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Z42000133 Professional Course Sustainable Development

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Z42000133 Professional Course Sustainable Development

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Course Code: Z42000133
University: University Of The West Of England

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I am going to explain about the sustainability achieved through international construction throughout the world.The advantages of introducing international firms in a country for the increase of sustainability will be clearly explained.The differences between the local practices and international practises for achieving sustainability will be clearly shown.The levels of gaining the sustainability through international firms based on different cultures in different countries are shown.The disadvantages of giving the contract to an international contractor in own countries project will be stated.I am going to look at the history in gaining sustainability through international contracts.I am going to compare sustainability changes in developed and developing countries after being constructed through international contractors.I am going to explain the methods adopted by an international company to strive for sustainability levels for the client’s project.I am going to give a pictorial representation between sustainability levels in construction of different countries and also a comparison between sustainability levels of developed and developing counties in construction.


The environment is an essential aspect of the living of human beings. The effects that come as a result of the environment will play a significant role in making the lives of human beings better or worsening the prevailing situations (Seyhan F?rat, 2018, p. 556). The effects vary from one condition to another and may either be direct or indirect. When individuals are affected, the overall impact in the society will also be significant. The working displayed by many will be affected, the result is a drop in the economic level of operation. Establishing order in the universe calls for balancing all the areas in the universe (Wheatley, 2011, p. 234). An integrated approach plays a significant role in achieving such a target by facilitating the creation of a win-win design solution. Being objective ensures that any set activity gets to be achieved at the end of the day despite how long it would take. Sustainable development has been championed to the present day citing the need to cut down on the depletion of natural resources completely. Such resources significantly contribute to making the working of human beings comfortable hence, their reduction will lead to a rise in the degree of suffering among individuals. Energy facilitates most of the manufacturing processes (Andrew Y. C. Nee, 2013, p. 114). Apart from that, most machines rely on such power for their operation. Depletion of energy through the unstainable way of lives will serve as the beginning of a fall in the economic levels of a particular nation. Water is too one of the critical resources that have to be reserved. Water is known to many as the source of life. It facilitates the growth of plants and the survival of animals in the universe. Sustainable living ensures that the water table does not go very low. Apart from that, it provides that the environment is conducive to ensure that regular rains sufficient for the different activities are experienced. The result will be an established order being experienced in the society.
Buildings form the primary area where the resources are used (Enrico Sciubba, 2013, p. 576). Sustainable construction will see to it that despite the use of such resources, the kind of construction design that will be embraced will primarily focus in ensuring that a balance is attained at the end of the day. During construction of buildings, the process will always lead to generation of waste in the society (Carmen Llinares-Millán, 2014, p. 245). Apart from that, there are occasions where occupants lack responsibility in dealing with the environment and dump waste carelessly leading to sustainable lifestyles that come as a result of the structured buildings. There is a need to come up with a lasting solution that will ensure maximum achievement of sustainable living. Through international construction, several achievements are realized for example, the inclusion of sustainable design concepts in the construction activities. Apart from that, there will be a need for advocates to put in place in different stations globally that champion for sustainable design. In most occasions, they will be seen encouraging members to retrofit existing buildings rather than working to see that new buildings are brought up. Such practice significantly contributed to the reduction of demolition practices that were seeing in the society adding majorly to unsustainable forms of living.
How sustainability has been achieved in the world through international construction
The international world works with the national governments in seeing to it that sustainable living is achieved at the end of the day (Karen C. Seto, 2015, p. 423). The firms will work to see that the national governments embrace better policies that will be used in facilitating sustainable construction. There is a significant variation in climate in the various parts of the nation. The variation in climatic conditions is wide and can be evidently seeing in the different parts of the country. International construction has worked to see to it the local firms in the various nations comply with the national set standards, that primarily target to achieve a zero-carbon level. The set standards have to be adopted wholeheartedly by the local authorities as a way of ensuring that embracing such standards starts from the shallow levels of working (John Bratton, 2017, p. 453). In the previous days, some tests were carried out on the local authorities to justify the adoption of such measures. However, such tests were only done once, and the previous working recovered. Through international construction, there was a recommendation of the dropping of such tests and each person needed to comply with the set standards fully not compromising any practice at any time.
Planning forms the basis of any successful project that has to be undertaken in the society (Manlio Del Giudice, 2016, p. 98). There is a need to set a strategic plan that will offer guidance in the implementation of measures that will ensure sustainable construction measures relative to a specific location have been achieved.
International construction has been at the forefront pushing for discussions regarding the kind of construction design that has to be achieved (Alison Cotgrave, 2012, p. 257). The timing when the debate is to take place is also of much importance in influencing the attention that will be directed towards achieving sustainable construction. Previously such discussions were always carried out at the final stages of planning leading to significant failures in attaining sustainable construction. However, after the intervention of international construction firms, there have been measures that promoted the early discussion, planning, and budgeting and led to the sustainable designs being achieved at the early stages of planning. The result has been that there was well-designed and constructed building being brought up in the society. The situation was also of more significant advantage to many as there was a maximum minimization of cost in the community.
Environmental agencies are of much importance in ensuring that sustainability has been achieved in the society (John Bratton, 2017, p. 535). They have more significant interaction with the society and more traditional roots with them; as a result, they are in a position to easily influence the community to take part in sustainable forms of living. Through international construction, and having them spread all over the globe, most of the environmental agencies were also motivated in supporting the campaign. The relation led to the establishment of alternative solutions of seeking water to facilitate construction activities in areas where lots of strain had to be applied in seeking water to promote such activities.
Advantages of introducing international firms in a country for the increase of sustainability 
Companies will always desire to see that they get to achieve most of their sales in the society and be in a position to establish a brand that will attract customers from all over the nation. Customers will love to promote companies that do not only produce goods and services in the society but also work to see that the environment is maintained in the process of working. The main reason is that most of them are mindful of the impact that is experienced in the society from the company; as they would work to see that there is an alignment of personal values and the brands bought in the society (Kornberger, 2010, p. 247). The international firms have most of their roots spread all over the world. The introduction of such firms in particular nations for the promotion of sustainability led to most other companies complying to the guidelines of working. The values of most customers were inclined towards sustainability, and the construction companies embracing such practices could be invited to handle different activities regarding the customers (Willard, 2012, p. 213). Companies will love to be tendered most of the activities; hence they worked by such rules to see that they get to achieve such targets through their working.
Most organizations have a desire to rise to higher levels of operation. As a result, they will pay close attention to the methods embraced by the model companies in achieving success through the many years. The international companies have well-established brands and a section of customers (Akkucuk, 2014, p. 456). The aim of most missions is always to achieve such a target in the society. The sustainable business practices are some of the strategic moves that the companies embrace in their working. The guiding principle of their operation is always to ensure zero depriving of comfort in the environment as a result of unsustainable practices. The introduction of such companies led to the growing companies to embrace the practices fully. The result displayed after such a method was an increase in efficiency operations. The use of resources rose to better levels in addition to the display of extraordinary conservation of them. The gradual decreasing cost of maintenance and streamlined operations motivated them to embrace the same working methods for more extended periods of time. The result was sustainable practice being highly embraced.
The financial aspect is the primary factor that will define the growth to be displayed by a company (Ahuja, 2018, p. 352). The well-wishers facilitating such financing activities are significant stakeholders with the international companies operating in the entire globe. Apart from that, they are highly concerned with analyzing the sustainability plans in the society regarding the environment. Their introduction in the various nations led to the local companies working by the stipulated guidelines as a way of attracting more financial support towards their working. The result was that there was the flourishing of sustainability practices among the many nations, attracting the different investment opportunities. The economic levels of operation got to rise to a different degree (Ojo, Hershey, p. 235).
Differences between the local practices and international practices for achieving sustainability
The building codes are of much importance in dictating the kind of structure that has to be adapted at a particular setting to ensure that sustainable development is achieved at the end of the day (Suzanne Robertson, 2012, p. 478). The national government has been at the forefront in ensuring that the different building codes are provided to the various construction companies to facilitate proper working. However, in the past days, there have been lots of delays in giving direction regarding the kind of codes that have to be adopted for a particular area. The result was that on most occasions errors could occur that could lead to increased cost when there was a need to make the necessary changes regarding the told errors. Hence, there was a need to pay much attention to the local planning systems that could help in facilitating the codes at early stages. Close working has been seeing between the different local governments and the design and planning professionals (John Friend, 2013, p. 214). The governments offered help in advising the design that has to be adopted to promote sustainability. Apart from that, the governments also directed on the kind of plans that were to be adapted to guide on the building process.
Challenges are inevitable in working (Beverly Irby, 2013, p. 777). There are cases when the process being used is faced with some insufficiencies leading to lack of efficiency in achieving the planned tasks in the society. The final decision on the design and plan to be adopted will serve as a significant factor in telling the future of an organization. Inconsistencies in decision-making were the major challenge seeing in the process of achieving sustainability. Several appeals of cases have been done to see that construction progresses citing different officials giving contradicting information.
Under decision-making processes, the international construction firms have displayed a slightly different method in approaching the same. Their working has helped in solving the confusion that could arise through the working process in addition to cutting inconveniences that could be experienced by the client as they handle their particular project. The high-level decisions are the most impactful decision on the working that will be embraced (Boris Delibaši?, 2015, p. 57). The International firms have, therefore, ensured that the local companies get to work in touch with an independent adviser who has attained high levels of professionalism in dealing with sustainability in the society. Such advisers would advise on the method to be embraced through the working in addition to working with the different environmental assessment agencies in the society. The close working with such agencies greatly helps in giving the justification on why some decisions were reached. The result is that there is a significant reduction in the inconsistencies that were majorly seeing under the local practices to promote sustainability. Apart from that, the environmental policies were not only kept with the central governing body. The policies were distributed to all firms facilitating the different construction activities (Dirk Fornahl, 2017, p. 267). The result is that they were familiar with their objectives and targets to be achieved. Hence, the working was within such set targets and missions in the society.
Sustainability levels attained by Australia through international construction firms
International firms are known to operate significant contracts in the entire globe (Peter Boxall, 2015, p. 302). Their introduction in a particular nation can always create fear among the local companies regarding some of the local projects being picked up and handled by international companies. However, a positive view of such companies can always result in better working and making the society better than its previous existence. There is a need for their system of working to be embraced by the local companies as a way of boosting the local companies in raising their degree of operation that they display in the society. Australia significantly embraced the international companies. In the previous past, the Australian green industry was only concentrated in very few locations within the nation. The single dwellings were the only structures that were followed upon to see that they achieve sustainable construction. However, the sharing of information between the international firms and the local companies led to the attaining of skills on how sustainability can also be enforced on large projects (Addo-Tenkorang, 2016, p. 214). The needed procedures of working are stipulated and most local companies in the present day handling the major projects have ensured high levels of sustainability. The local authorities do also have a voice regarding such projects, the main reason being that they now have a better understanding of the working that has to be displayed.
Guidelines are of much importance as a reference point for any form of working experienced in society (David Boud, 2013, p. 123). The government is responsible for handling such kind of guidelines. They will play a major role in seeing they are formed in the society in addition to facilitating their implementation. Australia has been on the forefront in the formulating of such guidelines. However, there has been a significant challenge in promoting the proper application of the same. The coming of international firms in the nations has greatly helped to ensure that proper stipulation of such guidelines is done (Onuf, 2012, p. 212). Apart from that, the implementation measures are well stated allowing for the instructions to be followed to the latter. The result is that sustainable construction firms were achieved in the entire nation.
Sustainability is desired to make the environment friendly not forgetting the lives of human beings have also to be protected in such buildings. Hence, the buildings have to display environment-friendly features in addition to having high degree levels of performance. The international firms have served as a great challenger to the Australian local firms. The firms pay much consideration not only on the sustainability of the structure but also the safety and performance level in varying conditions. The comfort experienced in the communities has also gone higher. The economic level of a nation mainly depends on the productive nature of the major cities. The locals have brought about significant revolutions, as there have been significant changes in the degrees of production as a result of the transformation of structures; an effect that was realized on the introduction of the international firms.
Disadvantages of giving the contract to an international contractor in own countries project
International construction firms are some of the well-established firms in the society (Stephanie A. Fernhaber, 2014, p. 205). The firms are ranked best in offering some of the best services citing the experience associated with the working. Apart from that, the kind of charges that a client incurs from their service is low and they will focus more on offering quality service to the society rather than sipping money from the similar society. The result is that most developing nations having not well-developed firms will seek services from such firms. They will be awarded some of the contracts in the nation so that they can influence the society in various ways apart from only carrying out the construction activities. However, citing their being an international firm, their cost of coming and ferrying the labor might lead to spending more if one minor contract is awarded to them. Governments have always offered multiple contracts as a way of ensuring that they achieve being economical (Mander, 2014, p. 101).
Despite the positive experiences they bring to the nation, the sourcing of services from such companies may at times call for incurring extra charges that could not have been incurred while sourcing a service from a local company. The companies have their set standards of working that the client will have to cater for the needs (Chang, 2016, p. 97). Despite the service fee being low, some of the extra charges might lead to the gross amount spent being higher compared to the amount that could have incurred if the service could have been sourced from a local company.
Schedules are of much importance in telling the progress that a company or a business will have made within a specific set period (Kerzner, 2013, p. 794). The structures to be brought by firms on some occasions are meant to serve a particular purpose at a specific time. An international firm undertaking the project has to, therefore, be on the forefront in meeting the set schedule. The case has been different from most international firms citing the multiple activities they handle. They are known for causing some delays. Apart from that, the firms have some set standards established within their mind that is mainly applied internationally (Caroline Kuzemko, 2015, p. 156). The result is that they end up failing meeting the specific criteria of the nation. The local companies work only on specific tasks within the country. The tendency of them spreading some technical information regarding the nation is rare. However, international firms serve different nations. They have a higher capability of causing a breach of information. The result will be that information pertaining to a particular country might end up being leaked to sensitive groups outside such as the terror groups. The local firms are also faced with a challenge of missing out on the most contract if an international firm is awarded the contract. The government might end up being used to their services forgetting on working to establish the brands of the local set companies. Hence, in the case of a need to hire services from an outside nation, high levels of care in decision making has to be observed as a way of carrying out the whole process with a full order.
History in gaining sustainability through International Contracts
Australia has interest in ensuring sustainability through their working; however, they were faced with minor challenges that made it hard for the nation to be known to others in the society and attain support from international firms having the will to promote sustainability in the entire globe (Alex Opoku, 2015, p. 85). The 2000 Sydney Olympics was the events that marked a change in how activities were done in the society. The attention of the world was drawn towards the high levels of capabilities and expertise displayed by the nation in promoting sustainability. The event brought about a significant transformation in the working presented by the diverse expertise in Australia. The delivering of the not only commercial but also practical benefits has been evident among the Australian Green Building Industry (A. Galiano Garrigos, 2018, p. 105). There have been significant changes that were experienced both domestically and internationally.
Nations have been out to see that sustainability is achieved by establishing sustainable projects around the world. Some of the firms within Australia were motivated to expand their working to the external world and had to, therefore, partner with such nations having the interest to promote sustainability within them. Several industries have partnered to form the Australian Green Building Industry and became an ideal partner in the entire world working on sustainable projects in addition to motivating the upcoming companies (Bendell, 2017, p. 135). Information on the performance history of the company was of great help in telling the capability of Australia in the Green Building industry. Proper access to such information called for making use of the industry capability statement. The statement did also harbor snapshots of the diverse Australian Companies, have the expertise in such specialization.
The maturity of the market tells much about the ability of the market in handling the different activities (Christopher H. Lovelock, 2011, p. 412). The strength of the Green Building Council of Australia was one of the factors that influenced the levels of maturity of a particular market. The gradual growth led to the government adopting the Green Star Rating tool. The tool came as a recommendation from the early international firms and greatly helped in nationally rating the environment system of a particular place. The rating pointed out on the progress realized in addition to highlighting the areas that needed greater attention to achieve environmental sustainability. Different buildings received the green star certification showing growth in performance levels (Tim Dixon, 2018, p. 321). The projects receiving the accreditation to higher 550 of them. The Green Star certification led to a significant reduction of outgoings by approximately 1.5 for every cent. The rental values also experienced a gradual increase by about 5%, the sales values increasing by 12%. Occupant health received lots of benefits in addition to the productivity levels experienced in the society.
Comparison of sustainability changes in developed and developing countries after being constructed through international contractors.
Various aspects of the physical environment are majorly used in defining the physical environment (Brian Meacham, 2013, p. 16). The urban centers in the developing world are defined by the kind of buildings that are being embraced during construction. The building standard will play a significant role in telling whether the area is urbanized or is being termed as one of the rural areas. Sustainable construction in the society will lead to such buildings abiding by all rules that govern sustainability in the community. Despite the vision to achieve sustainability, the urban structures have not been contemplated as the significant part of the urban cities in urban areas to achieve sustainability. The case is different with developed nations, where the government stresses much on the kind of building that has to be built in an urban center. Apart from that, any building coming up has to display full compliance with the set policies. The building serves as the dominant model of sustainability in the society.
International Firms have worked to introduce several methods that will push for sustainability in the developing nations (Harleen Kaur, 2014, p. 177). The local firms have worked most of the methods out, but they have tended not to recognize the shack as one of the means of ensuring sustainable construction. Apart from that, the informal settlements have been forgotten out as a significant section in guaranteeing sustainability among the nations. However, the case is different from developed countries where they have embraced the informal buildings and have extended the use of the shack. Apart from that, housing developments are done by making use of the informal methods that mainly facilitated the construction of informal settlements (Smith, 2011, p. 135). The result is that the effects of sustainability were majorly seeing on the developed nations compared to the developing nations. There were too significant differences in the rural housing in the developed and the developing countries. Despite the improvement seeing towards the attitude towards the use of traditional materials in carrying out the construction activities, the developing nations display a certain degree of negativity towards such materials. Apart from that, the technology has not been fully embraced in facilitating sustainable construction activities as compared to the developed nations (Bibri, 2018, p. 457). Finances have been slightly a significant concern citing the low economic levels of the countries, a case that is different from the developed nations.
Sustainability is dependent on the housing policies that have put in place. The developing nations embraced the use of housing policies as a way of ensuring that sustainability is achieved in the society (Polk, 2015, p. 101). However, the policies in the developing countries focused much on quantity. The case is different with developed nations whose housing policies concentrate on quality. Hence, serving as one of the primary reasons for the significant differences in sustainability in the developed and the developing countries. Some nations despite being aware of the policies that could help in boosting sustainability, no procedures were being embraced at all. The case was different from the developed countries where the ensured no system was ignored in the society.  
Methods adopted by an international company to strive for sustainability level for the client’s project.
The international firms have in the previous days being exposed to diverse automated systems that help in coordinating the conditions experienced in the room and provide solutions to making them better (Reis, 2016, p. 212). The facility managers would always desire that their facilities be conditioned in certain ways to ensure better working among the individual working within the facility. Through the use of internet of things installed in most client projects, the facilities enable such managers to attain access to lots of data that they could access in the previous days. The small connected sensors facilitate the integration with the automated systems in the building (L. Mahdjoubi, 2015, p. 557). The result is that the operations of the building are improved in the process. For example, the operations have been seen playing a significant role in the adjustment of the ventilation systems; the result is a significant improvement is observed in the sustainability operations being experienced.
The roofs being used for construction purposes influences much on the kind of sustainability construction that is being observed (Waste, 2018, p. 415). The underlayment in most roofs are mainly made from asphalt. The material is known to undergo breaking down rapidly; hence, there is a need to find alternative content that will help in replacing the layer. The international firms primarily used such materials as a way of ensuring that sustainability is achieved by eliminating moisture in the interior of structures. The synthetic roof underlayment was the best option in the replacing the asphalt-based underlayment. The underlayment weighs less in addition to holding up to the wear and tear being experienced as a result of the external environment. The recycling of scrap material facilitates the extraction of polymers that play a major role in the elimination of the volatile organic compounds harbored in the underlayment.
Most of the nations not practicing sustainability had not embraced the use of green roofs. Through the introduction of construction firms, an innovation was introduced on the use of green roofs for the different structures. The roofing worked in such a way that flowers, grass, bushes in addition to the diverse greenery were allowed to grow in the roofing material. Such roofs played a significant role in the management of stormwater. The soil easily absorbed the rainwater facilitating their easy management compared to bare roofs. There was too a substantial reduction in the heating and cooling costs in addition to ensuring great improvement in the quality of air being experienced.
The international firms also embraced the passive solar concept in carrying out the construction activities in the nations that had not embraced sustainable methods of carrying out the construction works. The positioning of the building and roofing was done in such a way that there was the maximization of the solar energy, especially during the winter seasons. During the warmer months, the impact of the same was also reduced. Hence, allowing for a comfortable environment for any person making use of a certain room for accommodation purposes. The result was that sustainability got to be achieved globally and life rose to be comfortable and worth relieving for most individuals.
Buildings serve as one of the primary areas where waste is experienced. International construction has played an important in ensuring that sustainable construction is achieved. The companies have spread all over the world by making uses of advocates championing for sustainable living. The use of advocates was of much importance in ensuring that the encouragement word on the various construction methods is spread worldly. Hence, when undertaking on a challenge, there will be need to come up with a set team that will help achieve the desired objective in the society. Different nations embrace different sustainable forms of working depending with the location. Hence, they will have carrying [policies set. The international firms press on nations to work by the set policies, a method that has promoted discipline among the leaders of the different nations. Local firms form the base of a nation in promoting sustainability. If the local firms will comply with sustainable construction, the methods will be embraced by many other. In carrying out projects, there is a need to come up with well stipulated plans. Sustainability can also be attained through proper discussions between the different stakeholders participating in handling a construction activity. Early discussion on the methods that will be used in ensuring sustainability will make it possible for all set objectives to be attained at the end of the day. The building codes in the various nations guided in the kind of structures that were to be embraced in the society. International firms worked with different professionals who advised on the kind of codes that could be embraced in the construction process. Apart from that, they advised on the measures that could be taken in the case of complications developing through the construction processes. The result is that better policies were set to help in ensuring that sustainable construction is achieved. There was need to spread all the policies to the entire nation to see to it that all local forms embraced the sustainable forms of construction. The coming of international forms led to different reaction being experienced in the society. There were cases where the local firms had a negative attitude and so the coming of companies as the beginning of high levels of competition. Positive viewing of such companies led to the engaging high levels of development in their working. The companies were not only of influence to the citizens but also influenced the stipulation of guidelines by the government on the kind of working that gas to be embraced.
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