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Research design is an inevitable part of any type of research since the ideas, the flow of study, and the results obtained should be presented in readable and scientifically literate form. The division of research into two broad categories of qualitative and quantitative research accounts for the choice the present topic. The paper analyzes the research design of a set of peer reviewed articles devoted to vaccination that belong to the sphere of quantitative research.
In their article, Findley et al. study the interrelation of coalition of community and improvement of child vaccination rates in New York. The researchers make use of “retrospective, matching, birth cohort design” in order to present an evaluation of a comprehensive childhood immunization program of “outreach, education, and reminders in a Latino community”. (Findley et al., 2008, p. 1959). The design of the article satisfies basic demands since it presents accurate and clear information of the main sections. As for the methodology used, the scientist applied “quasi-experimental, retrospective, birth cohort design” (Findley et al, 2008, p. 1960). They made use of the hospital data and the New York Citywide Immunization Registry. The article reports about the software used in the research. Thus, methodology section covers all methods used. As for the results of the study, they are presented at the beginning of the article and the rest of the article shows the flow of the research. A concise but informative conclusion states that “reminders, tracking, and outreach” improve the analyzed immunization rates.
The article by Ndirangu et al. dwells on the state of childhood vaccination in rural areas of Southern Africa and establishes the ties between the level of immunization and HIV status of the mothers of the children. The methods used by the authors in the research are mainly statistical. They analyze the data concerning 2431 children (Ndirangu, 2009, p. 1383) applying the data to five types of vaccination. The design of the article reflects all stages of the research in a proper order. The methods used are mainly numerical. The results are presented in percentage ratio and recommendations concerning the increase of vaccination coverage are given.
The third article by Nitch-Osuch concerns the coverage of influenza vaccine in risk groups determined by age in Poland. The authors have performed a qualitative analysis of data provided by National Institute of Hygiene, National Institute of Public Health and Central Statistical Office (Nitch-Osuch, 2009, p. 198). The design of the article follows the flow of the research conducted and ends with the results based on the quantitative analysis. The main method used in the research is qualitative analysis of the data provided by above mentioned official sources. The quantitative results are presented in percentage form along with the authors’ concern about worsening situation caused by low level of vaccination of children in Poland.
The theme of vaccination is extremely popular in peer reviewed sources. As for the additional sources to study, the sources that are mentioned below offer non trivial information on vaccination.
The article by Khare et al. (2006) is aimed at evaluation of usefulness of registry data to support missing vaccination data (p. 838).
The article by Blank, Schwenkglenks, and Szucs (2009) is devoted to the measurement of the rates of vaccination coverage in the risk groups certain European countries (p. 390).
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The article by Nowalk et al. (2009) offers information about the connection of racial factors with the state of immunization of adult population (p. 1052).
The article by Talbot (2009) studies the ties between the vaccination rates of healthcare personnel and declination statements (p. 773).
The article by Shah and Davis (2009) dwells on a community pertussis outbreak and the increase of vaccination of infants caused by this factor (p. 2260).
Thus, the material analyzed shows that the topic of vaccination coverage rates is an urgent topic that inspires research. The analysis has shown that quantitative research is effective when studying vaccination coverage rates.
Blank, P.R., Schwenkglenks, M, & Szucs T.D. (2009). Disparities in Influenza Vaccination Coverage Rates by Target Group in Five European Countries: Trends Over Seven Consecutive Seasons. Clinical and Epidemiological Study. 5, 390-400.
Findley, S.E. et al. (2008). Effectiveness of a Community Coalition for Improving Child Vaccination Rates in New York City. American Journal of Public Health, 98(11), 1959-1963.
Khare, M. et al. (2006). Assessment of Immunization Registry Databases as Supplemental Sources of Data to Improve Ascertainment of Vaccination Coverage Estimates in the National Immunization Survey. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 160(8), 838.
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Ndirangu, J. et al. (2009). Levels of Childhood Vaccination Coverage and the Impact of Maternal HIV Status in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 14(11), 1383.
Nowalk, M.P., Tabbarah, M., Terry, M.A., Raymund, M. et al. (2009). Using Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Understanding Racial Disparities in Adult Vaccination. Journal of the National Medical Association, 101(10), 1052-1061.
Nitsch-Osuch, A., & Wardyn K. (2009). Influenza Vaccine Coverage in Age-related Risk Groups in Poland, 2004-2007. Central European Journal of Public Health, 17(4), 198-203.
Shah, S.S., & Davis, (2009). M.M. Old Disease, Innovative Response: Accelerating Infant Vaccination During a Community Pertussis Outbreak. JAMA, 301(21), 2260.
Talbot, T.R. (2009). Do Declination Statements Increase Health Care Workers Influenza Vaccination Rates? Clinical Infectious Diseases, 49(5), 773.