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XICT01 Information And Communication Technology Ethics

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XICT01 Information And Communication Technology Ethics

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Course Code: XICT01
University: Charles Darwin University

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Country: Australia

Question:
Task:Proceed according to the following instructions.1. Identify a recent (within the last six (6) months) ethical dilemma or ethically questionable situation relating to ICT that you are familiar with. This situation can be either in the media (for example one you have sourced from a newspaper, or online through social media) or through your workplace.
• If using a workplace example, to maintain confidentiality, do not use real names.• If you use a media article you must include the link to the media article in the references list of your assignment.2. You are required to analyse the ethical dilemma you have identified above using the Doing Ethics Technique (DET). Your essay should include:• What’s going on?• What are the facts?• What are the ethical and non-ethical issues?• Who is affected?• What are the ethical issues and implications?• What can be done about it?• What are the options?• Which option is best – and why?3. Include a Reference list at the end of your work, in the correct APA referencing style, corresponding to in-text citations. You must include at least TWO (2) quality academic references from different sources. Please note that these references are in addition to those provided to you through this subject (for example, you still must reference, the DET, Tavani, the Interact subject lecture notes etc BUT these references cannot be used as one of your two quality academic references from different sources). Only include references that have been cited in the body of your assignment and ones that support what you have presented in your assignment.Rationale:The assessment item is designed to help you to build skills towards achieving the learning objectives, by requiring you to:• Identify an ICT-related ethical issue in your workplace or in a contemporary media article;• Using the Doing Ethics Technique (DET), analyse the situation and the arguments it presents, to:• Identify the ethical issues involved;• Assess the implications of those issues; and• Develop solutions to the issues• Apply proper academic referencing.
Answer:

Introduction
Information Communication and Technology has gone through some drastic changes in the world. Through the fast internet, the access to information becomes very easy. The world economic and social condition has totally changed due to the improved technology. The users are unaware that how these companies such as Facebook to email providers earn a profit. Companies that have access to a personal data of any user that comes with a responsibility to put that data safe and secure. Recently in a recent case, it had revealed that the personal details of job applicants, bank details, TFN potentially compromised by a multinational HR company called PageUp (McGrath & Blumer, 2018). This was detected on 23rd may 2018 and confirmed on 28th may 2018 that the data of thousands of Australian had been hacked (Duerden, 2018). On the probabilities that certain personal data related to the clients, placement agencies, applicants, references and the data of their employees had access. In a statement by CEO of PageUp said that employment contracts, tax file numbers, financial information and other sensitive data have not been leaked.  
Professional Ethics Perspective
It can say from the professionalism perspective that the company that uses Communication and Information technology as a tool to run their business. It is very necessary for them to have some professional ethics that to secure that data.
The HR Company called PageUp had compromised thousands of Australians personal details (Davies, 2018). Many multinational companies used PageUP for a job application and to manage their recruitment had been hacked. In which the personal details of job applicants has been hacked such as bank details, birth date and TFN. It is required to do ethical analysis that the loophole in their security can cause such a huge damage to the company. From Professional perspective that the company has a huge data of user than it becomes the responsibility of the company to keep it safe and secure (Lindley, 2018). This analysis can do by security providers in whose hands there is a security of business and their clients to keep them safe by modern anti-theft software. The company should focus on their security standards and that cannot be compromised in any condition. This data leak of a company has raised many professional and moral issues such as a privacy of thousands of Australian has been infringed. This can cause a serious issue of data protection and what to done to stop these advanced and unknown threats. The companies regularly misinformed about the traditional antivirus and software they are using to stop these threats. In this alone PageUp cannot be blamed, there is a need for accountability for security service providers who claim to provide protection to businesses and their customers (Braue, 2018). There is highly artificial intelligence that use by the hackers and it is required advanced security software. The truth is that there is much better security software is there to deal with these threats. It is necessary that the company should not use that sophisticated software
Philosophical Ethics Perspective 
From the philosophical perspective as it is a broader concept than professional perspective where the exact truth should be determined by rational means. It is required to have a discipline in any activity and the methods to implement these disciplines become a duty of any company to maintain. The PageUp data reach raises many questions about the information technology that in a new technological world where the information becomes the major source. These three constructed philosophical theories can answer the questions that are metaphysics, epistemology and ethics. Philosophies of mind, language and science are included in Metaphysics. Epistemology examines the cognitive contact with the world. Ethics includes Philosophies of law, social and aesthetics.
 The PageUp data had been hacked by the criminals by a malware attack. Inside the PageUp system, some malicious code that has executed and the criminal may have access to an amount of data. There is a malicious code executed inside the PageUp system and criminals may have access to an amount of documentation said by the head of the Australian cybersecurity centre. The PageUp is all-dependent on his data and it is a major source of income for the company. The company cannot take an excuse that their data has been ,hacked due to malware attack, there is no mistake of them and they cannot do anything to stop these types of attacks. The truth is that they are using the sophisticated software that is not able to deal with the software which the criminals or hacker used such as artificial intelligence. The companies must follow the Philosophical ethics that not only guides the disciplines but also the legal effects the of the act. The companies must guide their employees about the philosophical ethics that this type of circumstance cannot appear in the future. Legal implication is very necessary to secure the data and the criminals should fear to do such actions. There is one implication, which the government has implemented in this year only. If there is, a suspect of a data breach than the company should immediately inform the customer or clients whose data has been breached. The consumer bank detail has been suspected to breach than he should immediately inform the bank. If TFN is leaked then, he should contact the Australian Taxation Office (ABC News, 2018). To secure the data it is necessary for the companies to implement the anti-theft software that to match those threats.
Sociological Ethics Perspective
The sociological perspective talks about the ethical values, which is very necessary to protect human values. The human values such as happiness, life and security required to be protected. Due to various data, breach cases in recent times made the user threatened for their private data security. The threat from which PageUp data has leaked that has infringed the society’s norms and values (Hoffmann, 2017). From the Sociological view, it is required to do the ethical analysis. In the increasing technological advancement, there are certainly ethical issues have been raised. PageUp data has leaked that creates a major issue that who has the access to that data. Another issue is one who has the access to the data can misuse that data to what extent. Now, what is the safeguards has provided to make the data secure while sharing the private information. What to do if you fear your personal details may have compromised. From the Sociological perspective, it is necessary to change the sophisticated software used by the PageUp. A strong data protection security will have to adopt that in future no type of data misuse can do by anyone. Those data that has leaked must inform immediately and to stop the effects it is required to change the details that have leaked like bank details- atm pin must be changed and must inform necessary authorities regarding the data leak (ABC News, 2018). The government data had also been exposed in this data leak and it is a big threat to a country’s security. Attorney-General department among the staff data had been the victim. The job appliers are frightened to use this platform for job search. This all required for ethical analysis and a strong law should be implemented to stop these threats.
Information role has become so important that comes with the moral obligations towards the society that the PageUp and the security providers who have the information of a large number of Australian users to keep it safe and secure. It is a moral obligation of any company to keep updated their anti-theft technology to keep the data safe.  
Conclusion
In conclusion, it can say that thousands of Australians data had been leaked due to sophisticated software used by the company. This helps the criminals to access the data by some malicious code that has executed inside the PageUp system. The personal information like bank details, TFN and some other details of job applicants has leaked. It is required to some strong anti-theft software should be used by the company which can deal with software like artificial intelligence that has been used criminal to hack. The job appliers are frightened to use this platform for job search. This all required for ethical analysis and a strong law should be implemented to stop these threats it can say that information and communication technology. It is a required of professional, philosophical and sociological perspective ethics should be implemented. This perspective is required to stop these types of threats.
References
ABC News. (2018). PageUp data breach: What to do if you fear your personal details may have been compromised. Retrieved: From https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-06-06/what-to-do-job-seeker-privacy-breach/9842474
Braue, D. (2018). As PageUp remediates its security breach, a reminder that times have changed. Retrieved From: https://www.cso.com.au/article/642444/pageup-remediates-its-security-breach-reminder-times-changed/
Davies, A. (2018). PageUp Data Breach: thousands of job seekers’ details potentially exposed. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/jun/07/thousands-of-job-seekers-details-potentially-exposed-in-hack
Domanski, H. (2018). Australian Government department exposed in PageUp personal data breach. Retrieved from: https://www.techradar.com/news/australian-government-department-exposed-in-pageup-personal-data-breach
 Duerden, J. (2018). Blame PageUp on security industry. Retrieved From: https://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/technology/blame-pageup-breach-on-security-industry/news-story/3c0dbe8865fe19e995ec740a4ee70339
Ess, C. M. (2017). Can we say anything ethical about Digital Religion? Philosophical and methodological considerations. new media & society, 19(1), 34-42.
Hoffmann, A. L. (2017). Beyond distributions and primary goods: Assessing applications of rawls in information science and technology literature since 1990. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 68(7), 1601-1618.
Lindley, D. (2018). Professionalism in the information and communication technology industry. Retrieved from https://press-files.anu.edu.au/downloads/press/p223541/html/ch11.xhtml?referer=371&page=25
McGrath, P., & Blumer, C. (2018). Bank details, TFNs, personal details of job applicants potentially compromised in major PageUp data breach. Retrieved from: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-06-06/australian-data-may-be-compromised-in-pageup-security-breach/9840048
Mclean, A. (2018). Attorney General’s Department caught up in PageUp breach. Retrieved From: https://www.zdnet.com/article/attorney-generals-department-caught-up-in-pageup-breach/

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