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UGB371 Managing And Leading Change

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UGB371 Managing And Leading Change

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Course Code: UGB371
University: University Of Sunderland

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Country: United Kingdom


Assignment Requirements :
The brief report document for this assignment has three sections and the requirement for each of the sections are introduced below.
Section 1 

Select and justly an appropriate focus for the briefing document ( i.e chosen section/industry etc)
Research and identify the current trends and drivers for change that are influencing and impacting an organisation operating within the chosen sector/industry
Given the trends identified above identify two or three areas of change that management/leaders within organisations may be required to work with.

Section 2 
Drawing on the key findings of section 1, you are required to apply ideas and theory from appropriate academic sources in order to evaluate how managers/leaders and organisations may respond effectively to key aspects of the organisations dynamics likely to be generated by the areas of change identified.
Section 3 
As a conclusion, the final section requires you to draw on the evaluation and discussion within the briefing document to establish the key elements of learning in terms of approaches, skills and qualities etc. for leading/managing sustainable responses to change


Managing and leading change
Supermarket industry and the importance for its selection
A supermarket industry is an industry that hosts several companies that offer sales services and compete among themselves. The existence of various companies in a supermarket industry allows for access to a variety of goods. The companies also come up with new products to keep up with the competition in the supermarket. The supermarket industry offers competitive prices for goods and allows for self-service where exchange does not take place over a counter (Waal & Sloot, 2017, 57).  The supermarket industry is a commendable field for investment more so under the supermarket franchise. The legalization has allowed for the development of individual investment in the supermarket industry. This is evident since almost half of the supermarket industry is owned by independent individuals. In addition, through the franchise less investment is enhanced, there is providence for a larger business market, it also provides for a large volume of purchase which lowers the purchasing cost in return. This assures the investor of high business profit. The above advantages justify the relevancy of investing in the supermarket industry. Furthermore, the supermarket industry is characterized by a change in goods consumed following revolutions taking place around the globe (Baker & Hart, 2008, 606). The change in the market provides a good entry opportunity to the supermarket industry since one is assured to access a client on trending goods.
Definition of managing and leadership in change
The development of new realities is a key concern for any organization based on the effects made on the business by the changes. In this perspective, organizations should be alert to discover such occurrences. Also, companies should lay down strategies that will help the business in making a shift to adapt to the new environment. In the presence of reactive management and leadership, organizations tend to suppress the effects brought about by the changing environment. They do find it hard to adapt to the changing environment since it requires the organization to sacrifice to adopt the new environment. In addition, the presence of inactive leadership and management develops a sense of relaxation. Following the delayed decision to uphold the changing environment, the company ends up in a crisis. The management tries to suppress symptoms that show the need for change. The delayed transformation makes the business incompetent in the market triggering its failure (Beerel, 2009, 17). On the contrary, proactive leaders and management to predict and prepare for change. the leaders initiate the transformation process and utilize the opportunities that come along with the change. This helps in promoting business competitiveness in the market. As a result, the business is assured of survival and continued development.
Definition of change and its importance to an organization
Change involves the utilization of new market possibilities, adoption of new market behaviours and methodologies (D’Ortenzio, 2012, 18). Change helps a company develop a vision since it through the vision that the stakeholders embrace the change. The change also helps to develop a strong leadership by coping up with the challenges faced by the company during the transformation process. Through that change, a company develops a positive relationship which in return enhances the competitiveness in the business field. According to research conducted by the office of the commissioner for public employment in 2004, it was realized that failure to embrace change would result in problems in the future. Among the key challenges that will arise include inadequate accountability and leadership, insufficient employees in the various positions of an organization and lack of necessary skills needed to meet business goals in the future. More so the failure would develop poor employment systems. The research recommended companies to embrace develop an integrated approach to change in order to avoid facing the highlighted risks above. Furthermore, change adoption is also recommended for enhancing government efficiency. Among the steps through which this can be achieved include review of the decision-making process to government efficiency, building new skills and helping develop public sector performance through rewarding excellence. In addition, the government can develop flexibility and mobility in the public sector to ensure that people serve in the areas they suit best. Despite the fact that change is necessary for growth it is more important for the business stakeholders to know what entails change and the process for its development. Through this understanding, the various stakeholders will be able to make the best out of changes in the organizations.
Difference between management and leadership  
Managers are focused on ensuring that company employees perform as per the requirements of the business organization while leaders are focused on extracting the best from an employee. Research has shown that leadership is key to the development of an organization i.e. by 15-20% (Rosthenhall, 2016). The improvement is owed to the perspective of leaders to enhance the best out of their organization stakeholders. In addition, a manager focuses on short-term strategies while as a leader focuses on long term strategies. This is evident in the case of a change where managers develop changes after the change has presented itself. On the leadership case, the leader is able to predict oncoming change and prepares in advance. A manager maintains the rules and the reputation of an organization while a leader innovates new strategies and develops them to successful business ventures. Furthermore, a leader develops motivation among the company employees by developing visions on business development (Bertocci, 2009, 26). On the other hand, a manager controls the organization employee. Lastly, leaders develop a personal relationship with their employees. As a result, the employees develop trust and confidence in their leader. They offer immense support to him and help in realizing the business goals. On the other hand, managers do maintain an institutional relationship with the employees. This develops a cold relationship between the employees and the manager. In the presence of pro-active leaders, a company become great and develops beyond expectation.
Factors for change
In the contemporary business world, change has developed to become a major concern for businesses. This is because the business fate is determined by its reaction to the change in the business climate. There are various causes of change in a business setting which include internal and external as discussed below.
External factors
One of the external factors includes technology advancement. The improvement in technology calls for the business to change its working implements to adopt more advanced techniques. The change is meant to increase the productivity and quality of the business products and services. During the transformation stage, the organization has to offer training to its employees to enhance their transition process. Secondly, a change in a business can result from adoption of a new role by a company. Following stiff competition in the market, a company can opt to produce extra goods to increase its market and maximize its profits. The increased production brings about change in the organization since it may include the introduction of new machinery, new employees and new management. This will create a totally different business climate in comparison to the earlier one. Thirdly, a business change can result after a merger of two companies (Pathark, 2011, 67). The merger may involve the translocation of a business from a certain location to a new one. This results in a change of the business climate. More so the merger can trigger the production of more quality goods through the use of developed technologies. The merger may also have a negative impact on employees since retrenchment can be practised to help reduce the number of employees.
Internal factors
The leadership adopted in an organization may also bring about change in an organization (Gleeson, 2018). The change results from the principles adopted by a regime. The principles developed to determine the reaction of the employees towards their responsibilities. Lastly, a business change may be triggered by the communication status within the company. Companies with good communication strategies often develop good interaction among team members enhancing productivity. On the other hand, companies with ineffective communication often result in conflict and disagreement due to poor coordination. This results in poor production lowering the organization revenue and market share.
Effects of factors for change on management and leadership
In business, various factors that trigger a change in the business environment often affect the leadership of the organization either positively or negatively. The various effects on leadership and management are discussed. Failure of communication in an organization denatures the communication between the business management and the various stakeholders in the business. As a result, the leadership becomes rigid since no consultation are made in decision making. Poor communication can make a leader to deliver wrong information to the employees. This lowers the employees trust in the leadership and management of the organization (Odine, 2015, 1619). Poor communication develops ignorance among leaders and managers since they rarely consider the challenges raised by the employees. The various challenges develop into a crisis that may result in the failure of a company if it is beyond control. In the cases of major crisis, the organization leadership structure is destabilized (Otinda, 2015, 9). Following the disrupted leadership organization, employees become demoralized lowering the profit of the firm. It also takes the employees time to adapt to the new leadership. Furthermore, the developed leadership dismantles the innovative structures of earlier businesses. Focusing on technology improvement it helps develop good leadership through the development of innovations that enhance business growth (Courville, 2011, 5). In addition, technology helps in the coordination of business managerial activities. The development is achieved through the development of monitoring devices that monitor the progress of employees in their respective working positions.   
Examples from articles
Technology has been shadowed by a series of inventions. Among the key notable invention is the computer. Through the computer managers and leaders are able to summarize their work in several sheets in the computer (Suny Levin Institute, 2014, 7). This is easier compared to earlier days when a huge number of files were being used for recording. As a result of the invention tracking the business has become easy. The continuous monitoring process helps a leader to identify the need for change in a certain sector and the areas to improve on for development of the organization. This ensures efficiency in leadership which results in business growth. In addition, the financial management institutions in a business do develop accuracy following the efficiency in data storage and analysis. More so technology gives a company access to international markets enhancing its growth. Technology offers leaders with immense knowledge of effective leadership through which a leader improves his or her skills. Lastly, technology offers business leaders a chance to offer training to their employees. This has been practised by several companies including IBM and Strada restaurant.
Communication is a vital requirement for the development and growth of a business. However, communication failure has detrimental effects on organizations. Among the key areas affected by communication failure in a business include business leadership. In many organizations, the output of employees is determined by the communication offered by the management. In addition, leaders in the business tend to act as a source of motivation to their employees through continued mentorship and conversations. This improves the productivity of the employees in the organization (Cullen & Godon, 2015, 25). On the other hand, failure of effective communication within an organization develop the poor relationship between the management and the employees. The employees do not give the necessary feedback to their leaders which leads to a crisis in organizations. More so leaders develop inefficiency due to lack of consultations when making a business decision. This result in the poor performance of a business in the market.
Mergers have become a major sector for enhancing business growth through joining together to help meet a given business goal. However, the approach has a series of disadvantages to the organizations involved. Among the key effects include leadership dismantling in the earlier business setting. This lower the motivation among the followers of individual leaders. In cases where clear roles and objectives are not set leadership conflicts may arise resulting in conflicts in the entire business organization (Armstorng, 2011, 16: MacKllop, 2017). Furthermore, mergers do affect the visions and goals of individual companies. This may affect the leadership adopted in the merger and demoralization of leaders due to lack of focus.
Cultural and leadership theories  
Leadership is defined through many dimensions which are known as leadership theories. The theories are developed in line with the business culture. Among the key theories developed depend on the personality of the leader for example leadership theory is developed based on the character traits of a leader. The model shows the effectiveness of a leader based on his traits. The model analysis the traits involved in leadership. The model concludes that leaders who develop individuality in decision making and organizational form the most effective leaders (Bertocci, 2009, 21). The conclusion is in line with the result of research conducted by Ghiselli. The model also states that leaders develop through a series of activities including the reading of leadership books, participating in community leadership programs. By doing so they develop their skills to those of effective leaders.
Leadership has also been developed in terms of humanity by the leaders. Human leaders develop kindness, assertiveness and compassion towards the employees. As a result, the employees appreciate the character and develop trust and confidence in the leader. On the other hand, rivalry leadership developed through a masculine culture has detrimental effects to an organization (Oztack, Valogru & Valogru, 2017). This effect arises from the poor relationship between the leadership and the employees. As a result, challenges facing the business are not solved in time and may lead to the collapse of an organization. The masculine culture demoralizes the employees and makes them develop a selfish character. This in return affects the production capacity of a business.
Lewins field model is based on factors that support change and on the factors that resist change as well (Bates & McGrath, 2018). The model analyzes the effect of adopting change i.e. will the change succeed or will it be a failure. The determination is made based on the strengths of the factors of change.
The McKinsey 7s model analysis a business organization by looking at 7 key business elements. The elements include the skills involved in the business, the staff working in the business field, the styles adopted by the organization and the structure developed by the business. The model also focuses on business systems, interaction adopted and the systems involved in the business. The model is aimed at studying how the 7 elements can be combined to enhance effectiveness in the business. The 7 elements are interconnected and a change in one call for a change in the others. The model is applied in various fields including organizational change and the implementation of change in the organization (Jurevecius, 2013). in addition, the model is applied in merger processes by companies.
The iceberg model is a system that helps organizations in realizing behaviours, structures and brain models that support a particular business event (Iceberg model, 2018). The model involves studies and learning of the business environment. Through the study, the leadership is able to realize the events that are taking place. The business then focuses on identifying factors that support the given event. Among the factors studied include trends and changes in behaviour to identify what is going on in the business field. The study also extends to examine structure patterns and the relationship between the various patterns. Lastly, the analysis the values, beliefs and assumption on the event to help realize the mental models in the business.
The business world is facing a lot of changes mostly resulting from the stiff competition in the market. Different business tries to improve their product and services to acquire a bigger market share and to ensure survival in the business market. Following this fact company in the business market should develop be alert to realize the existence of a change in order to make a shift with respect to the changing environment. The change execution depends on the management and leadership of an organization. Companies should evaluate their managers and leaders to ensure they hire competitive leaders who will help adjust the company to changes. Failure of evaluation will result in incompetent leadership that will suppress change making the business uncompetitive in the market. Business should focus on developing a leadership culture other than a management culture since leadership assure of tremendous business growth. Leaders should adopt cultural and leadership theories that are compatible with the systems of their organization. This will enhance productivity in the business field. Business should also be aware of the factors that trigger a change in the business climate. The awareness helps the company to develop advance preparation for a change.
List of references
Armstrong, G. (2011) Leadership in times of change: an examination of merger experience. A thesis for degree of doctoral education, university of Toronto. Pp 1-193
Baker, M. & Hart, S. (2008) The marketing book. New York: Routledge publishers. pp 1-644
Bates, B. & McGarth, J. (2018). The little book of big management theories. Retrieved from
Beerel, A. (2009) Leadership and change management. Oliver yard: SAGE publication limited. pp 1-262
Bertocci, I. (2009) Leadership in organizations: There is a difference between leaders and managers. Forbes Bolvureland: university press of America. Inc. pp 1-113
Courville, K. (2011) Education technology: effective leadership and current initiatives. Paper presentation at the 2011 Louisiana computer using educators conference, pp. 1-19
Cullen, B. & Gordon, A. (2014) “The relationship between leadership and communication skills of nurse managers and the organizational citizenship behaviours of medical-surgical nurses and nursing assistance.” Management and organizational studies Vol, 1, (2), pp. 23-29
D’Ortenzio, C. (2012) Understanding change and management processes: a case study. Thesis for the degree of doctoral of philosophy, University of Canberra, pp.1-249
Gleeson, P. (2018) Internal & External Factors That Affect an Organization. Retrieved October 26, 2018 from https://smallbusiness.chron.com/internal-external-factors-affect-organization-16641.html
Iceberg model, (2018) Retrieved on 27th October 2018 from https://complexitylabs.io
Jurevicius, O. (2013) McKinsey 7s. Strategic management insight. Retrieved October 26, 2018 from  https://www.strategicmanagementinsight.com
Mackillop, E. (2017) Leadership in organisational change: A post-structuralist research agenda. Retrieved October 26, 2018 from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1350508417733137
Odine, M. (2015) “Communication problems in management.” Journal of emerging issues in Economics, finance and banking, Vol.4 Issue 2, pp. 1615-1630
Otinda, M. (2015) The effects of change management on mergers and acquisitions: A case study of L’OReal East Africa limited. a research project for the degree of masters in science in organizational development, pp.1-68
Ozturk, A., Valogru, D. & Valogru. A. (2017) “Critical Review of Implicit Leadership Theory on the Validity of Organizational Actor-National Culture Fitness.” International journal of organizational leadership. Retrieved October 26, 2018 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321361546_
Pathak, H. (2011) Organizational change. India: Kindersley Dorling. pp 1-361
Rosenthal, B. (2016) The Difference Between Management and Leadership. Retrieved October 26, 2018 from https://communispond.com/insights/blog/2016/03/15/49/the-difference-between-management-and-leadership/
Suny Lewin Institute, (2014) Technology and globalization. Retrieved October 26, 2018 from https://www.globalization101.org
Waal, A. & Sloot, L. (2016) Analyzing supermarket performance with high-performance organization framework. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management Vol. 45 No. 1, pp. 57-70

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