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VBS111 Motivation

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VBS111 Motivation

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Course Code: VBS111
University: ACS Distance Education

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Country: Australia


Scenario and Tasks
You are required to collect and analyze data for the purpose of problem solving at your current workplace. If you cannot undertake this task, you may base your analysis on previous employment recollections where you have undertaken or participated a problem solving situation.
In doing so, you have to discuss your developed competencies, together with intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, through participation in a group/individual problem solving process.
Your analysis should critically evaluate the current organizational behavior practices and relate the day to day issues of organizational behavior to basic dilemmas and tensions. Recognize those aspects of the organization of work, such as motivation, leadership, job design, diversity and communication.


Employees work together in harmony so as to achieve the long-term and short-term objective of the organization. Thus the organization has the obligation of ensuring that the requirements needed for the employees to deliver effectively are provided. Employees need to be equipped with the right skills and knowledge so as to face the challenging job and achieve the desired performance and in return giving the organization a competitive advantage in its market with its competitors.
Factors affecting employee motivation
In my organization, the motivation of the employees was affected by various factors, for example, the rates of pay where the rates of pay were lower than the expected minimum wage rate thus making the employees dissatisfied and this discouraged them to work harder (Hosseini,  2014). The relationship that existed within the organization affected how the employees interacted with each other and the experience that was gained from the interaction. The performance of the employees was also affected by the job satisfaction of the employees that was linked to the attrition. A satisfied employee will do his or her work with some commitment while the unsatisfied employee will have a blame game of blaming the organization thus have low morale in the work. The commitment of the organization also had a greater interrelation with the level of performance (Fey et al., 2000) that when the organization is not committed to the achievement of its objectives the employees will lack motivation thus decreased performance.
Intrapersonal and interpersonal skills
On analysis the current situation in the organization I adopted both intrapersonal and interpersonal skills that helped me to fit in the settings o the groups so as to ensure maximum interaction with the employees and create an environment of openness and loyalty. These competencies promoted effective management of stress and the behavior of the organization to ensure sufficient evaluation of the organization and hat the right information was obtained.
Intrapersonal skills
Self-awareness is a skill that I learned so as to have self-knowledge and get an understanding of managing emotions in the process of interacting with people of different personalities. Adaptability as an intrapersonal skill helped me to have the willingness and the ability to cope with the changing circumstances that are uncertain and always brings new incites to the working environment. I was able to work with employees of different personalities so as to achieve the strategic objective of the organization. Hogan and Kaiser, (2005) explain that having an ethical responsibility to other people and oneself by following the right path of morality helped in reflecting on oneself and the inner introspect. I also adopted a skill of being reliable and dependable in delivering a good performance that was of high quality and consistency thus earning trustworthiness among the supervisors and the team members. Also, the skill of having a capacity to improve was useful in recognizing the desire to improve and show willingness and have the motivation by initiating an effort to improve. Self-management helped me to work remotely and have self-motivation by having prior preparedness and doing things on time so as to ensure that one becomes a role model to the rest of the group members.
Interpersonal skills
These skills are important in determining how one relates to other people or rather the surrounding environment of the organization. Good communication skills were helpful in conveying the intended information to other employees and the management and express oneself with ease and good understanding. Emotional mentoring also helped me to solve problems by managing my emotions and have among the best abilities to have a high level of closeness and disclosure (Klein et al., 2006). Teamwork as an interpersonal skill helped me to function well with different teams and ensure maximum participation in the teamwork so as to ensure effective achievement of the objective of the organization. Empathy is also another developed skill that helped me to have a great understanding of the situations of the people thus have a way of developing them and creating awareness of the issues that are likely to affect other persons. By developing self-confidence and self-esteem, I was able to face challenging and ambiguous jobs that existed in the organization thus acquiring new skills and competencies on how to tackle challenging tasks in the future.
Statement of the problem
In the company, the management has constantly faced the challenge of maintaining the level of production of the employees due to the increased level of employee dissatisfaction and reduced morale. This has been a great challenge as motivated and high-skilled employees are important assets in the organization because they are productive and ensures a smooth running of the organization. However, this organization has been facing low levels of production regardless of providing employees with remuneration that is above average compared to other related companies. This brings an indication that monetary terms may not be the only method of motivating the employees and that different employee has different ways of being motivated.
Literature review
This work looks forward to presenting an evaluation of the imperative hypothetical and practical literature that has the relationship between motivation and the performance of the employees. In the changing environment of the organization, leaders should promote the motivation of the employees so as to improve the performance of the organization (Udechukwu, 2009). The motivation of the employees can be done through the use of both the monetary and non-monetary rewards to the employees. Monetary rewards include salaries and wages, and incentives while non-monetary rewards include appreciation, promotion and favorable changes in the functioning of the organization. Leadership can also affect the performance of the employees. The relationship between the employers and the employees is essential in determining the environment of the organization. Barrick et al., (2002) explain that a good relationship helps in increasing the confidence of the employees thus can be able to face more challenging jobs while the ineffective relationship of the employees with the management can cause reduced morale of the employees thus reducing their performance and the performance of the organization.
A quality employee-employer communication in every level of the organization creates a variety of channels of communication thus boosting the morale of the employees (Yoon and Uysal, 2005). Effective communication makes the employees to feel appreciated in the organization as they believe that their opinions are of great significance in the process of decision making in the organization (Brief and Weiss, 2002). The employees are able to hair their concerns to the management and give opinions relating to a variety of aspects of their work and thus conveying a feeling of positive reception and engagement. Having a diverse workforce at the workplace is essential in bringing employees who come from different cultural backgrounds together (Keyton et al., 2013). These employees will, therefore, get a chance to interact with different people and thereafter get attracted to them thus creating an environment of engagement of a diverse workforce (Wright, 2001). The employees get to know each other better through the making of introductions and recognizing things a certain group of people does.
Theoretical framework
Motivation can be explained by the use of various theories that gives a comprehensive understanding of motivation. These theories can be divided into content and process theories of motivation.
Content theories aim at identifying the needs of the employees that can be directly related to the motor so as to satisfy their needs. Examples of the content motivation theories included Maslow’s needs hierarchy, Alderfer’s ERG theory, Herzberg’s two -factor theory and McClelland’s achievement. The Maslow’s hierarchy of needs condenses the five basic categories which are arranged in the order of the need that is the physiological needs, safety, belonging and love, esteem, and self-actualization. Physiological needs are the very basic wants that the human being needs so as to survive for example food shelter, clothing, and water. McLeod, (2007) explains that safety needs are the desires of someone to have security and be protected from any harm that may arise (Udechukwu,  2009). Security may include the financial, health and personal security. Love and belongingness is a need that people need to belong to a certain social group and be accepted within the group. The need for esteem arises where the employees or rather the people need to be respected and honored in a certain organization or in a group of people because they are financially stable or are prominent (Herzberg, 2017). Finally, self-actualization is the desire of a person to grow and have developed to their full capacity and potential.
Alderfer-ERG theory distinguishes the needs into three major classes that are; existence needs, relatedness needs and growth needs (Arnolds and Boshoff, 2002). Existence needs are the basic necessities that an individual needs basically comprising of the physiological and safety needs. Relatedness needs are the desire for important relationships, for example, the family and affection. Growth needs are the desires for individual development so as to achieve a certain class. MacClelland-need theory in other hand explains the basic three motivators of human beings that is; achievement, affiliation, and power(Rainey,  2000). The motivation of achievement helps in accomplishing and showing competence pertaining to the success of a person. Affiliation motivator has a need for relatedness and friendships thus an individual desires to belong to a social group. The authority motivation makes the persons desire to have control over his or her own work so that one can succeed in his or her own ideas. Herzberg-Two theory explains that the factors of motivation cause satisfaction of the job and motivation. This theory has two kinds of factors that are; hygiene factors, for example, the salaries and the working conditions and the motivating factors for example job fulfillment and inspiration.
The process theories include Skinner’s reinforcement theory, Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory, Locke’s goal setting theory and Adam’s equity theory. Skinner’s reinforcement theory indicates that the behavior of the individual is shaped by the consequences of that behavior. Bouton, (2007) indicates that positive behavior is rewarded while the negative behavior is coerced. Vroom’s expectancy theory puts its highlighting on the procedure and the content of motivation. The motivation for participating in an activity depends on expectation, instrumentality and the valence of the reward (Isaac et al, 2001). Locke’s goal-setting theory puts the emphasis on the certain goals of performance and the level of commitment of the employees towards achieving those goals (Locke and Latham, 2002). Finally, Adams’ equity theory indicates that the individuals are motivated when they receive equal treatment with their colleagues and thus receive fairness on their costs and the endeavor (Chapman, 2005).
Collection of data
Data was collected from the employees so as to address the current situation of the performance of the employees. The survey questionnaire was an appropriate tool for collecting the primary data from the employees. This analysis targeted the employees at the lower level and the supervisors who gave the general overview of their departments.
After a clear analysis of the data, it was found that the leadership had a great impact on the performance of the employees. In the words of Bouton, (2007) decreased performance was caused by the failure of the management to provide clear results on the finances and failure of leaders to create an atmosphere of sharing of ideas and encouraging discussions. This reduced the morale of the employees making them produce below the average of what they were capable of producing. Another thing that came out clear to have an impact on the performance of the employees was the design of the job.
The description of the job in the job design did not match with what the employees were expected to do thus creating frustration. It was also realized that employees did not feel motivated when there was ineffective communication of the information from the top management down to the employees and also from the employees to the top management. This made the employees feel not appreciated as part of the organization and having a view that their opinions were not valued when making the decisions of the organization. There were also rude behaviors in the organization, for example, the managers were rude to the employees while the employees backbit each other on their backs thus creating the environment of mistreatment and resentful (Rychen and Salganik,  2003).
There was also the imbalance of the work-life making the employees choose between their personal living and the employment life as they were expected to work for long hours and also during weekends leading to the economic pressures of life which eventually caused boredom. The company also did not make it available for the employees to get involved in the opportunities that lead to their growth thus making the employees who had talents to feel as if they were put in a dead-end trap forcing them to hunt for other companies in search of employment so as to maximize on their skills and grow their compensation. The company had also frozen promotions and raises causing the employees to feel not valued in the organization and look for a better organization that will pay them better and have a promising system of promotion. The management has made the company lose its stability by constantly reorganizing its structure making the employees not to know what they should expect leading to frustration for their inefficiency and confusion. The employees also were inadequate and thus lacked competent skills to do the job effectively while the organization did not offer training to them.
In conclusion, the motivation of employees has a significant effect on the performance of the employees and also on how the employee related to the working environment. From the above analysis of data, it is crystal clear that the factors that were taken into account dominated the willingness of the employees to perform and work towards achieving the objectives of the organization.
The outcomes of the study can be used to input an effective improvement on the current situation of motivation in the organization. This will help in the establishment of a more strong grip on the behavior of the organizations well as the psychology of the employees thus has a stable mind to concentrate in the workplace and deliver the services effectively. The activity of motivating employees should be done regularly and periodically and review the effectiveness of motivation and therein keep personal records on the individual files to follow up on the progress.
Arnolds, C.A. and Boshoff, C., 2002. Compensation, esteem valence and job performance: an empirical assessment of Alderfer’s ERG theory. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 13(4), pp.697-719.
Barrick, M.R., Stewart, G.L. and Piotrowski, M., 2002. Personality and job performance: test of the mediating effects of motivation among sales representatives. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), p.43.
Bouton, M.E., 2007. Learning and behavior: A contemporary synthesis. Sinauer Associates.
Brief, A.P. and Weiss, H.M., 2002. Organizational behavior: Affect in the workplace. Annual review of psychology, 53(1), pp.279-307.
Chapman, A., 2005. Adams’ equity theory. Retrieved May, 30, p.2006.
Fey, C.F., Björkman, I. and Pavlovskaya, A., 2000. The effect of human resource management practices on firm performance in Russia. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 11(1), pp.1-18.
Herzberg, F., 2017. Motivation to work. Routledge.
Hogan, R. and Kaiser, R.B., 2005. What we know about leadership. Review of general psychology, 9(2), p.169.
Hosseini, S.A.R., 2014. Factors Affecting Employee Motivation.
Isaac, R.G., Zerbe, W.J. and Pitt, D.C., 2001. Leadership and motivation: The effective application of expectancy theory. Journal of managerial issues, pp.212-226.
Keyton, J., Caputo, J.M., Ford, E.A., Fu, R., Leibowitz, S.A., Liu, T., Polasik, S.S., Ghosh, P. and Wu, C., 2013. Investigating verbal workplace communication behaviors. The Journal of Business Communication (1973), 50(2), pp.152-169.
Klein, C., DeRouin, R.E. and Salas, E., 2006. Uncovering workplace interpersonal skills: A review, framework, and research agenda. International review of industrial and organizational psychology, 21, p.79.
Locke, E.A. and Henne, D., 1986. Work motivation theories. International review of industrial and organizational psychology, 1, pp.1-35.
Locke, E.A. and Latham, G.P., 2002. Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American psychologist, 57(9), p.705.
McLeod, S., 2007. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Simply Psychology, 1.
Rainey, H.G., 2000. Work motivation. Handbook of organizational behavior, pp.19-42.
Rychen, D.S. and Salganik, L.H. eds., 2003. Key competencies for a successful life and well-functioning society. Hogrefe Publishing.
Udechukwu, I.I., 2009. Correctional officer turnover: Of Maslow’s needs hierarchy and Herzberg’s motivation theory. Public Personnel Management, 38(2), pp.69-82.
Wright, B.E., 2001. Public-sector work motivation: A review of the current literature and a revised conceptual model. Journal of public administration research and theory, 11(4), pp.559-586.
Yoon, Y. and Uysal, M., 2005. An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: a structural model. Tourism management, 26(1), pp.45-56.

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