of people. Eye contact are co-ordinates the timing of speech by allowing two interacting people to ascertain the when to start further communication or when the other people in the conversation is about to finish his or her statement (Bohannon et al., 2013).
Primary Research
The primary research was based on the survey and is conducted between 10 men and 10 women residing in Singapore. The age bracket of the age group was in between 17 to 34 years. 10 out of 7 women said “Yes” they suffer from anxiety while this percentage was 4 out of 10 men. Moreover, the majority of age group, which was covered under the anxiety symptoms is 17 to 30 years. However, this is a large age group the principal victim of SAD was found to lie in between 21 to 25 years.
One of the main symptoms of anxiety was highlighted was constant worrying. Due to the fear of low self-esteemed, young girls survive from a constant fear of uncertainty. Apart from this, sweating and increased breathing are also cited as symptoms by 30% of the survey population. Sweating and increased breathing occur as a result of tension and  tension is the principal outcome of SAD creating lack of confidence. 10 out of 20 cited public speaking as their principal cause of anxiety. 5 out of 20 cited criticism by the people. The rest five cited meeting people. Thus from the above data it is quite clear that interaction with the people is the stigma behind the SADs. There lies a lack of confidence among the young adults. They constantly fear that what people will think about them and tend to act as introvert and develop fear of rejection, insult and interaction. The frequency of occurrence of SADs is frequent and citing this as a social taboo. 10 out of 20 people have vouched for help from their friends and family members but have feared to approach the psychologist (Mayo-Wilson et al., 2014). As the principal believe, the term psychologist has a social taboo. They are considered as a doctor of mental disorders and hence people who tend to have SAD tend to avoid psychologist as they think they might come under the flag of social bully. However, SAD though not a mental disorder but if not treated on an urgent basis may give rise to chronic mental problem leading to depression. Psychologist on the other hand are not solely the doctors of mental illness they are the person who help people to recover from the psychological problems. On the other hand, when they tend to seek help from their friends or family, they do not get adequate help. Friends belong to the same age group and hence lack experience to deal such chronic social problems and on the other hand, family members do not give importance to these kinds of SADs and hence refuse to help. 10 out of 20 people gave a confused reply (maybe) when asked to whether they hide in the background during the social events. Such a vague reply gave the indication that they are not even sure about their behavior during any social event, this gave indication they be under the umbrella of SAD, and for this, they attain less social events and hence failed to give a distinct reply. 15 of the 20 people said that what the people say in most of the cases hurts them. From the above answer it’s clear that these 15 men and women are suffering from low self esteemed (the cause behind the SAD) and thus are more susceptible of getting hurt or humiliated by others. These very 15 people responded that they feel uncomfortable while meeting new people, fell self conscious in most of the time and pinpointed social situations as their common cause behind anxiety (Werner et al., 2012; Iverach & Rapee, 2014).
Thus from the above discussion it is clear that the young girls falling in between the age bracket of 21 to 25 years are more prone to SAD. They are constantly worried about meeting new people, tend to avoid social events, feels self-conscious. The secondary data analysis also supported the primary data and thus leading to the establishment of the fact that the young girls due certain social taboo and lack of exposure with the external world are more affected towards SADs than the boys.
There are significant barriers towards the treatment of SAD in women. As per the social stigma, it is duty of the women to bear the childrearing responsibility and this pose numerous difficulties while seeking therapy because in the majority of the cases, childcare is not available or at time lies beyond affordability. What most surprising is, anxiety symptoms are at times, are either not recognized or not accepted in girls because of their gender-specific role. Like according to the invisible social norm, women (mostly in the rural areas) are supposed to be submissive, have shyness and are not supposed to interact with unknown men or outsiders. Other hurdles include cost of the therapy, dearth in the field of insurance in mental health care, stigma (ashamed) associated with psychiatric diagnosis, and inaccessible healthcare services.
Till date, little have been done in the domain of treating anxiety disorders in women. However, research suggests that women are more likely to vouch for SAD treatment than men.
One of the best-assured treatment of SAD is psychotherapy and other associated psychiatric medications. In the field of psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) are assumed to be more helpful in treating SAD arising out of public speaking and fear of criticism from people (Goldin et al., 2012). The cognitive behavior therapy includes cognitive restructuring with and without exposure and social skills training. CBT is shown to provide effect after 16 sessions (one session per week). Such therapy can be given individually or via or group-format basis. Apart from CBT, other psychological treatments, which are found to be effective in treating SAD are relaxation exercises and behavioral therapy (Andersson et al., 2012). Group-based CBT has found to be more effective, because in such group based approach, core concerns like fear of public speaking and be affectively addressed. Exposure therapy on the other will help to overcome the fear of critisim and to strike a confident pose in the social gatherings.
Apart from counseling or psychotherapy, SAD during its acute phase are treated with the help of administration of the medicines like serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI). The SRI prevents the reuptake of the serotonin (stress relieving hormone) and prolongs its affect
Andersson, G., Carlbring, P., Furmark, T., & SOFIE Research Group. (2012). Therapist experience and knowledge acquisition in internet-delivered CBT for social anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial. PloS one, 7(5), e37411.
Bohannon, L. S., Herbert, A. M., Pelz, J. B., & Rantanen, E. M. (2013). Eye contact and video-mediated communication: A review. Displays, 34(2), 177-185.
Crichton, J., Okal, J., Kabiru, C. W., & Zulu, E. M. (2013). Emotional and psychosocial aspects of menstrual poverty in resource-poor settings: a qualitative study of the experiences of adolescent girls in an informal settlement in Nairobi. Health care for women international, 34(10), 891-916.
De Jong, P. J., Sportel, B. E., De Hullu, E., & Nauta, M. H. (2012). Co-occurrence of social anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence: differential links with implicit and explicit self-esteem?. Psychological medicine, 42(3), 475-484.
Florescu, S., Ciutan, M., Popovici, G., G?l?on, M., Ladea, M., Pethukova, M., & Hoffnagle, A. (2017). The Romanian Mental Health Study. Journal.managementinhealth.com. Retrieved 22 August 2017, from https://journal.managementinhealth.com/index.php/rms/article/view/30/103
Goldin, P. R., Ziv, M., Jazaieri, H., Werner, K., Kraemer, H., Heimberg, R. G., & Gross, J. J. (2012). Cognitive reappraisal self-efficacy mediates the effects of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 80(6), 1034.
Haller, S. P., Kadosh, K. C., Scerif, G., & Lau, J. Y. (2015). Social anxiety disorder in adolescence: How developmental cognitive neuroscience findings may shape understanding and interventions for psychopathology. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 13, 11-20.
Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., Bühren, K., & Remschmidt, H. (2013). Growing up is hard: mental disorders in adolescence. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 110(25), 432.
Iverach, L., & Rapee, R. M. (2014). Social anxiety disorder and stuttering: Current status and future directions. Journal of fluency disorders, 40, 69-82.
Iverach, L., & Rapee, R. M. (2014). Social anxiety disorder and stuttering: Current status and future directions. Journal of fluency disorders, 40, 69-82.
Levinson, C. A., & Rodebaugh, T. L. (2012). Social anxiety and eating disorder comorbidity: The role of negative social evaluation fears. Eating behaviors, 13(1), 27-35.
Mayo-Wilson, E., Dias, S., Mavranezouli, I., Kew, K., Clark, D. M., Ades, A. E., & Pilling, S. (2014). Psychological and pharmacological interventions for social anxiety disorder in adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry, 1(5), 368-376.
Mayo-Wilson, E., Dias, S., Mavranezouli, I., Kew, K., Clark, D. M., Ades, A. E., & Pilling, S. (2014). Psychological and pharmacological interventions for social anxiety disorder in adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry, 1(5), 368-376.
McLean, C. P., Asnaani, A., Litz, B. T., & Hofmann, S. G. (2011). Gender differences in anxiety disorders: prevalence, course of illness, comorbidity and burden of illness. Journal of psychiatric research, 45(8), 1027-1035.
Mendle, J., Leve, L. D., Van Ryzin, M., & Natsuaki, M. N. (2014). Linking childhood maltreatment with girls’ internalizing symptoms: early puberty as a tipping point. Journal of research on adolescence, 24(4), 689-702.
Van Geel, M., Vedder, P., & Tanilon, J. (2014). Are overweight and obese youths more often bullied by their peers? A meta-analysis on the relation between weight status and bullying. International Journal of Obesity, 38(10), 1263.
Van Houtem, C. M. H. H., Laine, M. L., Boomsma, D. I., Ligthart, L., Van Wijk, A. J., & De Jongh, A. (2013). A review and meta-analysis of the heritability of specific phobia subtypes and corresponding fears. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 27(4), 379-388.
Werner, K. H., Jazaieri, H., Goldin, P. R., Ziv, M., Heimberg, R. G., & Gross, J. J. (2012). Self-compassion and social anxiety disorder. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 25(5), 543-558.
Xu, Y., Schneier, F., Heimberg, R. G., Princisvalle, K., Liebowitz, M. R., Wang, S., & Blanco, C. (2012). Gender differences in social anxiety disorder: Results from the national epidemiologic sample on alcohol and related conditions. Journal of anxiety disorders, 26(1), 12-19

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